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    PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOOD - 1984


    Sponsored jointly by FAO and WHO






    EVALUATIONS 1984




    The monographs



    Data and recommendations of the joint meeting
    of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues
    in Food and the Environment and the
    WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues
    Rome, 24 September - 3 October 1984

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Rome 1985

    The designations employed and the presentation of material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
    Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or
    area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its
    frontiers or boundaries.

    M-84

    ISBN 92-5-102353-0

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
    stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any
    means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the
    prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such
    permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the
    reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications
    Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via
    delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

    (c) FAO 1985

    CONTENTS

    List of Those Attending the Meeting

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    The Monographs

         PART I: Residues

              Acephate*
              Amitraz*
              Bendiocarb*
              Binapacryl*
              Bitertanol*
              Bromophos
              Captan*
              Carbaryl*
              Carbosulfan
              Chinomethionat*
              Chlordane*
              Chlorfenvinphos*
              Cyhalothrin
              Cypermethrin*
              Deltamethrin*
              Demeton-S-methyl and related compounds*
              Diflubenzuron*
              Dimethoate*
              Diphenylamine*
              Disulfoton*
              Ethoprophos*
              Fenitrothion*
              Fenvalerate*
              Imazalil*
              Isofenphos*
              Malathion*
              Maleic hydrazide*
              Metalaxyl*
              Methamidophos*
              Methoprene
              Omethoate*
              Parathion*
              Parathion-methyl*
              Permethrin*

              Phorate*
              Phosmet*
              Phoxim*
              Propamocarb
              Propineb*
              Thiram*
              Triadimefon*
              Triazophos* (See Report 1984, Section 4.53)

         PART II: Toxicology

              Acephate*
              Amitraz*
              Bendiocarb*
              Butocarboxim, See Report 1984, section 4.7
              sec-Butylamine. See Report 1984, section 4.8
              Captan*
              Carbosulfan
              Chlorothalonil (corrigenda to 1983 Evaluation)
              Cyhalothrin
              DDT*
              Demeton and related compounds*
              Demeton-S-methyl*
              Demeton-S-methyl sulphone*
              Demeton-S-methyl sulfoxide (Oxydemeton methyl)*
              Dimethoate*
              Diphenylamine*
              Fenithrothion*
              Fenvalerate*
              Folpet*
              Imazalil*
              Maleic hydrazide*
              Methiocarb. See Report 1984, section 4.36
              Methoprene
              Oxamyl*
              Parathion methyl*
              Phenothrin
              Phenthoate*
              Phoxim*
              Propamocarb

         Annex I -      Acceptable daily intakes, maximum residue limits
                        and guideline levels proposed at the 1984 Meeting

         Annex II -     Previous FAO and WHO Documentation

              

    *    Addendum
    

    1984 JOINT MEETING OF THE FAO PANEL OF EXPERTS ON PESTICIDE

    RESIDUES IN FOOD AND THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE WHO EXPERT GROUP

    ON PESTICIDE RESIDUES

    Rome, 24 September - 3 October 1984

    FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food and the
    Environment

    J.A.R. Bates, Pesticide Registration Department, Ministry of
         Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Hatching Green, Harpenden,
         Herts, UK (Chairman)

    A.F.H. Besemer, Chair of Phytopharmacy, Agricultural University,
         Hartense Weg 30, 6705 Wageningen, The Netherlands

    E. Celma, Servicio de Defensa contra Plagas e Inspeccion
         Fitòpatologica, Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentacion,
         Juan Bravo, 3-B, Madrid 6, Spain

    N.F. Ives, Office of Pesticide Programmes (TS - 769), Environmental
         Protection Agency, Washington DC, 20460, USA (Rapporteur)

    J.T. Snelson, Department of Primary Industry, Canberra, Australia

    K. Voldum Clausen, Division of Pesticides and Contaminants, National
         Food Institute, Soborg, Denmark

    Observer invited by FAO

    A.J. Pieters, Directorate of Public Health, Foodstuffs Division,
         Leidschendam, The Netherlands (Chairman of the Codex Committee on
         Pesticide Residues)

    WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues

    C. Amerasekera, Head, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of
         Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

