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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 56

    HYDRAZINE
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1991

    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 68:
    Hydrazine

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization

    WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    Hydrazine : health and safety guide.

    (Health and safety guide ; no. 56)

    1. Hydrazines - standards  I. Series

    ISBN 92 4 151056 0          (NLM Classification: QU 60)
    ISSN 0259-7268

    (c) World Health Organization 1991

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Composition
         1.4. Production and uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
         2.1. Human exposure to hydrazine
         2.2. Fate of hydrazine
         2.3. Effects on organisms in the environment
         2.4. Effects on animals
         2.5. Effects on human beings

    3. CONCLUSIONS

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
         4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and protection,
              first aid
         4.2. Advice to physicians
         4.3. Health surveillance advice
         4.4. Explosion and fire hazards
              4.4.1. Explosion hazards
              4.4.2. Fire hazards
              4.4.3. Prevention
              4.4.4. Fire-extinguishing agents
         4.5. Storage
         4.6. Transport
         4.7. Spillage and disposal
              4.7.1. Spillage
              4.7.2. Disposal

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    6. SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Exposure limit values
         7.2. Specific restrictions
         7.3. Labelling, packaging, and transport

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    

    INTRODUCTION

    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a
    chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological
    agents.  They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes. The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC. 
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly  familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is a Summary of Chemical Safety
    Information which should be readily available, and should be clearly
    explained, to all who could come into contact with the chemical.  The
    section on regulatory information has been extracted from the legal
    file of the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
    (IRPTC) and from other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes occupational health services, those in
    ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are
    involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
    environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on
    this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be
    familiar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably
    contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been included for
    readers who require further background information.

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    1.  PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    Common name:                       hydrazine

    Chemical formula:                  N2H4

    Chemical structure:                H2N - NH2

    Common synonyms:                   diamide, diamine, anhydrous
                                       hydrazine, hydrazine base

    Common trade names (of mixtures):  Aerozine-50 (a 1:1 w/w fuel mixture
                                       of anhydrous hydrazine and
                                       1,1-dimethylhydrazine); Hydrazine
                                       hydrate (N2H4.H2O) (a 1:1
                                       molar mixture of anhydrous
                                       hydrazine and water); 
                                       Levoxin (a 15-64% aqueous
                                       solution); SCAV-OX (a 35-64%
                                       aqueous solution); Zerox (a 15-64%
                                       aqueous solution)

    CAS registry number:               302-01-2

    RTECS registry number:             MU7175000

    UN number:                         2029 (2030 for hydrazine
                                       monohydrate N2H4.H2O)

    Conversion factors:                1 ppm = 1.31 mg/m3
                                       at 25 C and 101.3 kPa (760 mmHg)
                                       1 mg/m3 = 0.76 ppm

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    Anhydrous hydrazine, and aqueous solutions, are colourless liquids. 
    Anhydrous hydrazine is a caustic, fuming, hygroscopic liquid at normal
    temperature and pressure.  It has an ammoniacal, fishy, and pungent
    odour.  The odour perception threshold is 4-9 mg/m3.  A 1:1 mixture
    of anhydrous hydrazine in water (hydrazine monohydrate) containing 64%
    by weight of hydrazine, fumes slightly in air and has an ammoniacal
    odour.  Hydrazine is infinitely soluble in water and may be flammable
    and explosive up to a concentration of 400 g/litre (40%).  Hydrazine
    is basic, and is a strong reducing agent.  Some physical and chemical
    properties of hydrazine are given in the Summary of Chemical Safety
    Information (section 6).

    1.3  Composition

    Hydrazine is often sold as aqueous hydrazine (15-64% solutions of
    anhydrous hydrazine in water) or as hydrazine hydrate.

    1.4  Production and Uses

    The total world production capacity for hydrazine was estimated to be
    in excess of 35 000 tonnes in 1981.  Significant production capacities
    are reported for the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, the
    United Kingdom, and the USA.  Hydrazine is mainly used as a raw
    material in the manufacture of agricultural chemicals, blowing agents,
    polymerization catalysts, and pharmaceutical products, and as a
    corrosion inhibitor in boiler water.  Both the hydrate and anhydrous
    hydrazine are used as propellant fuels for aircraft and spacecraft.

    2.  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Human Exposure to Hydrazine

    Hydrazine is not known to occur naturally, except, perhaps, in
    tobacco.  It can be released into the atmosphere during venting
    operations, storage, or transfer.  The total emission is estimated to
    represent nearly 0.01% of the hydrazine produced.  Accidental
    discharges into water, air, and soil can result from bulk storage,
    handling, transport, or improper waste disposal.

    Exposure of human beings to hydrazine may occur occupationally or
    accidentally, from hydrazine-based drugs, or from the use of tobacco. 
    It has been shown that concentrations of up to 0.35 mg/m3 can occur
    during production under normal conditions, and that, exceptionally,
    concentrations of up to 1.18 mg/m3 may occur.  During the handling
    of the fuel, concentrations of up to 0.25 mg/m3 have been measured
    under normal conditions and, exceptionally, up to 2.59 mg/m3. 
    Because the compound is degraded so rapidly in the environment
    (section 2.2), measurable levels are not normally encountered, and,
    therefore, hydrazine does not pose a significant hazard for the
    general population.  However, the general population may be exposed to
    hydrazine vapour through accidental discharge.  Evaporation of
    hydrazine from a liquid spill can be sufficient to generate an
    atmospheric concentration as high as 4 mg/m3.

    2.2  Fate of Hydrazine

    Hydrazine is degraded rapidly in the air, through reactions with
    ozone, hydroxyl radicals, or nitrogen dioxide.  In polluted air, the
    life-time will be approximately 1 h.  In soil, aqueous hydrazine is
    adsorbed and decomposed on clay surfaces, under aerobic conditions. 
    However, available data are inadequate to describe the behaviour of
    hydrazine in the soil.  The degradation rate of hydrazine in water is
    highly dependent on various factors, such as pH, temperature, oxygen
    content, alkalinity, hardness, and the presence of organic material
    and metallic ions.  Hydrazine is degraded rapidly under aerobic
    conditions in the presence of organic material, and/or in alkaline or
    hard water.  It is more persistent in soft, metal-free water. 
    Hydrazine is biodegradable by microorganisms in activated sludge. 
    However, at concentrations above 1 mg/litre, hydrazine is also toxic
    for these microorganisms, especially for nitrifying bacteria. 
    Hydrazine does not bioaccumulate.

    2.3  Effects on Organisms in the Environment

    The concentration of hydrazine that is lethal for half the number of
    fish in a population (LC50) exposed for 1-4 days, ranged from 0.54
    to 5.98 mg/litre.  The lowest-observed-effect level, found in a
    fathead minnow embryo-larvae test, was 0.1 mg/litre.  Nitrifying 

    bacteria in activated sludge are inhibited at levels higher than
    1 mg/litre.  Many microorganisms are more sensitive, and show
    threshold levels as low as 0.00008 mg/litre, reported for the blue
    alga  Microcystis aeroginosa.

    Hydrazine can inhibit germination in plants, and is toxic for plants
    in both air and water.

    On the basis of these data, it can be concluded that hydrazine may
    present a hazard for aquatic organisms and plant life.

    2.4  Effects on Animals

    Hydrazine is rapidly absorbed through the skin or via other routes of
    exposure.  It is also rapidly distributed to, and eliminated from,
    most tissues. In mice and rats, the absorbed hydrazine is excreted via
    the urine, partly unchanged, and partly as labile conjugates or as
    acid-hydrolysable derivatives.  Metabolism of hydrazine produces a
    significant amount of nitrogen, which is excreted via the lungs.

    Single oral doses of 55-64 mg/kg body weight and vapour concentrations
    of 750 mg/m3 for 4 h were lethal for half the number of exposed rats
    in a population (LD50, LC50).  Thus, the compound is moderately
    toxic according to the scale of Hodge & Sterner.

    Most of the effects on human beings (section 2.5) exposed to hydrazine
    have also been observed in experimental animals.  In addition, loss of
    body weight, anaemia, hypoglycaemia, fatty liver, and convulsions have
    been frequently reported.  Fatty liver was reported in mice, and body
    weight loss in rats, when they were exposed continuously for 6 months
    to 0.26 mg/m3, the lowest of three exposure levels; monkeys and dogs
    were not affected at this concentration.  There are no data on which
    to establish a no-observed-effect level for the inhalation route, but,
    in a 7-month drinking-water study, a no-observed-effect level of
    3 g/kg body weight was reported.

    Studies on rats and mice have indicated that hydrazine produces
    adverse effects on embryos and fetuses, when administered at doses
    that are toxic for the mother.  The adverse effects include increased
    resorptions, reduced fetal weight, increased perinatal mortality, and
    increased incidences of litters and fetuses with abnormalities.  The
    abnormalities include primarily supernumerary and fused ribs, delayed
    ossification, moderate hydronephrosis, and moderate dilation of the
    brain ventricle.

    Hydrazine induced gene mutations and chromosome aberrations in a
    variety of test systems, including plants, phages, bacteria, fungi,
     Drosophila, and mammalian cells  in vitro. Indirect alkylation was
    introduced in liver DNA of rodents after  in vivo exposure to toxic
    doses.  Hydrazine also caused DNA damage  in vitro. It transformed
    hamster and human cells  in vitro, but did not increase unscheduled
    DNA synthesis in the germ cells of mice  in vivo, or induce

    chromosome aberrations, micro-nuclei, or dominant lethals in mice  in
     vivo. In rats, it was reported that hydrazine induced chromosome
    aberrations  in vivo.

    Hydrazine vapour induced nasal tumours, most of which were benign, in
    F-344 rats and Syrian golden hamsters, but not in C57BL/6 mice, after
    12 months of treatment and life-time observation.  In several limited
    gavage and drinking-water studies, hydrazine induced an increased
    incidence, in some cases dose-related, of multiple pulmonary tumours
    in various mouse strains and Cb/Se rats.  In two strains of mice, an
    increased incidence of hepatocarcinomas was also induced.  A very low,
    but increased, incidence of hepatocarcinomas was observed in male
    Cb/Se rats.  No tumours were observed in orally-exposed hamsters.

    On the basis of the carcinogenicity studies on experimental animals,
    there is evidence that hydrazine is an animal carcinogen.

    2.5  Effects on Human Beings

    In cases of acute human poisoning, vomiting, severe irritation of the
    respiratory tract with pulmonary oedema, central nervous system
    depression, and hepatic and renal damage have been reported.  No data
    are available from which to make an estimate of the level of hydrazine
    inhaled in cases of acute poisoning by the respiratory route. 
    However, from reports of poisoning by the oral route, it would appear
    that ingestion of amounts of the order of 20-50 ml would cause severe
    intoxication and may be lethal.  From the available human data, it is
    not possible to estimate a no-observed-effect dose.  Pyridoxine
    treatment of poisoned human beings has been reported to be successful
    on several occasions.

    Skin and eye irritation have been observed in human beings who had
    come into contact with hydrazine, but the data are insufficient to
    establish a no-observed-effect level.  Hydrazine is a strong skin
    sensitizer in human beings.  Once sensitized to hydrazine, a person
    may also become sensitive to hydrazine derivatives
    (cross-sensitization).

    Data are lacking concerning the effects of hydrazine on the human
    embryo or fetus.  In the absence of human data, and on the basis of
    the animals studies, it is prudent to assume that hydrazine would have
    adverse effects on the human embryo or fetus at exposure levels near
    to those producing toxic effects in the mother.  Such levels may occur
    from accidental spillages.

    Data are inadequate to assess the carcinogenicity of hydrazine in
    human beings.  However, taking into account the mutagenicity data, as
    well as the carcinogenicity data in animals, it would be prudent to
    consider hydrazine as a possible human carcinogen.  Thus, exposure of
    human beings should be kept as low as feasible.

    3.  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Hydrazine can be regarded as posing little hazard for the general
    population, under normal conditions.  However, in the workplace, and
    under conditions of accidental exposure, hydrazine can present a
    significant health hazard.  Human data are limited, but show that
    hydrazine may affect the central nervous system, liver, and kidneys. 
    In addition, it may produce skin and eye irritation and skin
    sensitization.  The results of animal studies suggest that effects on
    human beings may also include embryotoxicity, at levels near those
    producing toxic effects in the mother, and adverse effects on the
    respiratory system.  On the basis of the evidence of carcinogenicity
    in animals, it would be prudent to consider hydrazine as a possible
    human carcinogen.  Regarding the effects on the environment, it can be
    concluded that hydrazine may present a hazard for both aquatic
    organisms and plant life.

    4.  HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION

    4.1  Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    The main human health hazards associated with certain types of
    exposure to hydrazine, together with preventive and protective
    measures and first-aid recommendations, are listed in the Summary of
    Chemical Safety Information (section 6).

    4.2  Advice to Physicians

    Pyridoxine treatment has been claimed to be successful on several
    occasions and may be considered.  However, one case report mentions a
    reversible peripheral neuropathy resulting from treatment with a very
    large dose of pyridoxine.  Otherwise, treat symptomatically. Pay
    attention to the possible development of pulmonary oedema and of
    damage to the liver.  Skin burns should to be treated as for alkali or
    thermal burns.

    4.3  Health Surveillance Advice

    Human beings handling hydrazine, or hydrazine solutions, should
    undergo medical examination once a year, with emphasis on the
    functioning of the central nervous system, liver, and kidneys, and on
    disorders of the skin, eyes, and blood.  It should be kept in mind
    that hydrazine is a possible human carcinogen and a strong skin
    sensitizer, and that cross-sensitization to hydrazine derivatives may
    occur.

    4.4  Explosion and Fire Hazards

    4.4.1  Explosion hazards

    Anhydrous hydrazine-air mixtures, containing 4.7% or more (by volume)
    of hydrazine, may be explosive at temperatures higher than 38C, and
    can be ignited by sources of heat or ignition, or by ultraviolet
    radiation.  The flash-point of hydrazine hydrate is 75C.  The
    flammability of aqueous hydrazine decreases, and the flash-point
    increases, with increasing dilution, a 40% solution being just
    ignitable.  Contact with metals, metal oxides, oxidizing substances,
    acids, and porous materials, such as earth, wood, asbestos, paper, or
    cloth, may cause fire and explosions.  Contaminated clothing and
    equipment are fire hazards.  Toxic decomposition products include
    nitrogen oxides and ammonia.

    4.4.2  Fire hazards

    Anhydrous hydrazine and aqueous hydrazine containing more than 40% of
    the compound are flammable liquids.

    4.4.3  Prevention

    For anhydrous hydrazine, use a closed system, where feasible, and
    explosion-proof electrical equipment.  Do not use hydrazine in the
    vicinity of flames, sparks, and other sources of ignition. Do not
    smoke.  Keep containers out of direct sunlight.  Avoid contact between
    the compound and metals, metal oxides, acids, oxidizing agents, and
    porous materials.  Prevent contamination of hydrazine.  In case of
    fire, keep drums cool by spraying with water.  Do not extinguish a
    fire caused by hydrazine, unless its release can be stopped. 
    Fire-fighters need self-contained breathing apparatus, eye protection,
    and full protective clothing.

    4.4.4  Fire-extinguishing agents

    Water sprays, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide can be used on small
    fires.  For large fires, alcohol foam, or water spraying to flood
    levels, can be used.

    4.5  Storage

    Hydrazine should be stored in tightly closed, well-labelled containers
    in an inert atmosphere, in a clean, well-ventilated area with
    controlled drainage.  Store away from oxidizing agents, acids, metals,
    metal oxides, porous materials, direct sunlight, or other sources of
    heat or ignition.  The containers should be connected to earth to
    prevent static sparks.

    4.6  Transport

    Current international regulations require that hydrazine hydrate, and
    aqueous solutions of it, should be transported in metal containers
    with polyethylene liners, in plastic canisters, or in stainless steel
    containers.

    4.7  Spillage and Disposal

    4.7.1  Spillage

    Remove all ignition sources and evacuate the danger area.  Collect
    leaking liquid in sealable containers.  Keep spills from entering
    water sources and sewers.  Promptly dilute spilled hydrazine with
    water spray, to produce at least a 40% solution.  Construct barriers
    to contain the spill, or flush it into a container.  Foam can be
    applied to retard vaporization.  Use sand to collect small spills. 
    Ensure personal protection, by using a self-contained breathing
    apparatus, eye protection, and full protective clothing.

    4.7.2  Disposal (based on the IRPTC waste disposal file)

    Hydrazine can be disposed of by dilution with water to produce at
    least a 40% solution and subsequent neutralization with dilute
    sulfuric acid. The resulting solution can be drained into the sewer,
    with abundant water.

    Alternatively, hydrazine waste can be burnt in a chemical incinerator
    equipped with an after-burner and scrubber, after dilution with
    alcohol or another hydrocarbon fuel.

    5.  HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    Degradation of hydrazine in water may be slow, depending on
    conditions.  Hydrazine may present a hazard for aquatic organisms and
    plant life.

    Contamination of soil, water, and the atmosphere can be avoided by
    proper methods of storage, transport, and waste disposal.  In case of
    spillage, apply methods recommended in section 4.7.1.  When using
    exhaust ventilation, an exhaust scrubber may be needed.  Use closed
    systems where feasible.  Use dilute solutions of hydrazine rather than
    concentrated solutions, where possible.

    6.  SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION

     This summary should be easily available to all health workers
     concerned with, and users of, hydrazine. It should be displayed at,
     or near, entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to
     hydrazine, and on processing equipment and containers.  The summary
     should be translated into the appropriate language(s).  All persons
     potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions
     in the summary clearly explained.

     Space is available for insertion of the National Occupational
     Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the National
     Poison Control Centre, and for local trade names.


        HYDRAZINE

    (diamide, diamine, hydrazine anhydrous, hydrazine base)

    (H2N - NH2)

                                                                                                                                         

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                 ANHYDROUS       HYDRAZINE         OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                        HYDRAZINE       HYDRATE
                                        (100%)          (64%)
                                                                                                                                         

    Relative molecular mass             32.05                             Colourless liquid, fuming in air, with an 
    Melting point (C)                  2               -51.9             ammoniacal, pungent, fishy odour; aqueous 
    Boiling point (C )                 113.5           120.1             solutions are colourless liquids; a 64% solution 
    Water solubility                    infinite        infinite          fumes slightly in air and has an ammoniacal odour;
    Density (20C)                      1.008 g/ml      1.032 g/ml        both hydrazine and an aqueous solution of 
    Relative vapour density             1.1                               hydrazine react strongly with acids and oxidizing
    Vapour pressure (20C)              1.39 kPa        1 kPa             agents; decomposition is accelerated by porous
    Log  n-octanol/water partition                                         materials and some metals; toxic decomposition
    coefficient                         -3.08                             products are nitrogen oxides and ammonia; can
    Flammability (explosive)                                              have adverse effects well below the odour 
    limits (%)                          4.7-100         3.4-100           threshold

                                                                                                                                         

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                        PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                    FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                         

    SKIN: corrosion by liquid; burns;       Wear clean, body-covering,                   Remove contaminated clothing under
    irritation by vapour; may enter         impervious clothing and gloves; do not       shower; rinse with plenty of water
    body through skin                                                                    wear leather garments

    EYES: corrosion by liquid; burns;       Wear safety face-shield, or eye              Flush with plenty of water for at least
    irritation by vapour                    protection, in combination with              15 minutes
                                                                                         breathing protection

    INHALATION: irritation of nose          Apply explosion-proof ventilation            Remove victims to fresh air, and keep
    and respiratory tract; effects on       and local exhaust, and, for non-             quiet; if breathing has stopped, apply
    central nervous system, liver, and      routine activities, self-contained           artificial respiration; transport to
    kidneys                                 breathing apparatus                          hospital

    INGESTION: corrosive effects;           Do not eat, drink, or smoke during           Rinse mouth; give plenty of water, milk,
    effects on central nervous system,      work                                         or lemon juice to drink; induce vomiting
    liver, and kidneys                                                                   in conscious patients; transport to 
                                                                                         hospital

    GENERAL: the compound should
    be considered as a possible human
    carcinogen

    ENVIRONMENT: may be hazardous           Apply proper methods of storage,
    for aquatic and plant life              transport, waste disposal, and
                                            handling of spills; when using
                                            exhaust ventilation, an exhaust
                                            scrubber may be needed; use closed
                                            systems and dilute solutions
                                            where feasible

                                                                                                                                         
    SPILLAGE                                STORAGE                                      FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                         

    Remove ignition sources; evacuate       Store in tightly-closed, well-               Flammable; no open flames or other
    area; collect leaking liquid in         labelled containers in an inert              sources of ignition; vapour-air mixtures
    sealable container; promptly dilute     atmosphere, in a clean, well-                are explosive above 38C; use closed-
    spilled hydrazine with water spray;     ventilated area; store away from             system ventilation and explosion-proof
    contain spills; ensure personal         oxidizing agents, acids, metals,             electrical equipment; contaminated
    protection (use self-contained          metal oxides, porous materials,              clothing and equipment are a fire
    breathing apparatus, eye protection,    and direct sunlight; connect                 hazard; in case of fire, keep drums
    and fully protective clothing)          containers to earth                          cool by spraying with water; extinguish
                                                                                         fires with spray or alcohol foam

                                                                                                                                         

    WASTE DISPOSAL                          NATIONAL INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                         

    Dilution with water and                 National Occupational Exposure               UN 2029 (100% hydrazine)
    neutralization with dilute sulfuric     Limit:
    acid; burning in a chemical 
    incinerator equipped with an 
    after-burner and scrubber               National Poison Control Centre:              UN 2030 (hydrazine monohydrate)

                                                                                                                                         
        7.  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file. A full reference to the original national document from which
    the information was extracted can be obtained from IRPTC.  When no
    effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of the
    reference from which the data are taken is indicated by (r).

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
    taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the legislation of that country.  The regulations and
    guidelines of all countries are subject to change and should always be
    verified with appropriate regulatory authorities before application.

    7.1  Exposure Limit Values

    Some exposure limit values are given in the table on pp. 26-27.

    7.2  Specific Restrictions

    The Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues has established an
    Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 0-5 mg/kg body weight for maleic
    hydrazine containing not more than 1 mg hydrazine/kg maleic hydrazine
    (effective date: 1984).

    In the USA, those registering technical maleic hydrazide under the
    pesticide registration regulations must submit a confidential
    statement of the formula to certify that the hydrazine level in their
    products does not exceed 15 mg/kg (effective date: 1983).

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the handling of hydrazine is
    prohibited or restricted for pre-adults and pregnant or nursing women
    (effective date: 1980). 

    7.3  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    The European Economic Community regulations state that the label for
    >64% solutions of hydrazine should read as follows (effective date:
    1982 (r)): 

          Very toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed;
          causes burns; possible risks of irreversible effects; wear
          suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection; in
          case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice
          immediately (show the label where possible).

    The label is:

    FIGURE 1

    For 15-64% solutions of hydrazine, the label should read (effective
    date: 1982 (r)):

          Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed; causes burns; in
          case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of
          water and seek medical attention). 

    The percentage concentration must be stated on the label.  The label
    is:

    FIGURE 2


        EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    AIR         Occupational        Australia           Threshold limit value (TLV)                                       1985 (r)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.1 mg/m3b

                                    Czechoslovakia      Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                             1985
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.05 mg/m3
                                                        - Ceiling value                              0.1 mg/m3            1985

                                    Germany, Federal    Technical reference concentration                                 1986 (r)
                                    Republic of         - 1-year time-weighted average               0.13 mg/m3b,c,d

                                    Italy               Threshold limit value (TLV)                                       1985 (r)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.13 mg/m3b,c

                                    Sweden              Threshold limit value (TLV)                                       1985
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.1 mg/m3b,c,d
                                                        - Short-term exposure limit (STEL)           0.4 mg/m3
                                                          (15-min TWA)

                                    USA (ACGIH)         Threshold limit value (TLV)                                       1985 (r)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.1 mg/m3b,c

                                    USA (OSHA)          Threshold limit value (TLV)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                 1 mg/m3

                                    USA (NIOSH)         Threshold limit value (TLV)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                 1 mg/m3
                                                        - Ceiling value                               2 mg/m3

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    AIR         Occupational        USSR                Ceiling value (including                     0.1 mg/m3            1977
                                                        derivatives)

    WATER       Surface             USSR                Maximum allowable concentration              0.01 mg/litre        1983

                                                                                                                                         

    a TWA = time-weighted average over one working day (usually 8 h).
    b Skin absorption.
    c (Suspected of) carcinogenic (potential).
    d Sensitization.
    

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    FAO  (1985a)  Guidelines for the packaging and storage of pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985b)  Guidelines for the disposal of waste pesticides and
     pesticide containers on the farm.  Rome, Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO/WHO  (1986)  Guide to Codex recommendations concerning pesticide
     residues. Part 8.  Recommendations for methods of analysis of
     pesticide residues. 3rd ed. Rome, Codex Committee on Pesticide
    Residues.

    GIFAP  (1982)  Guidelines for the safe handling of pesticides during
     their formulation, packing, storage, and transport. Brussels,
    Groupement International des Associations Nationales des Fabricants de
    Produits Agrochimiques.

    IARC  (1972-present)  IARC monographs on the evaluation of
     carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man.  Lyon, International Agency
    for Research on Cancer.

    IRPTC  (1985)  IRPTC file on treatment and disposal methods for waste
     chemicals.  Geneva, International Register for Potentially Toxic
    Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    IRPTC  (1987)  IRPTC legal file 1986.  Geneva, International Register
    for Potentially Toxic Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    PLESTINA, R.  (1984)  Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of
     insecticide poisoning.  Geneva, World Health Organization
    (Unpublished report No.VBC/84.889).

    SAX, N.I.  (1984)  Dangerous properties of industrial materials.  New
    York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc.

    UNITED NATIONS  (1989)  Recommendations on the transport of dangerous
     goods. 6th ed. New York, United Nations.

    US NIOSH/OSHA (1981)  Occupational health guidelines for chemical
     hazards.  3 Vol., Washington DC, US Department of Health and Human
    Services, US Department of Labor (Publication No. DHHS (NIOSH)
    01-123).

    WHO  (1987)   EHC No. 68: Hydrazine. Geneva, World Health
    Organization.

    WORTHING, C.R. & WALKER, S.B.  (1987)  The pesticide manual.  8th ed.
    Lavenham, Lavenham Press Limited, British Crop Protection Council.

    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Hydrazine (EHC 68, 1987)
       Hydrazine (ICSC)
       Hydrazine (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 71, 1999)