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                   Toxicological Abbreviations
                                
                                
                            May 1998

AA          activation analysis; atomic absorption
AAF         acetylaminofluorene
AAPCC       American Association of Poison Control Centers
AAS         atomic absorption spectrophotometry
ABS         acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
ACE         angiotensin-converting enzyme
ACGIH       American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ACh         acetylcholine
AChE        acetylcholinesterase
AcP         acid phosphatase
ACTH        adrenocorticotropic hormone
AD          Alzheimer's disease
ADH         alcohol dehydrogenase; anti-diuretic hormone
ADI         acceptable daily intake
ADP         adenosine diphosphate
AEP         auditory evoked potential
AES         atomic emission spectroscopy
AFID        alkali flame ionization detection
Ah          aromatic hydrocarbon
AHH         aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase
ai          active ingredient
AIDS        acquired immune deficiency syndrome
AIN         acute interstitial nephritis
ALA         aminolevulinic acid
ALAD        -aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase
ALAS        o-aminolevulinic acid synthetase
ALAT        alanine aminotransferase
ALC         approximate lethal concentration
ALD         approximate lethal dose
ALMS        atomic line molecular spectrometry
ALT         alanine aminotransferase
AM          alveolar macrophages
AMP         amperometric titration
AMPA        aminomethylphosphonic acid
ANTU        alpha-naphthylthiourea
AP          alkaline phosphatase
APDM        aminopyrine-N-demethylase
APP         ammonium polyphosphate
AQG         Air Quality Guidelines
ARF         acute renal failure
ARL         acceptable or tolerable residue limit
ART         alternate reproductive test
ASAT        aspartate aminotransferase
ASV         anodic stripping voltametry
ATA         alimentary toxic aleukia
ATH         alumina trihydrate
ATPase      adenosine triphosphatase
AUC         area under the curve
AWI         acceptable or tolerable weekly intake



B           bursa-dependent
BA          2-bromoacrolein
BAER        brainstem auditory-evoked response
BAF         bioaccumulation factor
BAL         bronchoalveolar lavage
BBB         blood-brain barrier
BBPP        bis(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate
BCF         bioconcentration factor
BEA         2-bromoethylamine
BEI         biological exposure index
BEN         Balkan endemic nephropathy
BGG         bovine gammaglobulin
BHA         butylated hydroxyanisole
BHK         baby hamster kidney
BIC         butyl isocyanate
BMAA        beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine
BMD         benchmark dose (US EPA)
BMF         biomagnification factor
BOAA        beta-N-oxalylamino-L-alanine
BOD         biochemical oxygen demand
BP          benzo[a]pyrene
BSA         bovine serum albumin
BSP         bromosulfophthalein
BUB         2-(3-butylureido)benzimidazole
BUN         blood urea nitrogen
bw          body weight



CA          chrysanthemic acid
CALLA       common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia antigen
cAMP        cyclic adenosine monophosphate
CAS         Chemical Abstracts Service
CBF         cerebral blood flow
CC          critical concentration
CCFA        Codex Committee on Food Additives (see definition of Codex Alimentarious
            Commission)
CCPR        Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues
CCTTE       Computerized Listing of Chemicals Being Tested for Their Toxicological Effects
            (IPCS/IRPTC)
CD          cluster of differentiation; coulometric detection
cDNA        complementary DNA
CE          capillary electrophoresis
CEC         Commission of the European Communities
CEFIC       European Council of Chemical Industry Federations
CFC         chlorofluorocarbon
cGMP        cyclic guanosine monophosphate
ChE         cholinesterase
CHO         Chinese hamster ovary
Ci          curie(s)
CI          confidence interval
CIN         chronic interstitial nephritis
CKSCC       cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma
Cl2CA       3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid
CLD         chemiluminescence nitrogen detector
CLM         chemiluminescence method
CLV         ceiling value
Cl-Vacid
 (= CPIA)   2-(4-chlorophenyl)isovaleric acid
CMI         cell-mediated immunity
CML         cell-mediated lympholysis
CNS         central nervous system
COD         chemical oxygen demand
CO-Hb       carboxyhaemoglobin
COPD        chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COT         Committee on Toxicity (United Kingdom)
cP          centipoise(s)
CP          coproporphyrins
CPA         cyclopropane carboxylic acid
CPK         creatine phosphokinase
CRMs        certified reference materials
CSF         cerebrospinal fluid
CSM         Committee on Safety of Medicines (United Kingdom)
CT          computerized tomography
cv          coefficient of variation



2,4-D       2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
DAB         4-dimethylaminobenzene
DABA        L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid
DBCP        1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane
DBP         di-n-butyl phthalate; 2,3-dibromopropanol
DBT         dibutyltin
DCB         dichlorobenzene
DCVC        S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine
DDC         diethyldithiocarbamate
DDT         dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
DEHP        diethylhexyl phthalate
DEN         diethylnitrosamine
DES         diethylstilbestrol
DFB         diflubenzuron
DFP         diisopropylfluorophosphate (a delayed neurotoxic)
DHPN        N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl) nitrosamine
DiBP        di-iso-butyl phthalate
DIDT        5,6-dihydro-3H-imidazo (2,1-C)-1,2,4-dithiazole-3-thione
DIT         diiodotyrosine
DL          detection limit
DMA         dimethylamine
DMBA        dimethylbenzathraline
DMF         dimethylformamide
DMP         dimethylphenol
DMSO        dimethyl sulfoxide
DNA         deoxyribonucleic acid
DNCB        dinitrochlorobenzene
DNPH        2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine
DOC         dissolved organic carbon
DPASV       differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry
DPTA        diaminopropanoltetraacetic acid
DT50        degradation time for 50% of a compound
DTPA        diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid



EBDC        ethylene bisdithiocarbamate
EBK         ethyl n-butyl ketone
EC          effective concentration;  electron capture;  emulsifiable concentrate
EC50        median effective concentration
ECD         electron capture detection
ECETOC      European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre
ECG         electrocardiogram
ECMO        extracorporeal membrane oxidation
ECOD        7-ethoxycoumarin-o-deethylase
EDA         ethylenediamine;  exploratory data analysis
EDB         1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide)
EDCF        endothelial-derived contracting factor
EDI         ethylene diisothiocyanate
EDL         electrode discharge lamp
EDTA        ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
2-EE        2-ethoxyethanol
2-EEA       2-ethoxyethyl acetate
EEC         European Economic Community;  electroencephalograph
EEG         electroencephalogram
EGF         epidermal growth factor
EH          epoxide hydratase
EHC         Environmental Health Criteria
EI          electron impact
EIFAC       European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission of FAO
ELISA       enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EMDI        estimated maximum daily intake
EMG         electromyography
EMTD        estimated maximum tolerated dose
ENG         electroneurography
ENL         erythema nodosum leprosum
ENU         ethylnitrosourea
EP          electrophoresis
EPA         Environmental Protection Agency (USA)
EPDM        ethylene propylene rubber
EPI         exposure/potency index
EPS         expandable polystyrene
EQC         external quality control
EQT         environmental quality target
ERL         extraneous residue limit
EROD        7-ethoxyresurofin-o-deethylase
ESCA        electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
ESR         erythrocyte sedimentation rate
ESRD        end-stage renal disease
ETA         electrothermal atomization
ETD         ethylene bisthiuram disulfide
ETG         epidermal transglutaminase
ETU         ethylenethiourea
ETV         electrothermal vaporization
EU          ethyleneurea



F0          parental generation
F1          filial generation, first
F2          filial generation, second
FAA         flameless atomic absorption
FACS        fluorescence activated cell sorter
FAD         flavin adenine dinucleotide
FAO         Food and Agriculture Organization
FCAT        Freund's complete adjuvant test
f.c.        Field capacity
FD          fluorescence detection
FDA         Food and Drug Administration (USA)
FEF         forced expiratory flow
FEP         free erythrocyte porphyrin
FEV         forced expiratory volume
fg          femtogram (10-15g)
FI          flame ionization
FID         flame ionization detector
FMLP        formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine
FMN         flavin mononucleotide
FOB         functional observational battery
FPD         flame photometric detector
FR          flame retardant
FS          fluorescence spectrophotometry
FSC         Food Safety Council (USA)
FSD         flame photometric detector selective for sulfur
FSH         follicle-stimulating hormone
FTIR        Fourier transform infrared
FVC         forced vital capacity



GA          gibberillic acid
GABA        gamma-aminobutyric acid
GAG         glycosaminoglycan
GALT        gut-associated lymphoid tissue
GAP         good agricultural practice
GBM         glomerular basement membrane
GC          gas chromatography
GC-ECD      gas chromatography with electron capture detector
GC-SIM      gas chromatography with selected ion monitoring
GDH         glutamate dehydrogenase
GDMS        glow discharge mass spectrometry
GEMS        Global Environmental Monitoring System
GESAMP      Group of Experts for the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GFAAS       graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry
GFR         glomerular filtration rate
GGT         gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase
GH          growth hormone
GI          gastrointestinal
GIFAP       International Group of National Association of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products
            (French Acronym for: Groupement International des Associations Nationales de
            Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques)
GLC         gas-liquid chromatography
GLDH        glutamate dehydrogenase
GLP         good laboratory practice
cGMP        cyclic guanosine monophosphate
GOT         glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase
GPC         gel permeation chromatography
GPMT        guinea-pig maximization test
GPT         glutamic-pyruvic transaminase
GS          glutamine synthetase
GSH         glutathione-SH
GST         glutathione-S-transferase
GTB         glomerular tubular balance
GV          guidance value
GWP         global-warming potential



h           hour(s)
ha          hectare
Hb          haemoglobin
HBCD        hexabromocyclododecane
HBDH        hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase
H & E       haematoxolin and eosin
HCB         hexachlorobenzene
HCBD        hexachloro-1,3-butadiene
HCFC        hydrochlorofluorocarbon
HCFH-22     chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2)
HCG         human chorionic gonadotropin
HCH         hexachlorocyclohexane
HDL         high density lipoprotein
HDPE        high density polyethylene
HEAL        Human Exposure Assessment Location
HECD        Hall electron capture detector
HEV         high endothelial venule
HEX         hexachlorocyclopentadiene
HGPRT       hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase
HIPS        high impact polystyrene
HIV         human immunodeficiency virus
HLB         hydrophilic-lipophilic balance
HLV         hygienic limit value
hnRNA       heterogeneous nuclear RNA
HPCA        human progenitor cell antigen
HPI         cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboximide
HPLC        high-performance liquid chromatography
HPTLC       high-performance thin-layer chromatography
HQ          hydroquinone
HS          headspace
HSA         heat-stable antigen;  human serum albumin
HSG         Health and Safety Guide


IARC        International Agency for Research on Cancer
IC          ion chromatography
ICAM        intercellular adhesion molecule
IC50        median inhibitory concentration
ICD         International Classification of Diseases
ICG         indocyanine green
ICP         inductively coupled plasma
ICST        isolated cold stress testing
i.d.        internal diameter
IDMS        isotope dilution mass spectrometry
IFN         interferon
Ig          immunoglobulin
IL          interleukin
ILO         International Labour Organisation
ILSI        International Life Science Institute
im          intramuscular
ip          intraperitoneal
IPA         isopropylamine
IPCS        International Programme on Chemical Safety
IQ          intelligence quotient
IQC         internal quality control
IR          infrared
IRPTC       International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ISO         International Organization for Standardization
IT          isomeric transition
IU          international unit
IUPAC       International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
iv          intravenous


JECFA       Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives
JMPR        Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues


kcal        kilocalorie(s)
keV         kiloelectronvolt(s)
Kow         octanol/water partition coefficient


LAP         leucine aminopeptidase
LAQL        lowest analytically quantifiable level
LC          liquid chromatography
LC50        median lethal concentration
LD01        lethal dose for 1%
LD50        median lethal dose
LDH         lactate dehydrogenase
LDL         low density lipoprotein
LDPE        low density polyethylene
LDQ         lowest detectable quantity
LEI         lifetime exposure intensity
LEV         local exhaust ventilation
Lf          limit flocculation
LFA         lymphocyte function-related antigen
LFP         lavage fluid protein
LH          luteinizing hormone
LI          labelling index
LIF         laser-induced fluorescence;  leukaemia inhibitory factor
LLD         lowest lethal dose
LMS         linear multistage model
LMW         low molecular weight
LOAEL       lowest-observed-adverse-effect level
LOD         limit of determination
LOEL        lowest-observed-effect level
LRNI        lower reference nutrient intake (UK)
LSC         liquid scintillation counter
LT50        median lethal time
LTP         long-term potentiation



