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    PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOOD - 1984


    Sponsored jointly by FAO and WHO






    EVALUATIONS 1984




    The monographs



    Data and recommendations of the joint meeting
    of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues
    in Food and the Environment and the
    WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues
    Rome, 24 September - 3 October 1984

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Rome 1985

    PHOXIM

    Explanation

         Phoxim was evaluated by the Joint Meeting in 1982 and 1983. 1/
    Information was desired by the 1983 JMPR on residues in milk and fat
    from treatment of cattle, residues in fat from treatment of pigs and
    also information on good agricultural practice in use of phoxim on
    vegetables.

         The Meeting has received results from supervised trials carried
    out in Mexico on sweet corn in accordance with registered use in
    Mexico. A report was also made available to the Meeting on two
    experiments carried on in the Netherlands on residues in milk from
    dairy cattle treated with phoxim.

    RESIDUES IN FOOD AND THEIR EVALUATION

    Residues Resulting from Supervised Trials

    Maize

         Sweet corn in Mexico was treated with phoxim dust at planting at
    rate of 1.25 kg/ha. In other trials, the crop was also treated with
    phoxim granules 0.5 kg/ha about 1.5 months after first treatment
    (three whorls formed). No residue was detected in kernels or cob after
    one treatment and residues up to 0.03 mg/kg were observed after two
    applications (see Table 1) (Bayer, 1984a).

         Phoxim is used against ectoparasites and mites on cattle, pigs
    and sheep by spraying or dipping the animals. Two experiments were
    carried out in The Netherlands for determining residues of phoxim and
    its oxygen analogue in milk after dermal treatment of dairy cattle.
    Each animal was sprayed with about 1 g phoxim solved in 2 l water
    (500 mg/l). In experiment 1, five cows were treated once. Milk samples
    were taken before treatment, 0.5 day after treatment and in the
    morning and evening every day until 13 days after treatment. In
    experiment 2 the same treatment was repeated after six days and
    samples were taken one day before the last treatment and in the
    morning and evening every day give days after the last treatment. Milk
    from each cow was analysed separately.



              

    1/  See Annex 2 for FAO and WHO documentation.


        TABLE 1.  Residues of Phoxim in Sweet Corn from Supervised Trials, Mexico

                                                                                               
            Application
                                     Days            Days             Residue
    Dust powder       Granular,      between         after last       (mg/kg)
    in furrow         topical        applications    application
    (rate a.i.)       (rate a.i.)                                     Kernels       Cob
                                                                                               

    1.25 kg/ha                                         78-81          <0.01         <0.01
    (4 experiments)

    1.25 kg/ha        0.5 kg/ha        46-50           32-33          <0.01-0.02    <0.01-0.03
    (4 experiments)
                                                                                               

    Note: Samples were also analysed for residues of the oxygen analogue but none was observed
          (limit of determination for both compounds: 0.01 mg/kg).

    TABLE 2.  Residues in Milk from Cows Treated with Phoxim

                                                                                                   

    Experiment 1:
    Residues in milk from 5 cows after one dermal treatment with 1 g phoxim/2 l.

    Days after treatment          -0.5      0.5       1         1.5       2         2.5       3

    Average content g/l          nd        54        18        10        2         nd        nd

    Range g/l                    nd        40-80     10-20     8-10      nd-2      nd        nd

    Experiment 2:
    Residues in milk from 5 cows after 2 dermal treatments (6-day interval) with 1 g phoxim/2 l.

    Days after          -1        0.5       1         1.5       2         2.5       3         3.5
    last treatment

    Average             1         2         10        4         1         3         nd        nd
    content g/l

    Range g/l          nd-1      2-4       2-16      2-5       1-2       1-5       nd-1      nd
                                                                                                   
    

         In experiment 1, maximum residue level of phoxim was observed
    0.5 day after treatment. The residue level decreased very quickly and
    samples taken 2.5 days after treatment contained no detectable
    residue. In experiment 2, the maximum level was observed one day after
    the last treatment and no residue was detected 3.5 days after last
    treatment (see Table 2) (Bayer, 1984b).

         Samples were also analysed for residues of the oxygen analogue,
    which was not detected. Limits of determination for phoxim and the
    analogue were 0.5 g/l.

    APPRAISAL

         Information was received on supervised trials on sweet corn and
    on investigations of residues in milk from cattle after dermal
    treatments with phoxim.

         Supervised trials were carried on in Mexico with applications in
    accordance with good agricultural practice in that country. Phoxim was
    applied as soil treatments at planting at a rate of 1.25 kg/ha and
    also 1.5 months after planting at 0.5 kg/ha. When treated twice,
    residues of phoxim up to 0.03 mg/kg were found in cob and kernels, but
    no oxygen analogue was detected.

         In experiments in The Netherlands, dairy cattle were treated once
    and twice with phoxim by spraying each animal with 1 g phoxim at a
    concentration of 500 mg/l. Residues of phoxim in milk reached their
    maximum concentrations 0.5-1 day after application and decreased
    rapidly, so that no residues were detectable 3-4 days after treatment.
    The limit of determination was 0.5 g/l milk.

    RECOMMENDATIONS

         The following estimated maximum residue levels are recommended as
    MRLs, which need not be exceeded when phoxim is used according to GAP.
    The limits refer only to the parent compound.

                                                                      

    Commodity           MRL            Intervals after last treatment
                        (mg/kg)        on which recommendations are
                                       based (days)
                                                                      

    *Sweet corn         0.05 **        30
    *Milk               0.01 **        3

                                                                      

    *  New MRL
    **  Level at or about limit of determination.

    REFERENCES

    Bayer     Report on supervised trials on sweet corn in Mexico.
    1984a     Submitted by Bayer AG to FAO. (Unpublished)

    Bayer     Report on supervised trials on milk of dairy cattle in The
    1984b     Netherlands. Submitted by Bayer AG to FAO. (Unpublished)


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       PHOXIM (JECFA Evaluation)
       Phoxim (Pesticide residues in food: 1982 evaluations)
       Phoxim (Pesticide residues in food: 1983 evaluations)
       Phoxim (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)