Health and Safety Guide No. 33






    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 94:

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    ISBN 92 4 154354 X
    ISSN 0259-7268

    World Health Organization 1989

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
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    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction  or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area
    or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers
    or boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization.



         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Analytical methods
         1.4. Uses

         2.1. Human exposure
         2.2. Environmental fate
         2.3. Kinetics and metabolism
         2.4. Effects on organisms in the environment
         2.5. Effects on experimental animals and in vitro test systems
         2.6. Effects on human beings

         3.1. Conclusions
         3.2. Recommendations

         4.1. Human health hazards, prevention and protection, first aid
              4.1.1. Advice to physicians
              4.1.2. Health surveillance advice
         4.2. Explosion and fire hazards
         4.3. Storage
         4.4. Transport
         4.5. Spillage and disposal
              4.5.1. Spillage
              4.5.2. Disposal



         7.1. Previous evaluations by international bodies
         7.2. Exposure limit values
         7.3. Specific restrictions
         7.4. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.5. Waste disposal



    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and human health from exposure to a
    chemical or combinations of chemicals, or to physical or biological
    agents.  They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes.  The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC. 
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is an International Chemical Safety Card
    which should be readily available, and should be clearly explained, to
    all who could come into contact with the chemical.  The section on
    regulatory information has been extracted from the legal file of the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) and from
    other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes those in the occupational health
    services, ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade
    unions, who are involved in the safe use of chemicals and the
    prevention of environmental health hazards, and those workers wanting
    more information on this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only
    terms that are familiar to the user.  However, sections 1 and 2
    inevitably contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been
    included for readers who would like to have further background

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27



    1.1  Identity

    Common name:                       Permethrin

    Molecular formula:                 C21H20Cl2O3

    Chemical formula:


    CAS chemical name:                 Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid,
                                       dimethyl-, (3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl

    Common synonyms and trade names:   A13-29158, Ambush, BW-21-Z,
                                       Ectiban, FMC 33 297, NRDC 143,
                                       Outflank, Permethrina, Pounce,
                                       PP 557, S-3151, SBP-1513, Stockade,

    CAS registry number:               52645-53-1

    RTECS registry number:             GZ1255000

    Relative molecular mass:           391.31

    Permethrin was invented in 1973 and marketed in 1977 as a photo-stable
    pyrethroid.  It is a mixture of four stereo-isomers.

    Technical grade permethrin is more than 91-93% pure.  It is formulated
    as emulsifiable concentrates, ultra-low volume concentrates, wettable
    powders, dust, fogging formulations, and aerosols.

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    Some physical and chemical properties of permethrin are given in the
    International Chemical Safety Card (section 6).

    Technical permethrin is a yellow brown to brown liquid or crystalline
    material.  It is stable to light and heat, but unstable in alkaline

    1.3  Analytical Methods

    Residue and environmental analysis can be performed using a gas
    chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector at a minimum
    detectable concentration of 0.005 mg/kg.  Gas chromatography with a
    flame ionization detector is used to analyse technical products.

    1.4  Uses

    Approximately 600 tonnes of permethrin are used annually worldwide. It
    is used mostly in agriculture and may be used to protect stored grain. 
    It has been used in aerial application for forest protection and
    vector control, to control noxious insects in the household and on
    cattle, to control body lice, and in mosquito nets.


    2.1  Human Exposure

    The rate of decline of residue levels of permethrin in various crops
    is moderately fast.  It has half-lives ranging from about 1 to 3 weeks
    depending on the crop.  However, when used as recommended, there is no
    significant increase in residues after repeated applications.

    The general population may be exposed to permethrin mainly via dietary
    residues.  Residue levels in crops grown according to good
    agricultural practices are generally low.  The resulting exposure of
    the general population is expected to be low, but precise data from
    total-diet studies are lacking.

    Information on occupational exposure to permethrin is very limited.

    2.2  Environmental Fate

    In laboratory studies in soil, permethrin degraded with a half-life of
    approximately 28 days.  The trans isomer degraded more rapidly than
    the cis isomer, with ester cleavage being the major initial
    degradative reaction.  The compounds generated by ester cleavage were
    then further oxidized, eventually yielding CO2 as the major terminal
    product. Studies to investigate the leaching potential of permethrin
    and its degradates showed that very little downward movement occurs in

    On plants, permethrin degrades with a half-life of approximately 10
    days.  Ester cleavage and conjugation of the acid and alcohol released
    is the major degradation pathway. Hydroxylation at various positions
    of the molecule and photo-induced cis-trans interconversion also

    In water and on soil surfaces, permethrin is photodegraded by
    sunlight. Ester cleavage and cis-trans interconversion are, as with
    plants, the major reactions.

    In general, the degradative processes that occur in the environment
    lead to less toxic products.

    Permethrin disappears rapidly from the environment: in 6 to 24 h from
    ponds and streams; in 7 days from pond sediment; and in 58 days from
    foliage and soil in forests.  Thirty per cent of the compound was lost
    within 1 week from cotton leaves in a field.

    Under aerobic conditions in soil, permethrin degrades with a half-life
    of 28 days.

    There is very little movement of permethrin in the environment, and
    thus it is unlikely that permethrin will reach significant levels in
    the environment.

    2.3  Kinetics and Metabolism

    In mammals, permethrin was rapidly metabolized and almost completely
    excreted in the urine and faeces in approximately 12 days.  The trans
    isomer of permethrin, which is much more susceptible to esterase
    attack than is the cis isomer, was eliminated more quickly than the
    cis isomer.  Major metabolic reactions were ester cleavage and
    oxidation, particularly at the terminal aromatic ring of the
    phenoxybenzyl moiety and the geminal dimethyl group of the
    cyclopropane ring, followed by conjugation.  Major metabolites thus
    formed were Cl2CA in free and glucuronide form, sulfate conjugate of
    4'-hydroxy-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (4'-OH-PBacid), PBacid in free and
    conjugate form, and oxidized forms of Cl2CA as glucuronide
    conjugate.  Less than 0.7% of the dose was detected in the milk of
    goats or cows when they were given permethrin orally.

    2.4  Effects on Organisms in the Environment

    In laboratory tests, permethrin was highly toxic for aquatic
    arthropods with LC50 values ranging from 0.018 g/litre for a larval
    stone crab to 1.26 g/litre for a cladoceran.  Permethrin is also
    highly toxic for fish with 96-h LC50 values ranging from 0.62
    g/litre for larval rainbow trout to 314 g/litre for adult rainbow
    trout.  A no-observed-effect level for early life stages of the
    sheepshead minnow during 28 days has been estimated at 10 g/litre and
    a chronic no-observed-effect level for fathead minnow at between 0.66
    and 1.4 g/litre.  Permethrin is less toxic to aquatic molluscs and
    amphibia with 96-h LC50 values >1000 g/litre and 7000 g/litre,

    During field tests and in actual use, this potentially high toxicity
    is not manifested.  There are many reports about the effects that
    permethrin has in agriculture, forestry, and vector control.  Some
    aquatic arthropods are killed, particularly when water is oversprayed,
    but the effects on populations of organisms are temporary.  There are
    no reports of fish killed in the field.  The reduced toxicity during
    field use is related to the strong adsorption of the compound to
    sediments and its rapid degradation. Sediment-bound permethrin is
    toxic to burrowing organisms but this toxic effect is also temporary.

    Permethrin is highly toxic for honey bees, having a topical LD50 of
    0.11 g/bee. Permethrin has, however, a strong repellent effect to
    bees which, in practice, reduces its toxic effect.  There is no
    evidence for significant kills of honey bees in actual situations.

    Permethrin is more toxic to predator mites than to the target pest

    When given orally or in the diet, permethrin has a very low toxicity
    to birds. LD50 values are >3000 mg/kg body weight for acute single
    oral dosages, and >5000 mg/kg diet for dietary exposure. Permethrin
    had no effect on reproduction in hens at a dose of 40 mg/kg diet.

    Permethrin is readily taken up by aquatic organisms: bio-concentration
    factors range from 43 to 750 for various organisms.  In all the
    aquatic organisms studied, absorbed permethrin is also rapidly lost on
    transfer to clean water.  There is no bioaccumulation in birds. 
    Therefore, the compound, in practice, can be regarded as having no
    tendency to bioaccumulate.

    2.5  Effects on Experimental Animals and In Vitro Test Systems

    Permethrin has a low acute toxicity to rats, mice, rabbits, and
    guinea-pigs, although LD50 values vary considerably according to the
    vehicles used and the cis:trans isomeric ratios.  Signs of acute
    poisoning become apparent within 2 h of dosing and persist for up to 3
    days.  [1R, cis]- and [1R,  trans]-Permethrin belong to the type I
    group of pyrethroids.  Common symptoms for type I pyrethroids are
    tremor (T-syndrome), incoordination, hyperactivity, prostration, and
    paralysis.  The core temperature is markedly increased during

    None of the metabolites of permethrin showed a higher acute (oral or
    intraperitoneal) toxicity than permethrin itself.

    Permethrin caused a mild primary irritation to intact and abraded
    rabbit skin.  However, after treated areas of rabbit skin were exposed
    to UV light, it did not cause a photochemical irritation reaction. 
    Permethrin did not cause a sensitization reaction in guinea-pigs.

    Oral subacute and subchronic toxicity studies of permethrin were
    performed in rats and mice at dosage levels up to 10 000 mg/kg diet
    lasting for 14 days to 26 weeks.  Changes detected at the higher
    levels were: an increase in liver/body weight ratio; hypertrophy in
    the liver; and clinical signs of poisoning, such as tremor.  The
    no-observed-effect levels (NOEL) in rats ranged from 20 mg/kg diet (in
    studies lasting 90 days or 6 months) to 150 mg/kg diet (6-month

    In dogs, the NOELs were 50 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg body weight
    in different 3-month studies.

    In long-term studies in mice and rats, an increase in the liver weight
    was found which was associated with an induction of the liver
    microsomal enzyme system. In a 2-year rat study, the NOEL was
    100 mg/kg diet, corresponding to 5 mg/kg body weight.

    Among the three long-term studies in mice, indications of permethrin
    oncogenicity was observed in the lungs of only one sex in one strain
    of mouse at the highest dose level.  Studies in rats revealed no
    oncogenic potential in either sex.

    Permethrin was not mutagenic in  in vivo and  in vitro studies.

    Toxicological evidence from mutagenicity studies and long-term studies
    in rats and mice suggest that permethrin's oncogenetic potential is
    very low, is limited to female mice, and is probably epigenetic.

    Permethrin is not teratogenic to rats, mice, or rabbits at dose levels
    of up to 225, 150, and 1800 mg/kg body weight, respectively.

    In a three-generation reproduction study, permethrin did not induce
    adverse effects at levels up to 2500 mg/kg diet.

    In rats, permethrin fed at high-dose levels (6600-7000 mg/kg diet) for
    14 days induced sciatic nerve damage in one study, but did not show
    any ultrastructural changes in the sciatic nerve in another study. 
    Permethrin did not cause delayed neurotoxicity in hens.

    2.6  Effects on Human Beings

    Permethrin can induce skin sensations and paresthesia in exposed
    workers. It develops after a latent period of approximately 30 min,
    peaks by 8 h, and disappears within 24 h.  Numbness, itching,
    tingling, and burning are symptoms frequently reported.

    No cases of poisoning have been reported.

    The likelihood of oncogenic effects in human beings is extremely low
    or non-existent.

    There are no indications that permethrin, when used as recommended,
    will have an adverse effect on human beings.


    3.1  Conclusions

     General population: The exposure of the general population to
    permethrin is expected to be low and is not likely to present a hazard
    when used as recommended.

     Occupational exposure: When reasonable work practices, hygiene
    measures, and safety precautions are used, permethrin is unlikely to
    present a hazard to those occupationally exposed.

     Environment: It is unlikely that permethrin or its degradation
    products will reach levels of environmental significance when used as
    recommended.  Under laboratory conditions, permethrin is highly toxic
    for fish, aquatic arthropods, and honey bees. However, under field
    conditions, long-lasting adverse effects are not likely to occur when
    used as recommended.

    3.2  Recommendations

    Although no adverse effects of permethrin on  human beings have been
    reported, observations of human exposure should continue.


    4.1  Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide.  There have been no
    incidents of poisoning reported in the general population or from
    occupational exposure.  Experimental studies in animals suggest that
    after massive over-exposure or accidental ingestion, neurological
    signs and symptoms, such as ataxia, tremors, and convulsions, could

    The human health hazards associated with certain types of exposure to
    permethrin, together with preventive and protective measures and
    first-aid recommendations, are given in the International Chemical
    Safety Card (section 6).

    4.1.1  Advice to physicians

    There is no specific antidote. Treat symptomatically.  Chemical
    pneumonitis resulting from aspiration of the solvent into the lungs is
    a hazard that occurs when liquid formulations are used.

    4.1.2  Health surveillance advice

    Regularly exposed workers should undergo an annual general medical

    Skin sensations may be an indication of an exposure that should be

    4.2  Explosion and Fire Hazards

    Some solvents in pyrethroid formulations are highly flammable.  DO NOT
    USE WATER to extinguish fires.  Use dry powder, carbon dioxide, or
    alcohol-resistant foam, sand, or earth.  Cool nearby drums with water

    Whenever pyrethroid products are involved in a major fire, advise the
    fire service to wear protective clothing and breathing apparatus. 
    Inform the fire service and other relevant authorities that
    pyrethroids are highly toxic for fish, and that water should be used
    only to cool unaffected stock.  In this way, the accumulation of
    polluted run-off from the site is prevented.

    4.3  Storage

    Store technical material and formulations away from heat, in a locked
    area, preferably without drains, designated for insecticide storage
    only.  Keep out of reach of children, unauthorized personnel, and

    Store away from other chemicals, food, and animal feed.

    4.4  Transport

    For transport purposes, pyrethroids are classified as "harmful" or as
    "low hazard".  Formulations based on flammable solvents may be subject
    to local transport controls.  Before transport, ensure that the
    containers are intact and that the labels are securely fixed and not
    damaged.  Comply with local transport regulations.

    Do not transport in compartments that contain food and animal feed.

    4.5  Spillage and Disposal

    4.5.1  Spillage

    Keep spectators away from leaking or spilled products.  Prohibit
    smoking and the use of naked flames in the immediate vicinity.

    Transfer any product remaining in damaged or leaking containers into a
    clean, empty drum, and label the drum.

    Absorb spillage and cover contaminated areas with lime, damp sawdust,
    sand, earth, or other absorbent material, and place in a secure
    container for safe disposal (see below).  Contain a large spillage by
    building a barrier of earth or sandbags.  Prevent liquid from
    spreading to other cargo, vegetation, or waterways.

    Decontaminate  empty, damaged, or leaking containers with a 10% sodium
    carbonate solution added at the rate of at least 1 litre per 20-litre
    drum. Puncture containers to prevent reuse.

    4.5.2  Disposal

    Waste that contains permethrin should be burnt in an appropriate
    high-temperature incinerator with effluent scrubbing.  Where no
    incinerator is available, contaminated absorbents or surplus products
    should be decomposed by hydrolysis at pH 12 or above.  Contact with a
    suitable hydrolysing agent is required to ensure degradation of the
    active ingredient to a safe level.

    For emulsifiable material, use 5% sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)
    solution or saturated (7-10%) sodium carbonate (washing soda)

    For non-emulsifiable material, use a 1:1 mixture (by volume) of either
    of the above solutions and a water/oil soluble solvent such as
    denatured alcohol, monoethylene glycol, hexylene glycol, or

    Cover the material with a hydrolysing agent and let it stand for 7
    days. Before disposal, the resultant waste must be analysed to ensure
    that the active ingredient has been degraded to a safe level.

    Never pour untreated waste or surplus products into public sewers or
    where there is any danger of run-off or seepage to streams,
    watercourses, open waterways, ditches, fields with drainage systems,
    or to the catchment areas of boreholes, wells, springs, or ponds.


    When used as recommended, permethrin and its degradation products are
    unlikely to reach levels of environmental significance.  Permethrin is
    very toxic for fish and honey bees, but due to the very low exposure
    levels which normally occur, this will only cause a problem if

    Avoid overspraying of water.  Do not spray while insects are
    pollinating.  Do not contaminate ponds, waterways, or ditches with
    permethrin or its containers.


     This card should be easily available to all health workers concerned
     with, and users of, permethrin.  It should be displayed at, or near,
     entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to permethrin,
     and on processing equipment and containers.  The card should be
     translated into the appropriate language(s).  All persons potentially
     exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions on the
     chemical safety card clearly explained.

     Space is available on the card for insertion of the National
     Occupational Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the
     National Poison Control Centre, and for local trade names.


    CAS chemical name: Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-
    2,2-dimethyl-,(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl ester

    CAS registry no. 52645-53-1
    RTECS registry no. GZ1255000
    Molecular formula: C21H20Cl2O3


    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                   OTHER CHARACTERISTICS

    Relative molecular mass            391.31                             Technical permethrin is a yellow brown to
                                                                          brown viscous liquid or crystalline solid
    Melting point (C)                 34-39                              with a mild chemical odour

    Boiling point (C)                 220 (0.05 mmHg)                    Permethrin is stable to heat (>2 years at
                                                                          50 C) and light. Permethrin is more resistant
    Water solubility (25 C)           0.2 mg/litre                       to acidic than alkaline media, and has
                                                                          an optimum stability at pH 4.

    Solubility in organic solvents     solublea                           It is readily absorbed via ingestion and
                                                                          inhalation, and to a lesser extent via
    Density (25 C)                    1.214                              the skin.

    Vapour pressure (20 C)            1.3 Pa                            It is a highly active synthetic pyrethroid
                                                                          used as a stomach and contact insecticide.
    Octanol-water partition                                               The technical product is a mixture of four
     coefficient log Pow               6.5                                stereoisomers.


    a Methanol (258 g/kg), hexane (>1 kg/kg), acetone (450 g/litre), xylene >(1 kg/kg)


    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                        PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                    FIRST AID

    SKIN: May cause tingling or             Reduce exposure by proper application        Remove contaminated clothing; wash
    burning skin sensations,                techniques, skin protection, and             contaminated skin with soap and water
    especially on the face, that            hygiene measures
    disappear in a few hours

    EYES: Irritating to eyes                Wear face shield or goggles                  Flush immediately with clean water for
                                                                                         at least 15 min

    INHALATION: Irritating to               Do not inhale fine dust and mist.            Fresh air
    respiratory system

    INGESTION: Unlikely                     Do not eat, drink, or smoke during                         -
    occupational hazard                     working hours; wash hands before
                                                                                         eating, drinking, or smoking

    Accidental or deliberate                              -                              Obtain medical attention immediately;
    ingestion could lead to neurological                                                 if breathing has stopped, apply
    signs and symptoms such as ataxia,                                                   artificial respiration.
    tremors, and convulsions; main
    hazard of ingested liquid                                                            Do not induce vomiting.
    formulations is aspiration into

    ENVIRONMENT: Very toxic for             Do not overspray water; do not                     -
    fish and honey bees                     contaminate ponds, waterways, or ditches
                                            with product or used containers.


    SPILLAGE                                STORAGE                                      FIRE AND EXPLOSION

    Absorb spillage with lime, damp         Store in locked, well-ventilated             DO NOT USE WATER: some liquid
    sawdust, sand, or earth. Sweep          storeroom, away from children and            formulations may be highly 
    up, place in closed container,          unauthorized personnel, and food             flammable; use dry powder, carbon
    and dispose of safely; do not           and animal feed                              dioxide, or alcohol-resistant foam;
    contaminate personnel, ponds,                                                        cool nearby drums with water spray.
    or waterways.


    WASTE DISPOSAL                          NATIONAL INFORMATION

    Burn in high temperature                National Occupational Exposure Limit:
    incinerator with effluent scrubbing;
    or, treat with 5% caustic soda          National Poison Control Centre:
    as a hydrolyzing agent for 7
    days; comply with local                 Local trade names:

    FIGURE 2


    The information given in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file and other UN sources.  The intention is to give the reader a
    representative, but non-exhaustive, overview of current regulations,
    guidelines, and standards.

    Regulations and guidelines about chemicals can be fully understood
    only within the framework of a country's legislation, and are always
    subject to change.  Therefore, they should always be verified with the
    appropriate authorities.

    7.1.  Previous Evaluations by International Bodies

    The FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) evaluated
    permethrin at its meetings in 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984,
    1985, and 1987.

    In 1985, an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0-0.05 mg/kg body weight
    was established (40% cis - 60% trans and 25% cis - 75% trans

    In the WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard,
    technical permethrin is classified as moderately hazardous (WHO,
    1988).  WHO issued a Data Sheet on permethrin (no. 51)  (WHO/FAO

    7.2  Exposure Limit Values

    Some exposure limit values are given in the table on the following
    page.  When no effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the
    year of the reference from which the data are taken is indicated by

    7.3  Specific Restrictions

    No information available.



    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date

    Food        intake              FAO/WHO             Acceptable daily intake (ADI)                0-0.05 mg/kg         1982,
                                                        (40% cis - 60% trans and 25% cis             body weight          1985
                                                        - 75% trans material)

    Food        residues            FAO/WHO             Maximum residue limits (MRL)
                                                        food (specified)                             0.01-50 mg/kg        1986
                                                        feed (specified)                             20-100 mg/kg         1986
                                                                                                     dry weight

                                    USA                 Acceptable residue limits (ARL)
                                                        in specified plant products,                 0.05-60 mg/kg        1983
                                                        in specified animal products                 0.05-3.75 mg/kg      1983

                                    Soviet Union        Maximum residue limits (MRL)                 0.01-0.4 mg/kg       1984

                                    Sweden              Maximum tolerable concentrations             2.0 mg/kg            1985
                                                        in fruit and vegetables

    Soil                            Soviet Union        Permissible level                            0.05 mg/kg           1984

    7.4  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transportation of
    Dangerous Goods classifies pyrethroids in:

    -    Hazard class 6.1: poisonous substance
    -    Packing group III: a substance that has a relatively low risk of
         poisoning during transport.

    The label should be as follows:

    FIGURE 2

    The European Community legislation requires labelling as a dangerous
    substance using the symbol:

    FIGURE 3

    The label must read:

          Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed;
          keep out of reach of children; keep away from food, drink, and
          animal feeding stuff.

    7.5  Waste Disposal

    In several countries, permits are required to empty pyrethroids from
    any point source into water.


    FAO  (1985a)  Guidelines for the packaging and storage of pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985b)  Guidelines for the disposal of waste pesticides and
     pesticide containers on the farm. Rome, Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985c)  Guidelines on good labelling practice for pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1986)  International code of conduct on the distribution and use
     of pesticides. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United

    FAO/WHO (1986)  Guide to Codex recommendations concerning pesticide
     residues. Part 8. Recommendations for methods of analysis of
     pesticide residues. 3rd ed., Rome, Codex Committee on Pesticide

    GIFAP  (1982)  Guidelines for the safe handling of pesticides during
     their formulation, packing, storage and transport. Brussels,
    Groupement International des Associations Nationales des Fabricants de
    Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1983)  Guidelines for the safe and effective use of
     pesticides. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1984)  Guidelines for emergency measures in cases of pesticide
     poisoning. Brussels, Groupement International des Associations
    Nationales des Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    GIFAP  (1987)  Guidelines for the safe transport of pesticides. 
    Brussels, Groupement International des Associations Nationales des
    Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques.

    IARC  (1972-present)  IARC monographs on the evaluation of
     carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. Lyons, International Agency
    for Research on Cancer.

    IRPTC  (1985)  IRPTC file on treatment and disposal methods for waste
     chemicals. Geneva, International Register for Potentially Toxic
    Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    IRPTC  (1987)  IRPTC legal file 1986. Geneva, International Register
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    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Permethrin (EHC 94, 1990)
       Permethrin (ICSC)
       PERMETHRIN (JECFA Evaluation)
       Permethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1979 evaluations)
       Permethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1980 evaluations)
       Permethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1981 evaluations)
       Permethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1982 evaluations)
       Permethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1983 evaluations)
       Permethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)
       Permethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1987 evaluations Part II Toxicology)
       Permethrin (JMPR Evaluations 1999 Part II Toxicological)
       Permethrin (UKPID)
       Permethrin (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 53, 1991)