MAA         methoxyacetic acid
MAC         maximum allowable concentration
MAD         maximum allowable deviation
MAFF        Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan)
MAK         maximum workplace concentration (Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentration)
MALT        mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
MAM         methylazoxymethanol
MAP         mutagenic activity profile
MAOI        monoamine oxidase inhibitor
MARC        Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre (UK)
MARE        monoclonal anti-rat immunoglobulin E
MAS         molecular absorption spectrometry
MAT         mean absorption time
MATC        maximum acceptable toxicant concentration
MBC         minimum bactericidal concentration
MBDE        mass balance differential equation
MBK         methyl n-butyl ketone
MBP         monobutyl phthalate
MBT         monobutyltin
MC          methyl chloroform
3-MC        3-methylcholanthrene
MCD         microcoulometric detection
MCH         mean cell haemoglobin
MCHC        mean cell haemoglobin concentration
mCi         millicurie
MCL         melanotic cell lines
MCPA        4-chloro-o-tolyoxyacetic acid
MCV         mean cell volume
MDA         malondialdehyde
MDI         methylene-diphenyl diisocyanate
MDMA        methylenedioxymethamphetamine
2-ME        2-methoxyethanol
2-MEA       2-methoxyethyl acetate
MeB12       methylcobalamin
MED         minimum effective dose;  minimal erythemal dose
MEHP        monoethylhexyl phthalate
MEK         methyl ethyl ketone
mEq         milliequivalent
MeV         megaelectronvolt(s)
MFO         mixed-function oxidase
MHC         major histocompatibility complex
MHW         Ministry of Health and Welfare (Japan)
MIBK        methyl isobutyl ketone
MIC         minimal inhibitory concentration
MIT         methylisothiocyanate; monoiodotyrosine
MLD         minimum lethal dose
MLR         mixed lymphocyte response assay
MLSS        mixed liquor suspended solids
MMA         methoxyacetic acid
MMAD        mass median aerodynamic diameter
MMH         monomethylhydrazine
mmHg        millimetre(s) of mercury
MMMF        man-made mineral fibre
MNNG        N-methyl-N -nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine
MNU         N-methyl-N-nitrosurea
mPa         millipascal (7.5 x 10-6 mmHg)
MPC         maximum permissible limit
MQL         minimum quantifiable limit
MRBIS       mean running bias index score
MRL         maximum residue limit
mRNA        messenger RNA
MRVIS       Mean Running Variance Index Score
MS          mass spectrometry
MSD         mass selective detection
MSW         municipal solid waste
MTBE        methyl tertiary butyl ether
MTC         maximum tolerable or acceptable concentration
MTD         maximum tolerated dose
MTE         mild toxic encephalopathy
MTI         N-(hydroxymethyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalamide



NAA         neutron activation analysis
NAC         N-acetyl cysteine
NAD         nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
NADP        nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
NADPH       reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
NBU         N-nitrosobutylurea
NCAM        neural cell adhesion molecule
NCI         National Cancer Institute (USA);  negative ion chemical ionization
NCV         nerve conduction velocity
ND          not detectable
NDDC        sodium diethyldithiocarbamate
NDMA        nitrosodimethylamine
NDMC        sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate
NEQUAS      National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UK)
NFT         neurofibrillary tangle
ng          nanogram (10-9g)
NIOSH       National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (USA)
NK          natural killer
nm          nanometer
NMCL        nonmelanolic cell lines
NMN         N-methylnicotinamide
NMOR        N-nitrosomorpholine
NMR         nuclear magnetic resonance
NNM         N-nitrosomorpholine
NO          nitrogen oxide
NOAEL       no-observed-adverse-effect level
NOEC        no-observed-effect concentration
NOEL        no-observed-effect level
NOLC        no-observed lethal concentration
NPD         nitrogen-phosphorus sensitive detector
NPSH        non-protein sulfhydryl
NSAID       non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
NSD         nitrogen selective detector
NTA         nitrilotriacetic acid
NTE         neuropathy target esterase
NTEL        no-toxic-effect level
NTP         National Toxicology Program (USA)



OCT         ornithine carbamoyltransferase
ODC         ornithine decarboxylase
ODP         ozone-depletion potential
OECD        Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OEL         occupational exposure limit
OER         oxygen enhancement ratio
OES         occupational exposure standard;  optical emission spectrometry
OET         open epicutaneous test
OP          organophosphate
OPIDN       organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy
OR          odds ratio
OSC         oil-enhanced suspension concentrate
OSHA        Occupational Safety and Health Administration (USA)
OVA         ovalbumin
OZT         oxazolidinethione



PA          polyamides
PAA         photon activation analysis
2-PAM
 chloride   pralidoxine (2-pyridine aldoxime methyl) chloride
PAH         p-aminohippurate; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
PALS        periarteriolar lymphocyte sheath
PAN         peroxyacetyl nitrate;  polyacrylonitrile
PAS         periodic acid Schiff stain
PB          phenobarbital
PBA         phenoxybenzoic acid
PBalc       3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol
PBald       3-phenoxybenzaldehyde
PBB         polybrominated biphenyl
PBDD        polybrominated dibenzodioxin
PBDE        polybrominated diphenyl ether
PBDF        polybrominated dibenzofuran
PBI         protein-bound iodine
PBPK        physiologically based pharmacokinetics
PBT         polybutylene terephthalate
PCBD        S-(1,2,3,4,4-pentachloro-1,3-butadienyl)
PCDD        polychlorinated dibenzodioxin
PCDF        polychlorinated dibenzofuran
PCA         para-chloroaniline (4-chloroaniline);  passive cutaneous anaphylaxis
PCB         polychlorinated biphenyl
PCBD        S-(1,2,3,4,4-pentachloro-1,3-butadienyl)
PCDD        polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin
PCDF        polychlorinated dibenzofuran
PCDPE       polychlorinated diphenylether
PCE         polychromatic erythrocytes
PCOM        phase contrast optical microscopy
PCPY        polychlorinated pyrene
PCQ         polychlorinated quaterphenyl
PCT         porphyria cutanea tarda
PCV         packed-cell volume
PD          plasma desorption
PDG         phosphate-dependent glutaminase
PE          polyethylene
PEF         peak expiratory flow
PEG         pneumoencephalography
PEL         permissible exposure limit
PET         polyethylene terephthalate
PFC         plaque-forming cell
pg          picogram (10-12g)
PG          prostaglandin
pH          the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
PHF         paired helical filaments
PHS         prostaglandin-H-synthetase
PIB         piperonyl butoxide
PIC         picrotoxin
PID         photo-ionization detection
PIXE        proton-induced X-ray emission
pKa         the negative logarithm of the dissociation constant
PMBA        p-methylbenzyl alcohol
PMN         polymorphonuclear leukocyte
PMTDI       provisional maximum tolerable daily intake
PMR         proportional mortality rate
PMSG        pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin
PNS         peripheral nervous system
pO2         plasma partial pressure (concentration) of oxygen
POCP        photochemical ozone-creation potential
PoG         proteoglycan
POS         psycho-organic syndrome
PP          polypropylene
ppb         parts per billion
ppm         parts per million
ppt         parts per trillion
PSD         passive sampling device
PSPS        Pesticides Safety Precautions Scheme (United Kingdom)
PT          prothrombin time
PTH         parathyroid hormone
PTT         partial thromboplastin time
PTU         propylenethiourea
PTWI        provisional tolerable weekly intake
PTZ         pentylenetetrazole
PVC         polyvinyl chloride
PYR         pyrene


QA          quality assurance
QAP         quality assurance programme
QC          quality control
QSAR        quantitative structure-activity relationship


RACB        reproductive assessment by continuous breeding
RAST        radioallergosorbent test
RBC         red blood cell
RBP         retinal binding protein
RDA         recommended dietary allowance (USA)
REL         recommended exposure limit
RER         rough endoplasmic reticulum
RIA         radio-immuno assay
RIPT        repeat insult patch test
RMA         reflex modification audiometry
RNA         ribonucleic acid
RNI         reference nutrient intake (UK)
ROC         reactive organic carbon
RPN         renal papillary necrosis
RR          relative risk
RTECS       Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances
RUBISCO     ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase



S9          9000 x g supernatant
SAM         S-adenosylmethionine
SAP         serum alkaline phosphatase
SAR         structure-activity relationship
sc          subcutaneous
SC          suspension concentrate
SCE         sister chromatid exchange
SCF         stem-cell factor
SCID        severe combined immunodeficiency
SCOPE       Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment of the International Council of
            Scientific Unions
SD          standard deviation
SDAT        senile dementia of Alzheimer type
SE          standard error
SEM         standard error of the mean; scanning electron microscopy
SER         smooth endoplasmic reticulum
SFC         supercritical fluid chromatography
SFS         subjective facial sensation
SGOMSEC     Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals
SGOT        serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase
SGPT        serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase
SHE         Syrian Hamster embryo
SIM         selected ion monitoring
SIMS        secondary ion mass spectrometry
SLE         systemic lupus erythematosus
SMA         sequential multiple analyser
SMR         standardized mortality ratio
SOP         standard operating procedure
SPF         specific pathogen free
SPM         suspended particulate matter
S-PMA       S-phenyl-mercapturic acid
SRT         simple reaction time
SSB         single strand breaks
STEL        short-term exposure limit



t3          triiodothyronine
t4          thyroxine
2,4,5-T     2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid
TADI        temporary acceptable daily intake
TAN         tropical ataxic neuropathy
TAP         trialkyl/aryl phosphate
TBBPA       tetrabromobisphenol A
TBG         thyroxine-binding globulin
TBP         tributyl phosphate
TBPP        tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate
TBT         tributyltin
TBTO        tributyltin oxide
TCA         tricarboxylic acid cycle
TCD         thermal conductivity detection
TCDD        2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin
TCDF        2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzofuran
TCE         1,1,1-trichloroethylene
TCP         trichlorophenol;  tricresyl phosphate
TCPP        tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate
TCR         T-cell receptor
TDC         thermal conductivity detection
TDI         tolerable daily intake;  toluene diisocyanate
TDLAS       tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometry
TEA         tetraethyl ammonium; thermal energy analyser
TEAC        tetraethylammonium chloride
TEAM        total exposure assessment methodology
TEF         toxicity equivalency factor
TEPP        tetraethyl-pyrophosphate
TGA         thermogravimetric analysis
TH          thyroid hormone
THF         tetrahydrofolate
TI          tolerable intake
TLC         thin-layer chromatography
TLV         threshold limit value
TMCP        tri-meta-cresyl phosphate
TMDI        theoretical maximum daily intake
TML         tetramethyllead
TMRL        temporary maximum residue limit
TMT         trimethyltin
TNF         tumour necrosis factor
TOCP        tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate
TOD         total oxygen demand
TPA         12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate
TPCP        tri-para-cresyl phosphate
TPI         3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalimide
TPIA        3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalic acid
TPN         total parenteral nutrition
TPO         thyroid peroxidase
TPP         triphenyl phosphate
TPTA        triphenyltin acetate
TPTH        triphenyltin hydroxide
tRNA        transfer ribonucleic acid
TRP         tubular reabsorption of phosphate
TSH         thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)
TSP         total suspended particulate
TST         temperature sensitivity
TT          toxicity threshold
TWA         time-weighted average



UCM         urographic contrast medium
UCL         upper confidence limit
UDP         uridine diphosphate
UDPGA       UDP-glucuronic acid
UDPGT       UDP-glucuronosyltransferase
UDS         unscheduled DNA synthesis
UF          uncertainty factor
ULV         ultra-low volume

UNEP        United Nations Environment Programme
UNICEF      United Nations Children's Fund
US ATSDR    US Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry
UV          ultraviolet
UVB         ultraviolet B



VC          vinyl chloride
VCAM        vascular cell adhesion molecule
VER         visual evoked response
VHH         volatile halogenated hydrocarbon
VLA         very late antigen
VLDL        very low-density lipoproteins
VOC         volatile organic carbon compound
VSD         virtually safe dose
VTR         vibration threshold
v/v         volume per volume



WAIS        Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale
WBC         white blood cell
WG          water-dispersible granule
WHO         World Health Organization
WISN        warfarin-induced skin necrosis
WP          wettable powder
w/v         weight per volume



XRF         X-ray-generated atomic fluorescence
XRFS        X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy



ZPP         zinc protoporphyrin