Sponsored jointly by FAO and WHO


    Joint meeting of the
    FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues
    in Food and the Environment
    and the
    WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues
    Geneva, 3-12 December 1979



    Carbaryl has been evaluated on a number of occasions.  An ADI has
    been established and maximum residue limits for carbaryl residues
    in commodities have been recommended.  New Zealand submitted data
    in support of a request that the Meeting propose a maximum residue
    limit for carbaryl on kiwi fruit.



    Kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis) is now the second largest
    horticultural product exported from New Zealand, the value being in
    excess of US $20 million annually.  The fruit is, like most
    horticultural crops, subject to attack by a number of pests and
    diseases and to meet plant health requirements of countries
    importing New Zealand produced kiwi fruit it is necessary to spray

    Carbaryl is applied 5 times during the growing season, 4 times in
    combination with diazinon and then once alone in early April.  The
    additional application is needed because of the short life of the
    chemical.  The time interval between the last treatment and harvest
    is of the order of 21 days.  The rate recommended for the first
    four sprayings is 80 g ai/100 L with 120 g ai/100L for the last
    spray, giving a total of 9.9 kg/ha in the season.


    No replicated trial data are available but some data following
    grower use in 1978 show that residues are not likely to exceed 10
    mg/kg on the whole fruit.

    A summary of this information is included in Table 1.

    Table 1.  Carbaryl residues on kiwi fruit.

      Number of           Rate per                                                     Residue on
    Applications        Application         Kg a.i./ha          Interval            whole commodity
                        ai g/100 L                               (days)                 (mg/kg)

         6                  120                16.12            delayed                  2.0
         1                  120                 2.7               13                     3.1
         4                  220                 9.3                9                     7.4
         2                270/400               9.9                9                     5.1

    Further monitoring indicated that when the interval between last
    application and harvest was as little as 9 days the residues ranged
    from 5 to 7.5 mg/kg carbaryl on total fruit.  On the basis of this
    experience, and subsequent to 1978 the pre-harvest interval was
    extended to 21 days but the number of applications was increased as
    indicated above.

    Because of the hairy nature of the skin spray residues are retained on
    the fruit more than would be the case if the skin was smooth. 
    However, in the case of non-systemic insecticides, trial data have
    shown that 90% of the residue remains on the skin.  The skin, being
    hairy, is relatively unpalatable and is generally discarded.


    Carbaryl is used in the regular spray programme for the control of
    pests of kiwi fruit.  Data supplied by New Zealand, indicates that
    following approved uses, involving up to 5 sprays, the last within 21
    days of harvest, carbaryl residues on the whole fruit could range up
    to 10 mg/kg.

    These data provide a basis for recommending a maximum residue limit on
    kiwi fruit.


    The following additional maximum residue limit is recommended for

    kiwi fruit  10 mg/kg

    (This is based on a 21 day pre-harvest interval)

    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Carbaryl (EHC 153, 1994)
       Carbaryl (HSG 78, 1993)
       Carbaryl (ICSC)
       Carbaryl (PIM 147)
       Carbaryl (FAO Meeting Report PL/1965/10/1)
       Carbaryl (FAO/PL:CP/15)
       Carbaryl (FAO/PL:1967/M/11/1)
       Carbaryl (FAO/PL:1968/M/9/1)
       Carbaryl (FAO/PL:1969/M/17/1)
       Carbaryl (AGP:1970/M/12/1)
       Carbaryl (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 3)
       Carbaryl (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 5)
       Carbaryl (Pesticide residues in food: 1976 evaluations)
       Carbaryl (Pesticide residues in food: 1977 evaluations)
       Carbaryl (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)
       Carbaryl (Pesticide residues in food: 1996 evaluations Part II Toxicological)
       Carbaryl (JMPR Evaluations 2001 Part II Toxicological)
       Carbaryl (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 12, 1976)