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    INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION



    TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF CERTAIN
    FOOD ADDITIVES AND NATURALLY OCCURRING TOXICANTS



    WHO FOOD ADDITIVES SERIES 30





    Prepared by:
      The thirty-ninth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert
      Committee on Food Additives (JECFA)



    World Health Organization, Geneva 1993


         The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) is a
    joint venture of the United Nations Environment Programme, the
    International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization. 
    The main objective of the IPCS is to carry out and disseminate
    evaluations of the effects of chemicals on human health and the
    quality of the environment.  Supporting activities include the
    development of epidemiological, experimental laboratory, and risk-
    assessment methods that could produce internationally comparable
    results, and the development of manpower in the field of toxicology. 
    Other activities carried out by the IPCS include the development of
    know-how for coping with chemical accidents, coordination of
    laboratory testing and epidemiological studies, and promotion of
    research on the mechanisms of the biological action of chemicals.



    CONTENTS

    Preface

    Monograph Format

    Emulsifier

         Thermally oxidized soya bean oil and thermally
         oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and
         diglycerides of fatty acids

    Enzyme preparations

         Cellulase derived from  Trichoderma longibrachiatum
         Lysozyme

    Flavouring substances

         Limonene
         Quinine

    Solvents

         1,2-Dichloroethane
         Dichloromethane
         Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether

    Thickening agent

         Alginic acid and its ammonium, calcium,
         potassium and sodium salts

    Waxes

         Beeswax
         Candelilla wax
         Carnauba wax
         Microcrystalline wax and paraffin wax
         Shellac

    Miscellaneous substances

         Furfural
         Potassium bromate

    Naturally occurring toxicants

         Cyanogenic glycosides
         Solanine and chaconine

    Annexes

         Annex 1   Reports and other documents
                   resulting from previous meetings
                   of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert
                   Committee on Food Additives

         Annex 2   Abbreviations used in the
                   Monographs

         Annex 3   Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee
                   on Food Additives, Rome,
                   3-12 February 1992

         Annex 4   Recommendations on compounds
                   on the agenda


    PREFACE

         The monographs contained in this volume were prepared by the
    thirty-ninth Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA),
    which met in Rome, Italy, 3-12 February 1992. These monographs
    summarize the safety data on selected food additives and naturally
    occurring toxicants reviewed by the Committee. The data reviewed in
    these monographs form the basis for acceptable daily intakes (ADIs)
    established by the Committee.

         The thirty-ninth report of JECFA has been published by the World
    Health Organization as WHO Technical Report Series No. 828. The
    participants in the meeting are listed in Annex 3 of the present
    publication and a summary of the conclusions of the Committee is
    included as Annex 4.

         Specifications established at the thirty-ninth meeting of JECFA
    have been published in FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 52. These
    toxicological monographs should be read in conjunction with the
    specifications and the report.

         Reports and other documents resulting from previous meetings of
    the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives are listed in
    Annex 1.

         JECFA serves as a scientific advisory body to FAO, WHO, their
    Member States, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission, primarily
    through the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants and the
    Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods, regarding
    the safety of food additives, residues of veterinary drugs, naturally
    occurring toxicants, and contaminants in food.  Committees accomplish
    this task by preparing reports of their meetings and publishing
    specifications or residues monographs and toxicological monographs,
    such as those contained in this volume, on substances that they have
    considered.

         Many proprietary unpublished reports are referenced. These were
    voluntarily submitted to the Committee by various producers of the
    food additives under review and in many cases these reports represent
    the only safety data available on these substances. The Temporary
    Advisers based the working papers they developed on all the data that
    were submitted, and all these studies were available to the Committee
    when it made its evaluations.

         From 1972 to 1975 the toxicology monographs prepared by Joint
    FAO/WHO Expert Committees on Food Additives were published in the WHO
    Food Additives Series; after 1975 this series was available in the
    form of unpublished WHO vi documents provided upon request to the
    Organization. WHO Food Additives Series Volume No. 20, prepared by the

    twenty-ninth Committee in 1985, through WHO Food Additives Series
    Volume No. 24, prepared by the thirty-third Committee in 1988, were
    published by the Cambridge University Press. Beginning with WHO Food
    Additives Series No. 25, prepared by the thirty-fourth Committee, WHO
    has producing these volumes as priced documents.

         The preparation and editing of the monographs included in this
    volume have been made possible through the technical and financial
    contributions of the Participating Institutions of the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), which support the activities of
    JECFA. IPCS is a joint venture of the United Nations Environment
    Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health
    Organization, which is the executing agency. One of the main
    objectives of the IPCS is to carry out and disseminate evaluations of
    the effects of chemicals on human health and the quality of the
    environment.

         The designations employed and the presentation of the material in
    this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever
    on the part of the organizations participating in the IPCS concerning
    the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area or its
    authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries. The mention of specific companies or of certain
    manufacturers' products does not imply that they are endorsed or
    recommended by those organizations in preference to others of a
    similar nature that are not mentioned.

         Any comments or new information on the biological or
    toxicological data on the compounds reported in this document should
    be addressed to: Joint WHO Secretary of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert
    Committee on Food Additives, International Programme on Chemical
    Safety, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27,
    Switzerland.

    MONOGRAPH FORMAT

         Note:     Each monograph in this document follows the general
    format presented below. All monographs may not, however, require the
    use of each heading.

    1.   EXPLANATION

    2.   BIOLOGICAL DATA
         2.1  Biochemical aspects
              2.1.1     Absorption, distribution and excretion.
              2.1.2     Biotransformation
              2.1.3     Effects on enzymes and other biochemical
                        parameters
         2.2  Toxicological studies
              2.2.1     Acute toxicity studies
              2.2.2     Short-term toxicity studies
              2.2.2.1-2.2.2.X    Species tested
              2.2.3     Long-term/carcinogenicity studies
              2.2.4     Reproduction studies
              2.2.5-2.2.X    Special studies
         2.3  Observations in humans

    3.   COMMENTS

    4.   EVALUATION

    5.   REFERENCES





















    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations