VOL.: 20 (1979) (p. 401)
Chloroform is foetotoxic; it was not mutagenic in the bacterial systems tested.
N.B. - Subsequent to the meeting of the Working Group, the Secretariat became aware of the results of 3 studies, in which mice, rats and dogs were administered toothpaste containing chloroform by gavage or in gelatin capsules on 6 days per week for 80 weeks (mice and rats) or 71/2 years (dogs), followed by observation periods ranging from 15-24 weeks. No treatment-related increase in the incidence of tumours was observed in rats receiving 60 mg/kg bw/day chloroform (Palmer et al., 1979) or in dogs receiving 15 or 30 mg/kg bw/day (Heywood et al., 1979). In mice, benign and malignant tumours of the kidney occurred in 8/38 male ICI mice administered 60 mg/kg bw/day chloroform, but no such tumours occurred in females given that dose, or in males and females receiving 17 mg/kg bw/day or in controls. In a second experiment in mice, 7 benign and 2 malignant tumours of the kidney occurred among 49 male CFLP (ICI-redefined) mice given 60 mg/kg bw/day chloroform in toothpaste base compared with 6 benign kidney tumours among 237 male mice given the toothpaste base without chloroform. In a third experiment, groups of C57BL, CBA, CF/1 or ICI male mice received 60 mg/kg bw/day chloroform in toothpaste base or toothpaste base alone; 2 additional groups of male ICI mice received 60 mg/kg bw/day chloroform in arachis oil or arachis oil alone. Two benign and 3 malignant tumours of the kidney occurred among 47 ICI male mice given chloroform in toothpaste base, and 3 benign and 9 malignant tumours of the kidney occurred among 48 ICI male mice given chloroform in arachis oil. One benign tumour of the kidney occurred in each group of respective controls. No kidney tumours occurred in treated C57BL or CBA mice; and no increased incidence of malignant kidney tumours was seen in CF/1 male mice (1/48 treated and 2/45 controls) (Roe et al., 1979).
The past use of chloroform as an anaesthetic and its present use in drugs and cosmetic products, as an insecticidal fumigant and as an industrial solvent indicate that widespread human exposure occurs. This is confirmed by many reports of its presence in air, water and foods.
For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.
Previous evaluation: Vol. 1 (1972)
Subsequent evaluations: Suppl. 7 (1987); Vol. 73 (1999)
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Chloroform (EHC 163, 1994) Chloroform (HSG 87, 1994) Chloroform (ICSC) Chloroform (WHO Food Additives Series 14) CHLOROFORM (JECFA Evaluation) Chloroform (PIM 121) Chloroform (CICADS 58, 2004) Chloroform (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 73, 1999)