    E. Astolfi, University of Buenos Aires, Ayacucho 1337, Buenos Aires,
         Argentina

    V. Benes, Chief, Department of Toxicology, Institute of Hygiene and
         Epidemiology, Srobarova 48, 10042 Prague, Czechoslovakia

    D.J. Clegg, Head, Pesticide Section, Toxicological Evaluation
         Division, Health Protection Branch, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa,
         Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada (Vice-Chairman)

    M. Lotti, Istituto di Medicina del Lavoro, Via Facciolati 71, 35127
         Padova, Italy

    D.V. Parke, Head, Department of Biochemistry, University of Surrey,
         Guildford GU2, UK (Rapporteur)

    O.E. Paynter, Hazard Evaluation Division, Environmental Protection
         Agency, 401 M Street S.W., Washington DC, USA

    R. Plestina, Head, Department of Toxicology, Institute for Medical
         Research and Occupational Health, Mose Pijade 158, 41000 Zagreb,
         Yugoslavia

    FAO/WHO Secretariat

    C.L. Berry, Professor of Morbid Anatomy, The London Hospital, London
         E11 BB, UK

    A.L. Black, Medical Services Adviser (Toxicology), Commonwealth
         Department of Health, Woden, ACT Australia (WHO Temporary
         Adviser)

    E.R. Budd, Supervisory Toxicologist, Hazard Evaluation Division TS -
         769, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection
         Agency, 401 M Street S.W., Washington DC, 20460, USA

    J.R. Cabral, Scientist, Unit of Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis,
         International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France

    F. Coulston, White Sands Research Center, 1092 Madison Ave., Albany,
         N.Y. 12208, U.S.A.

    B. Dieterich, Director, Environmental Health Division, WHO, Geneva,
         Switzerland

    A. Di Muccio, Toxicological Laboratory, Pesticide Section, Istituto
         Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    R.B. Jaeger, Supervisory Toxicologist, Hazard Evaluation Division,
         Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, USA (WHO
         Temporary Adviser)

    F.-W. Kopisch-Obuch, Pesticide Residues Officer, Plant Production and
         Protection Division, FAO, Rome, Italy (FAO Joint Secretary)

    L.G. Ladomery, Food Standards Officer, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards
         Programme, FAO, Rome, Italy

    A.F. Machin, Boundary Corner, 2 Ullathorne Road, London, SW 16 1SN, UK
         (FAO Consultant)

    M. Mercier, Manager, International Programme on Chemical Safety, WHO,
         Geneva, Switzerland

    J.R. Plimmer, Head, Agrochemicals and Residues Section Joint FAO/IAEA
         Division, Wagramstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna

    K. Topsy, 17 Dr. Moliére Street, Vuillemin, Beau Bassin, Mauritius

    G. Vettorazzi, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Division of
         Environmental Health, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland (WHO Joint
         Secretary)

    E. Weisenberg, Director, Institute of the Standardization and Control
         of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel (WHO
         Temporary Adviser)

    D. Wu-Lau, Scientific Adviser, Pesticide Section, Toxicological
         Evaluation Division, Health Protection Branch, Ottawa, Ontario,
         K1A 0L2 Canada (WHO Temporary Adviser)

    ABBREVIATIONS WHICH MAY BE USED IN THESE EVALUATIONS

    n.b.: chemical elements and pesticides not included in this list

    ADI       -    Acceptable Daily Intake

    TADI      -    Temporary Acceptable Daily Intake

    a.i.      -    active ingredient

    approx.   -    approximate

    at. wt.   -    atomic weight

    b.p.      -    boiling point 

    c         -    centi - (× 10-2)

    °C        -    degree Celsius (centigrade)

    CCPR      -    Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues

    cm        -    centimetre

    cu        -    cubic

    DL        -    racemic (optical configuration, a mixture of dextro-
                   and laevo-; preceding a chemical name)

    EC        -    emulsion concentrate

    F1        -    filial generation, first

    f.p.      -    freezing point

    FAO       -    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    g         -    gram

    µg        -    microgram

    GAP       -    good agricultural practice

    G.I.      -    gastro-intestinal

    GPC       -    gel-permeation chromatography

    GLC       -    gas-liquid chromatography

    h         -    hour(s)

    ha        -    hectare

    Hb        -    haemoglobin

    i.m.      -    intramuscular

    i.p.      -    intraperitoneal

    IR        -    infrared

    i.v.      -    intravenous

    JMPR      -    joint meeting on pesticide residues (Joint Meeting of
                   the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food
                   and the Environment and the WHO Expert Group on
                   Pesticide Residues)

    k         -    kilo- (x 103)

    kg        -    kilogram

    l         -    litre

    LC50      -    lethal concentration, 50%

    LD        -    lethal dose

    LD50      -    lethal dose, median

    m         -    metre

    mg        -    milligram

    m         -    micrometre (micron)

    min       -    minute(s)

    ml        -    millilitre

    MLD       -    minimum lethal dose

    mm        -    millimetre

    M         -    molar

    mo        -    month(s)

    m.p.      -    melting point

    MRL       -    Maximum Residue Limit

    TMRL      -    Temporary Maximum Residue Limit N.b. - this term
                   replaces "tolerance"

    N         -    normal (concentration)

    no.       -    number

    NOEL      -    no-observable-effect level

    o         -    ortho (position, preceding a chemical name)

    p         -    para (position, preceding a chemical name)

    PHI       -    pre-harvest interval

    *ppb      -    parts per billion
    *ppm      -    parts per million

    s.c.      -    subcutaneous

    SD        -    standard deviation

    SE        -    standard error

    sp. or

    spp.      -    species (only after a generic name)

    sp gr     -    specific gravity

    sq        -    square

    t         -    tonne (metric ton)

    tert      -    tertiary (preceding a chemical name)

    TLC       -    thin-layer chromatography

    UV        -    ultraviolet

    v/v       -    volume ratio (volume per volume)

    WHO       -    World Health Organization

    wk        -    week

    WP        -    wettable powder

    wt        -    weight

    wt/vol    -    weight per volume

    w/w       -    weight per weight

    yr        -    year

    <         -    less than

    <         -    less than or equal to

    >         -    greater than

    >         -    greater than or equal to

    *    (Used only with reference to the concentration of a pesticide in
         an experimental diet. In all other contexts the terms µg/kg, or
         µg/l, mg/l are used.)

    INTRODUCTION

         The report of the Joint Meeting of the FAO Panel of Experts on
    Pesticide Residues in Food and the Environment and the WHO Expert
    Group on Pesticide Residues, held in Rome from 24 September to 3
    October 1984 contains a summary of the evaluations of residues in
    foods of the various pesticides considered at the session as well as
    information on the general principles followed by the Meeting. The
    present document contains summaries of the data considered, together
    with the recommendations made.

         The information included in the monographs has been obtained from
    the published literature wherever possible, but other sources have
    also been included. Early and complete publication of the results of
    research in this field are very important, particularly those data
    which can form the basis for the estimation of acceptable daily
    intakes and appropriate residue levels. Publication allows the
    research to be assessed by scientists from disciplines not necessarily
    represented at the meeting. Data contained in unpublished reports are
    less satisfactory and, when considered, must be complete and
    nonconfidential and indicate authorship.

         Some of the compounds considered at this Meeting have been
    previously evaluated and reported on in earlier publications. Only new
    information is summarized in the relevant monographs and reference is
    made to the previously published evaluation(s), which should also be
    consulted. Such monograph addenda are indicated by an asterisk in the
    "Contents" sheet.

         Annex 1 to this volume of monographs summarizes the
    recommendations on acceptable daily intakes, maximum residue limits
    and guideline levels made at the 1984 Meeting. It has already appeared
    as an annex to the report of the Meeting.

    NOTE

         Any comments on evaluation for acceptable daily intake should be
         addressed to:

              International Programme on Chemical Safety
              World Health Organization
              Geneva, Switzerland

         Any comments on residues in food and their evaluation should be
         addressed to:

              Pesticide Residues Specialist
              Plant Protection Service
              Plant Production and Protection Division
              Food and Agriculture Organization
              Rome, Italy






















    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations