The biological data on nonanal were reviewed at the eleventh
meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives,
specifications were prepared, and a conditional acceptable daily
intake (ADI) of 0-0.1 mg/kg bw was established (FAO/WHO, 1967;
Since this previous review, new data have become available and
are included in this summary.
The several unsubstituted aliphatic aldehydes which have been
studied (Hedlund & Kiessling, 1969), and presumably all others, are
readily oxidized in the body to the corresponding fatty acids
(Williams, 1959; F.E.M.A., 1974). Short and medium chain length fatty
acids are oxidized primarily to CO2 and water (Scheig & Klatskin,
1968). Such oxidation takes place rapidly both in the liver and other
tissues (Geyer et al., 1951; Valdivieso & Schwabe, 1964). The series
of reactions involved in the degradation of the fatty acid chain -
including the odd-number carboxylic acids - have been fully described
(Siegel, 1950; Deuel, 1957; Williams, 1959; Lehninger, 1970; F.E.M.A.,
Animal Route ml/kg bw References
Rat oral >5 000 Opdyke, 1973
Rabbit dermal >5 000 Opdyke, 1973
In a 12-week feeding study on groups of 12 male and 12 female
weanling rats using a blend of six aliphatic aldehydes, providing an
estimated daily intake for nonanal of 29 mg/kg bw (with a total daily
intake for the blend of 112 mg/kg), no adverse effects were observed
in appearance, behaviour, growth, food consumption, efficiency of food
utilization, presence of sugar or albumin in the urine, blood
haemoglobin, liver and kidney weights, or gross pathology (Oser,
Nonanal showed no adverse effects in the one available short-term
study. The evaluation of nonanal (aldehyde C-9) is based on the
presumed in vivo oxidation to the corresponding acid. A monograph
The previous conditional ADI was changed into a temporary ADI.
Estimate of temporary acceptable daily intake for man
0-0.06 mg/kg bw.
FURTHER WORK OR INFORMATION
Required by 1981.
Adequate metabolic studies in several species.
Deuel, H. J. jr (1957) The lipids, their chemistry and biochemistry.
Chapter III in Biochemistry, Biosynthesis, Oxidation, Metabolism
and Nutritional Value, New York, Interscience Publishers, Inc.
FAO/WHO (1967) Toxicological evaluation of some flavouring substances
and non-nutritive sweetening agents, FAO Nutrition Meetings
Report Series No. 44a; WHO/Food Add./68.33
FAO/WHO (1968) Specifications for the identity and purity of food
additives and their toxicological evaluation: some flavouring
substances and non-nutritive sweetening agents. Eleventh Report
of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, FAO
Nutrition Meetings Report Series No. 44; Wld Hlth Org. techn.
Rep. Ser. No. 383
F.E.M.A. (1974) Scientific literature review of aliphatic primary
alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and acids in flavor usage.
Published by the National Information Services under contract
with the Food and Drug Administration
Geyer, R. P. et al. (1951) Extrahepatic lipid oxidation by the rat,
Fed. Proc., 10(1), 188-189
Hedlund, S. G. & Kiessling, K. H. (1969a) Physiological mechanism
involved in hangover. I. Oxidation of some lower aliphatic fusel
alcohols and aldehydes in rat liver and their effect on the
mitochondrial oxidation of various substrates, Acta Pharm.
Toxicol., 27(5), 381-396
Lehninger, A. L. (1970) Biochemistry, New York, Worth Publishers Inc.
Opdyke, D. L. J. (1973) Fragrance raw materials monographs, Food
Cosmet. Toxicol., 11, 115
Oser, B. L. (1967) Unpublished report
Scheig, R. & Klatskin, G. (1968a) Hepatic metabolism of 2-Cl4 octanoic
and 1-Cl4 Palmitic acids. In: 40th Fall Meeting Program of the
American Oil Chemists' Society: Symposium on medium chain
triglycerides, 2-5 October 1966, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.,
Siegel, I. (1950) Metabolism of N-valeric acid in the intact rat,
Valdivieso, V. D. & Schwabe, A. D. (1964) Effect of exclusion of
hepatic circulation on oxidation of octanoic acid in the rat,
Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med., 116(2), 290-292
Williams, R. T. (1959) Detoxication mechanisms, The metabolism and
detoxication of drugs, toxic substances and other compounds,
London, Chapman & Hall Ltd, 2nd ed.