IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
Health and Safety Guide No. 56
HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE
UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1991
This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 68:
Published by the World Health Organization for the International
Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
and the World Health Organization)
This report contains the collective views of an international group of
experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization
WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Hydrazine : health and safety guide.
(Health and safety guide ; no. 56)
1. Hydrazines - standards I. Series
ISBN 92 4 151056 0 (NLM Classification: QU 60)
(c) World Health Organization 1991
Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
Universal Copyright Convention. For rights of reproduction or
translation of WHO publications, in part or in toto, application
should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. The World Health Organization
welcomes such applications.
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.
1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
1.2. Physical and chemical properties
1.4. Production and uses
2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
2.1. Human exposure to hydrazine
2.2. Fate of hydrazine
2.3. Effects on organisms in the environment
2.4. Effects on animals
2.5. Effects on human beings
4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and protection,
4.2. Advice to physicians
4.3. Health surveillance advice
4.4. Explosion and fire hazards
4.4.1. Explosion hazards
4.4.2. Fire hazards
4.4.4. Fire-extinguishing agents
4.7. Spillage and disposal
5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION
6. SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION
7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
7.1. Exposure limit values
7.2. Specific restrictions
7.3. Labelling, packaging, and transport
The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a
chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological
agents. They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.
The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
programmes. The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC.
Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly familiar with
the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
emergency. Within the Guide is a Summary of Chemical Safety
Information which should be readily available, and should be clearly
explained, to all who could come into contact with the chemical. The
section on regulatory information has been extracted from the legal
file of the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
(IRPTC) and from other United Nations sources.
The target readership includes occupational health services, those in
ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are
involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on
this topic. An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be
familiar to the intended user. However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably
contain some technical terms. A bibliography has been included for
readers who require further background information.
Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology.
Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
very helpful and should be addressed to:
International Programme on Chemical Safety
Division of Environmental Health
World Health Organization
1211 Geneva 27
1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
Common name: hydrazine
Chemical formula: N2H4
Chemical structure: H2N - NH2
Common synonyms: diamide, diamine, anhydrous
hydrazine, hydrazine base
Common trade names (of mixtures): Aerozine-50 (a 1:1 w/w fuel mixture
of anhydrous hydrazine and
hydrate (N2H4.H2O) (a 1:1
molar mixture of anhydrous
hydrazine and water);
Levoxin (a 15-64% aqueous
solution); SCAV-OX (a 35-64%
aqueous solution); Zerox (a 15-64%
CAS registry number: 302-01-2
RTECS registry number: MU7175000
UN number: 2029 (2030 for hydrazine
Conversion factors: 1 ppm = 1.31 mg/m3
at 25 °C and 101.3 kPa (760 mmHg)
1 mg/m3 = 0.76 ppm
1.2 Physical and Chemical Properties
Anhydrous hydrazine, and aqueous solutions, are colourless liquids.
Anhydrous hydrazine is a caustic, fuming, hygroscopic liquid at normal
temperature and pressure. It has an ammoniacal, fishy, and pungent
odour. The odour perception threshold is 4-9 mg/m3. A 1:1 mixture
of anhydrous hydrazine in water (hydrazine monohydrate) containing 64%
by weight of hydrazine, fumes slightly in air and has an ammoniacal
odour. Hydrazine is infinitely soluble in water and may be flammable
and explosive up to a concentration of 400 g/litre (40%). Hydrazine
is basic, and is a strong reducing agent. Some physical and chemical
properties of hydrazine are given in the Summary of Chemical Safety
Information (section 6).
Hydrazine is often sold as aqueous hydrazine (15-64% solutions of
anhydrous hydrazine in water) or as hydrazine hydrate.
1.4 Production and Uses
The total world production capacity for hydrazine was estimated to be
in excess of 35 000 tonnes in 1981. Significant production capacities
are reported for the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, the
United Kingdom, and the USA. Hydrazine is mainly used as a raw
material in the manufacture of agricultural chemicals, blowing agents,
polymerization catalysts, and pharmaceutical products, and as a
corrosion inhibitor in boiler water. Both the hydrate and anhydrous
hydrazine are used as propellant fuels for aircraft and spacecraft.
2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
2.1 Human Exposure to Hydrazine
Hydrazine is not known to occur naturally, except, perhaps, in
tobacco. It can be released into the atmosphere during venting
operations, storage, or transfer. The total emission is estimated to
represent nearly 0.01% of the hydrazine produced. Accidental
discharges into water, air, and soil can result from bulk storage,
handling, transport, or improper waste disposal.
Exposure of human beings to hydrazine may occur occupationally or
accidentally, from hydrazine-based drugs, or from the use of tobacco.
It has been shown that concentrations of up to 0.35 mg/m3 can occur
during production under normal conditions, and that, exceptionally,
concentrations of up to 1.18 mg/m3 may occur. During the handling
of the fuel, concentrations of up to 0.25 mg/m3 have been measured
under normal conditions and, exceptionally, up to 2.59 mg/m3.
Because the compound is degraded so rapidly in the environment
(section 2.2), measurable levels are not normally encountered, and,
therefore, hydrazine does not pose a significant hazard for the
general population. However, the general population may be exposed to
hydrazine vapour through accidental discharge. Evaporation of
hydrazine from a liquid spill can be sufficient to generate an
atmospheric concentration as high as 4 mg/m3.
2.2 Fate of Hydrazine
Hydrazine is degraded rapidly in the air, through reactions with
ozone, hydroxyl radicals, or nitrogen dioxide. In polluted air, the
life-time will be approximately 1 h. In soil, aqueous hydrazine is
adsorbed and decomposed on clay surfaces, under aerobic conditions.
However, available data are inadequate to describe the behaviour of
hydrazine in the soil. The degradation rate of hydrazine in water is
highly dependent on various factors, such as pH, temperature, oxygen
content, alkalinity, hardness, and the presence of organic material
and metallic ions. Hydrazine is degraded rapidly under aerobic
conditions in the presence of organic material, and/or in alkaline or
hard water. It is more persistent in soft, metal-free water.
Hydrazine is biodegradable by microorganisms in activated sludge.
However, at concentrations above 1 mg/litre, hydrazine is also toxic
for these microorganisms, especially for nitrifying bacteria.
Hydrazine does not bioaccumulate.
2.3 Effects on Organisms in the Environment
The concentration of hydrazine that is lethal for half the number of
fish in a population (LC50) exposed for 1-4 days, ranged from 0.54
to 5.98 mg/litre. The lowest-observed-effect level, found in a
fathead minnow embryo-larvae test, was 0.1 mg/litre. Nitrifying
bacteria in activated sludge are inhibited at levels higher than
1 mg/litre. Many microorganisms are more sensitive, and show
threshold levels as low as 0.00008 mg/litre, reported for the blue
alga Microcystis aeroginosa.
Hydrazine can inhibit germination in plants, and is toxic for plants
in both air and water.
On the basis of these data, it can be concluded that hydrazine may
present a hazard for aquatic organisms and plant life.
2.4 Effects on Animals
Hydrazine is rapidly absorbed through the skin or via other routes of
exposure. It is also rapidly distributed to, and eliminated from,
most tissues. In mice and rats, the absorbed hydrazine is excreted via
the urine, partly unchanged, and partly as labile conjugates or as
acid-hydrolysable derivatives. Metabolism of hydrazine produces a
significant amount of nitrogen, which is excreted via the lungs.
Single oral doses of 55-64 mg/kg body weight and vapour concentrations
of 750 mg/m3 for 4 h were lethal for half the number of exposed rats
in a population (LD50, LC50). Thus, the compound is moderately
toxic according to the scale of Hodge & Sterner.
Most of the effects on human beings (section 2.5) exposed to hydrazine
have also been observed in experimental animals. In addition, loss of
body weight, anaemia, hypoglycaemia, fatty liver, and convulsions have
been frequently reported. Fatty liver was reported in mice, and body
weight loss in rats, when they were exposed continuously for 6 months
to 0.26 mg/m3, the lowest of three exposure levels; monkeys and dogs
were not affected at this concentration. There are no data on which
to establish a no-observed-effect level for the inhalation route, but,
in a 7-month drinking-water study, a no-observed-effect level of
3 µg/kg body weight was reported.
Studies on rats and mice have indicated that hydrazine produces
adverse effects on embryos and fetuses, when administered at doses
that are toxic for the mother. The adverse effects include increased
resorptions, reduced fetal weight, increased perinatal mortality, and
increased incidences of litters and fetuses with abnormalities. The
abnormalities include primarily supernumerary and fused ribs, delayed
ossification, moderate hydronephrosis, and moderate dilation of the
Hydrazine induced gene mutations and chromosome aberrations in a
variety of test systems, including plants, phages, bacteria, fungi,
Drosophila, and mammalian cells in vitro. Indirect alkylation was
introduced in liver DNA of rodents after in vivo exposure to toxic
doses. Hydrazine also caused DNA damage in vitro. It transformed
hamster and human cells in vitro, but did not increase unscheduled
DNA synthesis in the germ cells of mice in vivo, or induce
chromosome aberrations, micro-nuclei, or dominant lethals in mice in
vivo. In rats, it was reported that hydrazine induced chromosome
aberrations in vivo.
Hydrazine vapour induced nasal tumours, most of which were benign, in
F-344 rats and Syrian golden hamsters, but not in C57BL/6 mice, after
12 months of treatment and life-time observation. In several limited
gavage and drinking-water studies, hydrazine induced an increased
incidence, in some cases dose-related, of multiple pulmonary tumours
in various mouse strains and Cb/Se rats. In two strains of mice, an
increased incidence of hepatocarcinomas was also induced. A very low,
but increased, incidence of hepatocarcinomas was observed in male
Cb/Se rats. No tumours were observed in orally-exposed hamsters.
On the basis of the carcinogenicity studies on experimental animals,
there is evidence that hydrazine is an animal carcinogen.
2.5 Effects on Human Beings
In cases of acute human poisoning, vomiting, severe irritation of the
respiratory tract with pulmonary oedema, central nervous system
depression, and hepatic and renal damage have been reported. No data
are available from which to make an estimate of the level of hydrazine
inhaled in cases of acute poisoning by the respiratory route.
However, from reports of poisoning by the oral route, it would appear
that ingestion of amounts of the order of 20-50 ml would cause severe
intoxication and may be lethal. From the available human data, it is
not possible to estimate a no-observed-effect dose. Pyridoxine
treatment of poisoned human beings has been reported to be successful
on several occasions.
Skin and eye irritation have been observed in human beings who had
come into contact with hydrazine, but the data are insufficient to
establish a no-observed-effect level. Hydrazine is a strong skin
sensitizer in human beings. Once sensitized to hydrazine, a person
may also become sensitive to hydrazine derivatives
Data are lacking concerning the effects of hydrazine on the human
embryo or fetus. In the absence of human data, and on the basis of
the animals studies, it is prudent to assume that hydrazine would have
adverse effects on the human embryo or fetus at exposure levels near
to those producing toxic effects in the mother. Such levels may occur
from accidental spillages.
Data are inadequate to assess the carcinogenicity of hydrazine in
human beings. However, taking into account the mutagenicity data, as
well as the carcinogenicity data in animals, it would be prudent to
consider hydrazine as a possible human carcinogen. Thus, exposure of
human beings should be kept as low as feasible.
3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Hydrazine can be regarded as posing little hazard for the general
population, under normal conditions. However, in the workplace, and
under conditions of accidental exposure, hydrazine can present a
significant health hazard. Human data are limited, but show that
hydrazine may affect the central nervous system, liver, and kidneys.
In addition, it may produce skin and eye irritation and skin
sensitization. The results of animal studies suggest that effects on
human beings may also include embryotoxicity, at levels near those
producing toxic effects in the mother, and adverse effects on the
respiratory system. On the basis of the evidence of carcinogenicity
in animals, it would be prudent to consider hydrazine as a possible
human carcinogen. Regarding the effects on the environment, it can be
concluded that hydrazine may present a hazard for both aquatic
organisms and plant life.
4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
4.1 Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid
The main human health hazards associated with certain types of
exposure to hydrazine, together with preventive and protective
measures and first-aid recommendations, are listed in the Summary of
Chemical Safety Information (section 6).
4.2 Advice to Physicians
Pyridoxine treatment has been claimed to be successful on several
occasions and may be considered. However, one case report mentions a
reversible peripheral neuropathy resulting from treatment with a very
large dose of pyridoxine. Otherwise, treat symptomatically. Pay
attention to the possible development of pulmonary oedema and of
damage to the liver. Skin burns should to be treated as for alkali or
4.3 Health Surveillance Advice
Human beings handling hydrazine, or hydrazine solutions, should
undergo medical examination once a year, with emphasis on the
functioning of the central nervous system, liver, and kidneys, and on
disorders of the skin, eyes, and blood. It should be kept in mind
that hydrazine is a possible human carcinogen and a strong skin
sensitizer, and that cross-sensitization to hydrazine derivatives may
4.4 Explosion and Fire Hazards
4.4.1 Explosion hazards
Anhydrous hydrazine-air mixtures, containing 4.7% or more (by volume)
of hydrazine, may be explosive at temperatures higher than 38°C, and
can be ignited by sources of heat or ignition, or by ultraviolet
radiation. The flash-point of hydrazine hydrate is 75°C. The
flammability of aqueous hydrazine decreases, and the flash-point
increases, with increasing dilution, a 40% solution being just
ignitable. Contact with metals, metal oxides, oxidizing substances,
acids, and porous materials, such as earth, wood, asbestos, paper, or
cloth, may cause fire and explosions. Contaminated clothing and
equipment are fire hazards. Toxic decomposition products include
nitrogen oxides and ammonia.
4.4.2 Fire hazards
Anhydrous hydrazine and aqueous hydrazine containing more than 40% of
the compound are flammable liquids.
For anhydrous hydrazine, use a closed system, where feasible, and
explosion-proof electrical equipment. Do not use hydrazine in the
vicinity of flames, sparks, and other sources of ignition. Do not
smoke. Keep containers out of direct sunlight. Avoid contact between
the compound and metals, metal oxides, acids, oxidizing agents, and
porous materials. Prevent contamination of hydrazine. In case of
fire, keep drums cool by spraying with water. Do not extinguish a
fire caused by hydrazine, unless its release can be stopped.
Fire-fighters need self-contained breathing apparatus, eye protection,
and full protective clothing.
4.4.4 Fire-extinguishing agents
Water sprays, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide can be used on small
fires. For large fires, alcohol foam, or water spraying to flood
levels, can be used.
Hydrazine should be stored in tightly closed, well-labelled containers
in an inert atmosphere, in a clean, well-ventilated area with
controlled drainage. Store away from oxidizing agents, acids, metals,
metal oxides, porous materials, direct sunlight, or other sources of
heat or ignition. The containers should be connected to earth to
prevent static sparks.
Current international regulations require that hydrazine hydrate, and
aqueous solutions of it, should be transported in metal containers
with polyethylene liners, in plastic canisters, or in stainless steel
4.7 Spillage and Disposal
Remove all ignition sources and evacuate the danger area. Collect
leaking liquid in sealable containers. Keep spills from entering
water sources and sewers. Promptly dilute spilled hydrazine with
water spray, to produce at least a 40% solution. Construct barriers
to contain the spill, or flush it into a container. Foam can be
applied to retard vaporization. Use sand to collect small spills.
Ensure personal protection, by using a self-contained breathing
apparatus, eye protection, and full protective clothing.
4.7.2 Disposal (based on the IRPTC waste disposal file)
Hydrazine can be disposed of by dilution with water to produce at
least a 40% solution and subsequent neutralization with dilute
sulfuric acid. The resulting solution can be drained into the sewer,
with abundant water.
Alternatively, hydrazine waste can be burnt in a chemical incinerator
equipped with an after-burner and scrubber, after dilution with
alcohol or another hydrocarbon fuel.
5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION
Degradation of hydrazine in water may be slow, depending on
conditions. Hydrazine may present a hazard for aquatic organisms and
Contamination of soil, water, and the atmosphere can be avoided by
proper methods of storage, transport, and waste disposal. In case of
spillage, apply methods recommended in section 4.7.1. When using
exhaust ventilation, an exhaust scrubber may be needed. Use closed
systems where feasible. Use dilute solutions of hydrazine rather than
concentrated solutions, where possible.
6. SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION
This summary should be easily available to all health workers
concerned with, and users of, hydrazine. It should be displayed at,
or near, entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to
hydrazine, and on processing equipment and containers. The summary
should be translated into the appropriate language(s). All persons
potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions
in the summary clearly explained.
Space is available for insertion of the National Occupational
Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the National
Poison Control Centre, and for local trade names.
(diamide, diamine, hydrazine anhydrous, hydrazine base)
(H2N - NH2)
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ANHYDROUS HYDRAZINE OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
Relative molecular mass 32.05 Colourless liquid, fuming in air, with an
Melting point (°C) 2 -51.9 ammoniacal, pungent, fishy odour; aqueous
Boiling point (°C ) 113.5 120.1 solutions are colourless liquids; a 64% solution
Water solubility infinite infinite fumes slightly in air and has an ammoniacal odour;
Density (20°C) 1.008 g/ml 1.032 g/ml both hydrazine and an aqueous solution of
Relative vapour density 1.1 hydrazine react strongly with acids and oxidizing
Vapour pressure (20°C) 1.39 kPa 1 kPa agents; decomposition is accelerated by porous
Log n-octanol/water partition materials and some metals; toxic decomposition
coefficient -3.08 products are nitrogen oxides and ammonia; can
Flammability (explosive) have adverse effects well below the odour
limits (%) 4.7-100 3.4-100 threshold
HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS PREVENTION AND PROTECTION FIRST AID
SKIN: corrosion by liquid; burns; Wear clean, body-covering, Remove contaminated clothing under
irritation by vapour; may enter impervious clothing and gloves; do not shower; rinse with plenty of water
body through skin wear leather garments
EYES: corrosion by liquid; burns; Wear safety face-shield, or eye Flush with plenty of water for at least
irritation by vapour protection, in combination with 15 minutes
INHALATION: irritation of nose Apply explosion-proof ventilation Remove victims to fresh air, and keep
and respiratory tract; effects on and local exhaust, and, for non- quiet; if breathing has stopped, apply
central nervous system, liver, and routine activities, self-contained artificial respiration; transport to
kidneys breathing apparatus hospital
INGESTION: corrosive effects; Do not eat, drink, or smoke during Rinse mouth; give plenty of water, milk,
effects on central nervous system, work or lemon juice to drink; induce vomiting
liver, and kidneys in conscious patients; transport to
GENERAL: the compound should
be considered as a possible human
ENVIRONMENT: may be hazardous Apply proper methods of storage,
for aquatic and plant life transport, waste disposal, and
handling of spills; when using
exhaust ventilation, an exhaust
scrubber may be needed; use closed
systems and dilute solutions
SPILLAGE STORAGE FIRE AND EXPLOSION
Remove ignition sources; evacuate Store in tightly-closed, well- Flammable; no open flames or other
area; collect leaking liquid in labelled containers in an inert sources of ignition; vapour-air mixtures
sealable container; promptly dilute atmosphere, in a clean, well- are explosive above 38°C; use closed-
spilled hydrazine with water spray; ventilated area; store away from system ventilation and explosion-proof
contain spills; ensure personal oxidizing agents, acids, metals, electrical equipment; contaminated
protection (use self-contained metal oxides, porous materials, clothing and equipment are a fire
breathing apparatus, eye protection, and direct sunlight; connect hazard; in case of fire, keep drums
and fully protective clothing) containers to earth cool by spraying with water; extinguish
fires with spray or alcohol foam
WASTE DISPOSAL NATIONAL INFORMATION
Dilution with water and National Occupational Exposure UN 2029 (100% hydrazine)
neutralization with dilute sulfuric Limit:
acid; burning in a chemical
incinerator equipped with an
after-burner and scrubber National Poison Control Centre: UN 2030 (hydrazine monohydrate)
7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
The information given in this section has been extracted from the
International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
file. A full reference to the original national document from which
the information was extracted can be obtained from IRPTC. When no
effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of the
reference from which the data are taken is indicated by (r).
The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
framework of the legislation of that country. The regulations and
guidelines of all countries are subject to change and should always be
verified with appropriate regulatory authorities before application.
7.1 Exposure Limit Values
Some exposure limit values are given in the table on pp. 26-27.
7.2 Specific Restrictions
The Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues has established an
Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 0-5 mg/kg body weight for maleic
hydrazine containing not more than 1 mg hydrazine/kg maleic hydrazine
(effective date: 1984).
In the USA, those registering technical maleic hydrazide under the
pesticide registration regulations must submit a confidential
statement of the formula to certify that the hydrazine level in their
products does not exceed 15 mg/kg (effective date: 1983).
In the Federal Republic of Germany, the handling of hydrazine is
prohibited or restricted for pre-adults and pregnant or nursing women
(effective date: 1980).
7.3 Labelling, Packaging, and Transport
The European Economic Community regulations state that the label for
>64% solutions of hydrazine should read as follows (effective date:
Very toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed;
causes burns; possible risks of irreversible effects; wear
suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection; in
case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice
immediately (show the label where possible).
The label is:
For 15-64% solutions of hydrazine, the label should read (effective
date: 1982 (r)):
Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed; causes burns; in
case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
water and seek medical attention).
The percentage concentration must be stated on the label. The label
EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES
Medium Specification Country/ Exposure limit descriptiona Value Effective
AIR Occupational Australia Threshold limit value (TLV) 1985 (r)
- Time-weighted average (TWA) 0.1 mg/m3b
Czechoslovakia Maximum allowable concentration (MAC) 1985
- Time-weighted average (TWA) 0.05 mg/m3
- Ceiling value 0.1 mg/m3 1985
Germany, Federal Technical reference concentration 1986 (r)
Republic of - 1-year time-weighted average 0.13 mg/m3b,c,d
Italy Threshold limit value (TLV) 1985 (r)
- Time-weighted average (TWA) 0.13 mg/m3b,c
Sweden Threshold limit value (TLV) 1985
- Time-weighted average (TWA) 0.1 mg/m3b,c,d
- Short-term exposure limit (STEL) 0.4 mg/m3
USA (ACGIH) Threshold limit value (TLV) 1985 (r)
- Time-weighted average (TWA) 0.1 mg/m3b,c
USA (OSHA) Threshold limit value (TLV)
- Time-weighted average (TWA) 1 mg/m3
USA (NIOSH) Threshold limit value (TLV)
- Time-weighted average (TWA) 1 mg/m3
- Ceiling value 2 mg/m3
Medium Specification Country/ Exposure limit description Value Effective
AIR Occupational USSR Ceiling value (including 0.1 mg/m3 1977
WATER Surface USSR Maximum allowable concentration 0.01 mg/litre 1983
a TWA = time-weighted average over one working day (usually 8 h).
b Skin absorption.
c (Suspected of) carcinogenic (potential).
FAO (1985a) Guidelines for the packaging and storage of pesticides.
Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FAO (1985b) Guidelines for the disposal of waste pesticides and
pesticide containers on the farm. Rome, Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations.
FAO/WHO (1986) Guide to Codex recommendations concerning pesticide
residues. Part 8. Recommendations for methods of analysis of
pesticide residues. 3rd ed. Rome, Codex Committee on Pesticide
GIFAP (1982) Guidelines for the safe handling of pesticides during
their formulation, packing, storage, and transport. Brussels,
Groupement International des Associations Nationales des Fabricants de
IARC (1972-present) IARC monographs on the evaluation of
carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. Lyon, International Agency
for Research on Cancer.
IRPTC (1985) IRPTC file on treatment and disposal methods for waste
chemicals. Geneva, International Register for Potentially Toxic
Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.
IRPTC (1987) IRPTC legal file 1986. Geneva, International Register
for Potentially Toxic Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.
PLESTINA, R. (1984) Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of
insecticide poisoning. Geneva, World Health Organization
(Unpublished report No.VBC/84.889).
SAX, N.I. (1984) Dangerous properties of industrial materials. New
York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc.
UNITED NATIONS (1989) Recommendations on the transport of dangerous
goods. 6th ed. New York, United Nations.
US NIOSH/OSHA (1981) Occupational health guidelines for chemical
hazards. 3 Vol., Washington DC, US Department of Health and Human
Services, US Department of Labor (Publication No. DHHS (NIOSH)
WHO (1987) EHC No. 68: Hydrazine. Geneva, World Health
WORTHING, C.R. & WALKER, S.B. (1987) The pesticide manual. 8th ed.
Lavenham, Lavenham Press Limited, British Crop Protection Council.