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    CARBENDAZIM, BENOMYL, AND THIOPHANATE-METHYL

    Summary
    Identity, physical and chemical properties, and
         analytical methods
    Sources of human and environmental exposure
    Environmental transport, distribution, and transformation
    Environmental levels and human exposure
    Effects on other organisms in the laboratory and the field
    Evaluation of effects on the environment
         Risk evaluation
              Aquatic environment
              Terrestrial environment
    Bibliography

    1.  Summary

         Carbendazim, benomyl, and thiophanate-methyl are evaluated
    together because benomyl and thiophanate-methyl are rapidly converted
    mainly to carbendazim in the environment. Benomyl has an aerobic
    half-life of 2 h in water and 19 h in soil; thiophanate-methyl has an
    aerobic half-life of less than one day in soil and two days in water.

    2.  Identity, physical and chemical properties, and analytical methods

         Carbendazim is an odourless, white crystalline solid with a
    melting-point of 302-307C and a vapor pressure of 1  10-7 Pa (< 1
     10-9 mbar) at 20C; the technical grade has a melting-point of >
    295C. It has low water solubility, 8 mg/litre at 24C and pH 7, and a
    low  n-octanol:water partition coefficient (log Pow, about 1.5).
    Carbendazim is hydrolytically stable at pH 5-7 at ambient temperatures
    (22-25C). It is capable of strong dust explosion, but is not
    flammable or auto-flammable. Analyses for residues and environmental
    contamination are performed by high-performance liquid chromatography
    (HPLC). Benomyl has a melting-point of 140C, a vapour pressure of <
    5.0  10-6 Pa at 25C, a water solubility of 3.6 mg/litre at pH 5,
    and a log Pow value of 23.4-32.0. HPLC and immunoassays have been
    used to analyse for benomyl. Thiophanate-methyl has a melting-point of
    177C, a vapour pressure of 1.30  10-5 kPa, a water solubility of
    21.8 mg/litre at 25C, and a log Pow value of 25-34.

    3.  Sources of human and environmental exposure

         Carbendazim has been produced commercially since 1970. It is a
    systemic fungicide with a broad spectrum of activity on many
    economically important phytopathogens of the Ascomycetes,
    Deuteromycetes, and Basidiomycetes groups. It is used on agricultural
    crops (e.g. cereals, rice, grapes, cucurbits, tomatoes, pome fruits,
    stone fruits, and strawberries) and horticultural plants and in
    forestry and home gardening. Pest resistance has been seen, e.g. apple
    scab, eyespot, and  Botrytis In order to combat resistance,
    carbendazim is combined with other fungicides with different modes of
    action.

         Benomyl and thiophanate-methyl degrade primarily to methyl-2-
    benzimidazole carbamate (carbendazim), which is also fungicidal. The
    mode of action of carbendazim involves interference in the
    biosynthesis of DNA during fungal cell division. As benomyl and
    thiophanate-methyl have a highly specific mode of action, resistant
    strains of fungal pathogens have been developed.

         The application rates and the number of treatments allowed per
    crop vary with the chemical (see Table 1). Overall, the rates are
    0.18-0.60 kg/ha per application for carbendazim, 0.14-1.12 kg/ha for
    benomyl, and 0.22-2.13 kg/ha for thiophanate-methyl.

        Table 1.  Uses and application rates (kg active ingredient/ha) and numbers of treatments allowed
                                                                                                                                    

    Commodity       Carbendazim                          Benomyl                              Thiophanate-methyl
                                                                                                                                    

                    Application     No. of treatments    Application     No. of treatments    Application    No. of treatments
                    rate                                 rate                                 rate
                                                                                                                                    

    Apples          0.3-0.6         4                    0.45            3                    1.35           > 9
    Vineyards       0.28-0.56       4                    0.45            4
    Stone fruits    0.3-0.6         2                    0.45            3                    1.35-2.13      4
    Curcurbits      0.30            2                    0.30            3                    0.22-0.50      ?
    Tomatoes        0.60            4                    0.30            3
    Rice                                                 1.12            2
    Wheat           0.25            1 (cereals)          1.12            1.5                  0.9            1
    Bananas                                              0.15            6
    Citrus                                               1.12            2
    Caneberries                                          0.42            5
    Celery                                               0.28            6
    Conifers                                             0.56            5
    Peanuts                                              0.14            12                   0.50           Unspecified
    Soya bean                                            1.12            1                    0.5-0.9        2
    Strawberries    0.60            2                    0.56            5                    0.7-0.9        Unspecified
    Beans           060             1                    1.70-2.24       2                    0.90-1.53      2
    Nut crops
      Pecans                                             0.28-0.56       > 4                  0.50-0.90      ?
      Almonds                                            0.56-0.84       2                    1.35-1.80      2
    Sugar beets                                          0.21-0.28       ?                    0.29-0.38      ?
    Sugar cane                                           0.21-0.28       ?                    0.38           ?
                                                                                                                                    
        4.  Environmental transport, distribution, and transformation

         Carbendazim has a half-life to hydrolysis of 25 weeks. In the
    environment, it has half-lives of 6-12 months on bare soil, 3-6 months
    on turf, and 1-2 months in a water-sediment system under aerobic
    conditions and 25 months under anaerobic conditions. In aerobic river
    sediment containing water, thiophanate-methyl degraded with a
    half-life of 15-20 days. Residues of carbendazim and its metabolites
    are strongly bound or incorporated into soil organic matter. In
    laboratory studies of soil containing labelled carbendazim, the
    molecules remained in the topsoil. Residues of carbendazim and its
    metabolites that are bound or incorporated into soil are probably due
    to the imidazole ring of the molecule, as the Koc is relatively low.

         Benomyl is hydrolysed rapidly, in < 2 h at pH 5, 7, and 9; it is
    rapidly degraded in water, with half-lives of < 4 h in sun or
    darkness, and on soil, at less than four days on silt loam soil. In a
    field study, the degradation half-life was 5.2 h in light and 5.7 h in
    the dark, indicating that photolysis is not a significant degradation
    pathway but that hydrolysis is the controlling factor.

         Under anaerobic conditions, 98% of carbendazim residues partition
    into sediment after seven days. The half-life of carbendazim was 743
    days, and after one year 36% of the radiolabel was bound to sediment.
    Under aerobic conditions, the half-life in non-sterile sediment was 61
    days. After 30 days, 22% of the radiolabelled carbendazim was bound to
    sediments, and < 1% of the amount applied was evolved as carbon
    dioxide. Anaerobic degradation in soil and water is slower than
    aerobic degradation.

         Carbendazim was susceptible to photolysis in natural daylight and
    was broken down to dimethyloxalate, quinidine, and mono- and
    dicarbomethoxyguanidine. No photolysis products were detected in
    extracts of leaves of treated corn plants after exposure to sunlight
    for 18 h. After aerobic incubation, 3-10 mg/kg carbendazim had
    disappeared within 250 days, with only 5-13% remaining. After 224
    days, 57% was in the form of non-extractable residue; after 250 days,
    4-8% was converted to 2-amine-1 H-benzimidazole and 30-40% to carbon
    dioxide.

         When carbendazim was applied directly to two German water-
    sediment systems, the label disappeared rapidly from water, with
    half-lives of 31 days in Rhine River water and 22 days in pond water.
    The average half-life of carbendazim in an aquatic system was about 26
    days. In the total soil-water system, 98.3% carbendazim was eliminated
    from Rhine River water and 95.9% from pond water after 91 days. In
    contrast to English and Mississippi sediments, formation of
    14C-carbon dioxide was extensive, amounting to 61.2% in Rhine River
    water and 40.3% in pond water after 91 days of incubation.

         Two other benomyl degradates, dibutylurea and 1-butylisocyanate,
    are formed under hot, humid conditions in greenhouses. These two
    compounds are being studied for phytotoxicity to vascular plants.

         Carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, and benomyl are absorbed by
    sprouts, leaves, and roots and are translocated within the
    transpiration system in the plants xylem. They inhibit the development
    of fungal germ tubes, the formation of appressoria, and the growth of
    mycelia. Their fungitoxic action is based on blockage of nuclear
    division during mitosis and destabilization of fungal cell structures.
    Carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, and benomyl persist on leaf surfaces
    and in leaf litter. The conversion of benomyl to carbendazim on leaf
    surfaces varies with the leaf surface, light intensity, and other
    environmental factors. About 50% of a 50% wettable powder formulation
    of benomyl remained on apple leaves after five days.

         Bioconcentration of carbendazim in fish is not expected to be
    significant: > 94% of residue was lost from whole fish, viscera, and
    muscle during a 14-day depuration phase. The bioconcentration factors
    for bluegill sunfish ( Lepomis microlophus) were 27 (0.018 mg/litre)
    and 23 (0.17 mg/litre). After exposure of rainbow trout ( Salmo
     gairdneri) and bluegill sunfish to 45 g/litre for 96 h, rainbow
    trout had the highest uptake rate constant (1.78 per hour) and
    bioconcentration factor (159). Channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus)
    accumulated less residue (0.44 g/g) but died after 48 h of exposure.
    The bioconcentration factors in whole fish were 23-27, and radiolabel
    was concentrated in the viscera, the peak viscera bioconcentration
    factors being 380-460; very little radiolabel was concentrated in
    muscle (bioconcentration factor, < 4) or the remaining carcass
    (< 7). When the fish were placed in clean water, > 94% of the peak
    level of radiolabel was lost from the whole fish, viscera, and muscle
    after two weeks; the rate of loss from the carcass was 77-82% at that
    time.

    5.  Environmental levels and human exposure

         Carbendazim residues are expected to persist on leaf surfaces and
    in leaf litter and to increase with each successive application. When
    a 50% wettable powder benomyl fungicide was applied to apple trees in
    three successive treatments at a rate of 1.7 kg/ha, benomyl residues
    on foliage had fallen by 50% on day 5 after application, whereas those
    of carbendazim had doubled and increased with each successive benomyl
    application. A similar pattern for residues of thiophanate-methyl can
    be expected.

         Thiophanate-methyl residues were monitored in water and in
    crayfish after application of Topsin M(R), a 70% wettable powder
    formulation, twice to rice fields. No thiophanate-methyl residues were
    detected in crayfish tails (detection limit, 0.05 ppm), and no adverse
    effects on the crayfish were observed. In rice water effluent sampled
    three to four weeks after the second application of 0.85 kg/ha, no
    thiophanate-methyl residues were found; carbendazim was detected at
    0.01-0.006 ppm in the field, 0.01-0.007 in the drainage ditch, and
    0.004-0.005 ppm at the receiving stream.

         In long-term studies of field dissipation, fallow and cropped
    fields received two treatments of Topsin M(R) at 1.57 kg/ha per
    application, and soil samples were collected for one year at depths of
    0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm. The fields were tilled by standard practice
    for the area. The residues of thiophanate-methyl and carbendazim were
    low, even on the day of application. Thiophanate-methyl readily
    degraded to carbendazim in all soils, and the carbendazim residues
    declined to < 0.1 ppm in almost all plots after one to three months.
    Thiophanate-methyl was not detectable in soil sections of < 10 cm,
    and, after four months, carbendazim was not detected at > 0.02 ppm in
    the 20-30-cm soil section. Soil binding of carbendazim increased with
    the organic matter content of the soil. Dissipation of thiophanate-
    methyl did not occur below 0-10 cm, and carbendazim was essentially
    undetectable in the 20-30-cm layer. Dissipation of carbendazim in
    water was rapid.

    6.  Effects on other organisms in the laboratory and the field

         Carbendazim is highly acutely toxic to channel catfish (LC50,
    0.007-> 0.56 mg/litre), aquatic invertebrates (0.087-0.46 mg/litre),
    mysid shrimp (0.098 mg/litre), and rainbow trout (0.1-> 1.8 mg/litre),
    and moderately to slightly toxic to bluegill sunfish (> 3.20-
    55 mg/litre) in the laboratory. In a study of the early life stage of
    rainbow trout, the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC)
    was 0.019 mg/litre. In a two-generation study of reproductive toxicity
    in  Daphnia magna, the MATC was 0.0040 mg/litre. In a study of the
    life cycle of  Mysidopsis bahia, the MATC was 0.0354 mg/litre.

         The toxicity of carbendazim in green algae appears to be
    species-dependent, with median effective concentration (EC50) values
    ranging from 0.34 mg/litre for  Chlorella pyrenoidosa to 419 mg/litre
    for  Scenedesmus subspicatus. Carbendazim was algicidal to
     Raphidocellis subcapitata, with an EC50 of 1.6 mg/litre and a
    no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of 0.5 mg/litre.

         Significant inhibition of the Egyptian soil fungi  Aspergillus
    sp. occurred when carbendazim was applied at the recommended field
    application rate; however, the nitrification activities of
     Nitrosomonas sp. and  Nitrobacter agilis were not inhibited in
    suspension cultures with up to 100 mg/litre carbendazim. The mud ditch
    organisms  Escherichia coli and  Salmonella typhimurium were not
    adversely affected at up to 1000 mg/litre.

         Results of laboratory studies with terrestrial organisms are
    summarized in Table 2. The tests with natural arthropod enemies of
    pests, hover flies, ladybirds, and predatory mites, were conducted
    with only one dose of benomyl, so that the concentrations that had an
    effect cannot be calculated. Concentrations well below most
    recommended field rates, however, affected reproduction in at least
    one mite and one insect species.

         Several field studies of earthworms, in which benomyl or
    carbendazim were applied at rates near or below the maximal
    recommended field rates, are summarized in EHC 148 and EHC 149. In
    most of the reports, effects were recorded on numbers, biomass, cast
    production, and/or removal of litter. In a study in apple orchards,
    benomyl was applied at 0.28 kg/ha five to seven times a year for three
    years and thiophanate-methyl at 0.78 kg/ha seven times a year for two
    years. The numbers and biomass of the earthworm populations were
    seriously diminished,  Lumbricus terrestris and Allolobophora
     chlorotica being the most affected. Populations of other earthworm
    species recovered within two years after spraying ended. Earthworm
    populations adjacent to the orchards were unaffected, perhaps due to
    the immobility of benomyl in soil (Stringer & Lyons, 1974).

         Field studies with soil and litter microorganisms show only
    transient or no effects of benomyl and carbendazim when applied at
    recommended field rates. Pronounced but transient effects (< 40 days)
    were observed on soil fungi by Abdel-Fattah  et al. (1982), and
    Torstensson & Wessn (1984) found pronounced effects only in sandy
    soils at 2 kg/ha. No field studies were available on other non-target
    terrestrial organisms.

         Carbendazim has low toxicity for birds, with an acute oral LD50
    value of > 2250 mg/kg bw for bobwhite quail. In five-day dietary
    studies, the LC50 values were > 10 000 mg/kg diet for mallard ducks
    and bobwhite quail. Owing to its low octanol:water partition
    coefficient, bioaccumulation is expected to be minimal. In a 90-day
    study of reproduction in Japanese quail, the NOEL for carbendazim was
    160 mg/kg diet (mean daily intake, 20 mg/kg bw); the reproductive NOEC
    was 400 ppm, equivalent to a mean daily intake of about 50 mg/kg bw.

         Benomyl has low toxicity for birds, with an acute oral LD50
    value of > 2250 mg/kg bw for bobwhite quail. In five-day dietary
    studies, the LC50 values were > 10 000 mg/kg bw for mallard ducks
    and bobwhite quail and > 5000 for Japanese quail. Because of its low
    octanol:water partition coefficient, its bioaccumulation is expected
    to be low. No studies are available on the effects of benomyl on avian
    reproduction.

         Thiophanate-methyl has low, toxicity for birds, with acute oral
    LD50 values of > 4640 mg/kg diet for bobwhite quail and mallard
    ducks. In five-day dietary studies, the LC50 values were >
    10 000 mg/kg for mallard ducks and bobwhite quail. Owing to its low
    octanol:water partition coefficient, bioaccumulation is expected to be
    low. In 24-week studies of reproduction, the no-effect concentrations
    in diets were 500 mg/kg for bobwhite quail and 103 mg/kg for mallard
    ducks.

        Table 2.  Toxicity of carbendazim, benomyl, and thiophanate-methyl to terrestrial organisms
                                                                                                                                              

    Organism                                       Study type                          Exposure        End-point, result (nominal
                                                                                                       concentration of active ingredient)
                                                                                                                                              

    Carbendazim
    Soil microorganisms                            Oxygen consumption                  15 days         EC50 > 100 mg/litre
     Nitrobacter agilis and                        Nitrification and                                   NOEC > 100 mg/litre
      Nitrosomonas spp.                            witrification
     Escherichia coli and                                                                              NOEC > 1000 mg/litre
      Salmonella typhimurium
     Aspergillis                                   Growth                              5 and 40        Significant inhibition
    Worms
     Compost worm (Eisenia andrei)                 Acute, artificial soil              3 weeks         LC50 5.7 mg/kg
     Compost worm (Eisenia andrei)                 Reproduction, artificial soil       8 weeks         EC50 2.9 mg/kg soil; NOEC,
    Insects                                                                                            0.6 mg/kg
     Springtail (Folsomia candida)                 Reproduction, artificial soil       4 weeks         EC50 > 1000 mg/kg soil
     Honey bee (Apis mellifera)                    Contact                             48 h            LD50 > 50 g/bee
     Carabid beetle (Ptesrostichus melanarius)     Contact, spray, soil/sand           6 days          NOEC > 1250 g/ha
    Birds                                          Dietary                             5 days          LC50 > 15.59-2250 mg/kg feed
                                                   Reproduction                        12 weeks        NOEC 160-400 mg/kg diet
    Benomyl
    Soil microorganisms                            Dehydrogenase inhibition            28 days         NOEC 6 mg/kg
    Worms
     Compost worm (Eisena foetida)                 Acute contact                       14 days         LC50 10.48 mg/kg
    Insects
     Hover fly (Syrphus corollae)                  Reproduction, glass plate,          11 days at      49% reduction
                                                   larvae                              3 g/cm2
     Ladybird (Coccinella septempunctata)          Reproduction, glass plate,          3 weeks at      No effect
                                                   larvae                              0.65 g/cm2
     Predatory mite (Typhlodromus pyri)            Reproduction, glass plate,          19 days at      38% reduction
                                                   protonymph                          0.69 g/cm2
     Honey bee (Apis mellifera)                    Contact                                             LD50 > 10 g/bee
                                                                                                                                              

    Table 2. (cont'd)
                                                                                                                                              

    Organism                                       Study type                          Exposure        End-point, result (nominal
                                                                                                       concentration of active ingredient)
                                                                                                                                              

    Birds
     Japanese quail (Coturnix                      Dietary                             5 days          LC50 > 5000 mg/kg feed
     coturnix japonica)
    Redwing blackbird (Agelaius                    Oral                                Acute           LD50 100 mg/kg bw
     phoeniceus)

    Thiophanate-methyl
    Soil microorganisms                            CO2 production                      14 days         NOEC > 30 mg/kg bw
                                                   Nitrification                       42 days         NOEC > 30 mg/kg bw
                                                   Heterotrophic N fixation            7 days          NOEC > 5 mg/kg bw
    Worms
     Compost worm (Eisenia foetida)                Acute, artificial soil              14 days         LC50 20.8 mg/kg soil
    Insects
     Honey bee (Apis mellifera)                    Contact                             48 h            LD50 > 100 g/bee
    Birds
     Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginanus)           Dietary                             5 days          NOEC 4640-> 10 000 mg/kg bw
                                                                                                       LC50 > 10 000 mg/kg feed
     Mallard duck (Anas platyrhyncos)              Acute oral                          8 days          LD50 > 4640 mg/kg bw
                                                                                                                                              

    From Van Gestel et al. (1992); Khner (1992); Pietrzik (1992); Decker (1993)
        7.  Evaluation of effects on the environment

         Benomyl, carbendazim, and thiophanate-methyl are broad-spectrum
    systemic fungicides belonging to the benzimidazole group and are used
    on a wide variety of crops. Because of the development of resistance,
    benzimidazole fungicides are usually alternated with other compounds
    with different modes of action. Formulations include wettable powders,
    water-dispersible granules, flowable concentrates, dusts, and
    granules.

         Benomyl and thiophanate-methyl that enter the environment are
    converted to carbendazim, which can be regarded as the environmentally
    relevant compound. The half-lives are 2-19 h for benomyl and three to
    four days for thiophanate-methyl. The carbendazim formed decomposes in
    the environment with a half-life of months under aerobic and anaerobic
    conditions in soil and water.

         Carbendazim partitions from water to soil and sediment. It binds
    to the mineral component of the soil, probably through the imidazole
    ring. Adsorption is strong and carbendazim does not leach through the
    soil profile, despite its low Kow. No contamination of ground-water
    can be expected, as confirmed by field monitoring of well-water.
    Abiotic degradation is considered to be a minor route of degradation
    for carbendazim; microorganisms, predominantly bacteria, represent the
    major route of loss. Only moderate bioaccumulation of carbendazim was
    seen in laboratory studies at constant concentrations. There is rapid
    depuration on transfer to clean water. No significant bioaccumulation
    of carbendazim is expected in the field.

         Benomyl had no effect on soil bacterial populations in the
    laboratory. In studies in greenhouses and the field, application rates
    of up to 89.6 kg/ha had little effect on soil microbial populations.
    Limited studies suggest that thiophanate-methyl does not adversely
    inhibit soil-nitrifying bacteria. Field studies confirm these
    findings, even though transient effects on soil fungi have been
    observed.

         The NOEC for a green algae was 0.5 mg/litre.

         Carbendazim is highly to highly acutely toxic to fish, aquatic
    invertebrates, and mysid shrimp, with LC50 values of 0.007 mg/litre
    for fish, 0.087 mg/litre for aquatic invertebrates, and 0.098 mg/litre
    for shrimp. The MATC was 0.019 mg/litre for rainbow trout,
    0.004 mg/litre for  Daphnia magna, and 0.035 mg/litre for mysid
    shrimp.

         Field application rates of carbendazim are not expected to pose
    an acute hazard to non-target mammalian wildlife species.

         Carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, and benomyl have low acute
    toxicity for birds, with dietary LC50 values > 5000 mg/kg. Field
    application rates of carbendazim are not expected to pose a hazard to
    birds.

    Risk assessment

    (a)  Aquatic environment

         A simple screening model (Generic Expected Environmental
    Concentration -- Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Pesticide
    Products) for worst-case scenarios was used to estimate the predicted
    expected concentration (PEC) of carbendazim in aquatic systems after
    application of 0.56 kg/ha of carbendazim to vineyards in four
    treatments at 14-day intervals. The following parameters are used in
    the calculations: Soil Koc, 250; water solubility, 8 ppm; present
    spray drift, 5; depth of soil incorporation, 0; soil aerobic metabolic
    half-life, 180 days; aquatic aerobic half life, 61 days; longest
    hydrolysis half-life, 175 days, and photolysis half-life, stable.

         The concentrations found with this model in a water body 2 m deep
    were: peak, 56 g/litre; four-day concentration, 54 g/litre; 21-day
    concentration, 48 g/litre; and 56-day concentration, 38 g/litre. The
    model is basically the same as that used in the United Kingdom and the
    Netherlands. Toxicity exposure ratios (TERs) were calculated, as shown
    in Table 3, which indicate that a risk to all aquatic organisms, on
    either an acute or a chronic basis, is at least present and often
    large. Reduced bioavailability owing to adsorption to sediment would
    reduce this apparent risk. Contamination of surface waters by benomyl,
    carbendazim, and thiophanate-methyl must be avoided to prevent toxic
    effects on aquatic organisms.

    (b)  Terrestrial environment

         The predicted environmental concentration (PEC) used for
    evaluating acute effects is based on one application of 0.6 kg/ha, of
    which 100% reaches both the canopy and the soil. The soil PEC for
    chronic effects is based on four successive applications of 0.6 kg/ha,
    as on vines. As the degradation rate of carbendazim in soil is of the
    order of months and carbendazim is not mobile, no degradation is
    assumed. A further assumption was that the compound is dispersed into
    the top 5 cm of a soil with a density of 1.4 g/cm3.

         The summary of acute and chronic TERs (Table 4) indicates a
    'large' risk to earthworms in the soil. The risk to honey bees is
    regarded as low. The large risk to earthworms is confirmed by field
    studies; no such studies are available for arthropods.

        Table 3.  Estimates of acute and chronic risk for aquatic organisms after application of carbendazim to vineyards
                                                                                                                                              

    Time course   Organism               PEC                Toxicity         End-point        TER       Risk classification
                                         (g/litre)         (g/litre)
                                                                                                                                              

    Acute         Invertebrate           56                 87               LC50             1.55      Present
    Acute         Fish                   56                 7                LC50             0.125     Large
    Acute         Shrimp                 56                 98               LC50             1.75      Present
    Chronic       Invertebrate           48                 27               NOEC             0.56      Large
    Chronic       Fish                   48                 3                NOEC             0.06      Very large
    Chronic       Shrimp                 45                 35               NOEC             0.78      Large
                                                                                                                                              

    PEC, predicted environmental concentration; TER, toxicity:exposure ratio; NOEC, no-observed-effect concentration

    Table 4.  Estimates of acute and chronic risk for terrestrial organisms after application of carbendazim to vineyards
                                                                                                                                              

    Time          Organism               PEC                Toxicity         End-point        TER       Risk classification
    course
                                                                                                                                              

    Acute         Compost worm           0.86 mg/kg soil    5.7 mg/kg        LC50             6.6       Present
                  (Eisenia foetida)
    Acute         Honey bee              6 g/cm3           > 50 g/bee      LC50             12a       Low
                  (Apis mellifera)
    Chronic       Compost worm           3.43 mg/kg         0.6 mg/kg soil   NOEC for         0.17      Large
                  (Eisenia foetida)                                          reproduction
    Chronic       Springtail             3.43 mg/kg         > 1000 mg/kg     Reproduction     > 290     Negligible
                  (Folsomia candida)
    Chronic       Predatory mite         6 g/cm3           38% reduction    Reproduction     -         -
                  (Typhlodromus pyri)                       at 0.69 g/cm3
                                                                                                                                              

    PEC, predicted environmental concentration; TER, toxicity:exposure ratio
    a    Hazard ratio estimate from toxicity per bee
        Bibliography

    Abdel-Fattah, H.M., Abdel-Kader, M. & Hamida, S. (1982) Effect of
         Bavistin, Cotoran, and Curacron on Egyptian soil fungi.
          Mycopathologica, 80, 101-106.

    Ammon, H.U. (1985) Worm toxicity tests using  Tubifex tibifex. In:
          Comportement et effets secondaires des pesticides dans le sol
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    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Carbendazim (EHC 149, 1993)
       Carbendazim (HSG 82, 1993)
       Carbendazim (ICSC)
       Carbendazim (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 3)
       Carbendazim (Pesticide residues in food: 1976 evaluations)
       Carbendazim (Pesticide residues in food: 1977 evaluations)
       Carbendazim (Pesticide residues in food: 1978 evaluations)
       Carbendazim (Pesticide residues in food: 1983 evaluations)
       Carbendazim (Pesticide residues in food: 1985 evaluations Part II Toxicology)
       Carbendazim (Pesticide residues in food: 1995 evaluations Part II Toxicological & Environmental)
       Carbendazim (JMPR Evaluations 2005 Part II Toxicological)