Prepared by the
Fifty-ninth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO
Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA)
World Health Organization, Geneva, 2003
IPCS - International Programme on Chemical Safety
WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
Safety evaluation of certain food additives / prepared by the fifty-ninth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.
(WHO food additives series ; 50)
1.Food additives – analysis 2.Food additives – toxicity 3.Flavouring agents – analysis 4.Flavouring agents – toxicity 5.Risk assessment I.Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Meeting (59th : 2002 : Geneva, Switzerland) II.Series
ISBN 92 4 166050 3 (NLM classification: WA 712)
© World Health Organization 2003
All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from Marketing and Dissemination, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel: +41 22 791 2476; fax: +41 22 791 4857; email: email@example.com). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to Publications, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; email: firstname.lastname@example.org).
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.
The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.
The World Health Organization does not warrant that the information contained in this publication is complete and correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use.
Safety evaluations of groups of related flavouring agents: Introduction
Alicyclic primary alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters
Phenthyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid and related acetals and esters
Annex 1: Reports and other documents resulting from previous meetings of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives
Annex 3: Participants in the fifty-ninth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives
Annex 4: Recommendations on compounds on the agenda and further toxicological studies and information required
This publication is a contribution to the International Programme on Chemical Safety.
The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), established in 1980, is a joint venture of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the International Labour Organisation (ILO), and the World Health Organization (WHO). The overall objectives of the IPCS are to establish the scientific basis for assessing the risk to human health and the environment from exposure to chemicals, through international peer-review processes, as a prerequisite for the promotion of chemical safety, and to provide technical assistance in strengthening national capacities for the sound management of chemicals.
The Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC) was established in 1995 by UNEP, ILO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, WHO, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Partici-pating Organizations), following recommendations made by the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development to strengthen cooperation and increase coordination in the field of chemical safety. The purpose of the IOMC is to promote coordination of the policies and activities pursued by the Participating Organiza-tions, jointly or separately, to achieve the sound management of chemicals in relation to human health and the environment.
The monographs contained in this volume were prepared at the fifty-ninth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), which met at WHO Headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, 4–13 June 2002. These monographs summarize the safety data on selected food additives reviewed by the Committee.
The fifty-ninth report of JECFA has been published by the World Health Organization as WHO Technical Report Series No. 913. Reports and other documents resulting from previous meetings of JECFA are listed in Annex 1. The participants in the meeting are listed in Annex 3 of the present publication; a summary of the conclusions of the Committee is given in Annex 4. Some of the substances listed in Annex 4 were evaluated at the meeting only for specifications.
Specifications that were developed at the fifty-ninth meeting of JECFA have been issued separately by FAO as Food and Nutrition Paper No. 52, Add. 10. The toxicological monographs in the present publication should be read in conjunction with the specifications and the report.
JECFA serves as a scientific advisory body to FAO, WHO, their Member States, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission, primarily through the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants and the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods, regarding the safety of food additives, residues of veterinary drugs, naturally occurring toxicants and contaminants in food. Commit-tees accomplish this task by preparing reports of their meetings and publishing specifications or residue monographs and toxicological monographs, such as those contained in this volume, on substances that they have considered.
The toxicological monographs contained in this volume are based upon working papers that were prepared by Temporary Advisers. A special acknowledgement is given at the beginning of each monograph to those who prepared these working papers.
Many proprietary unpublished reports are referenced. These were voluntarily submitted to the Committee by various producers of the food additives under review and in many cases represent the only data on safety available on those substances. The Temporary Advisers based the working papers they developed on all of the data that were submitted, and all of these reports were available to the Committee when it made its evaluations. The monographs were edited by E. Heseltine, Lajarthe, 24290 St Léon-sur-Vézère, France.
The preparation and editing of the monographs included in this volume were made possible through the technical and financial contributions of the Participating Organizations of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), which supports the activities of JECFA.
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the organizations participating in the IPCS concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by those organizations in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.
Any comments or new information on the biological or toxicological properties of the compounds evaluated in this publication should be addressed to: Joint WHO Secretary of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations