Health and Safety Guide No. 67






    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 127:

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization

    WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    Acrolein : health and safety guide.

    (Health and safety guide ; no. 67)

    1.Acrolein - adverse effects
    2.Acrolein - standards
    3.Acrolein - toxicity
    4.Environmental exposure  I.Series

    ISBN 92 4 151067 6          (NLM Classification: QD 305.A6)
    ISSN 0259-7268

    (c) World Health Organization 1991

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    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.



         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Composition
         1.4. Analysis
         1.5. Production and uses

         2.1. Exposure to acrolein
         2.2. Fate of acrolein
         2.3. Uptake, metabolism, and excretion
         2.4. Effects on organisms in the environment
         2.5. Effects on animals
         2.6. Effects on human beings


         4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and protection,
              first aid
         4.2. Advice to physicians
         4.3. Health surveillance advice
         4.4. Explosion and fire hazards and their prevention
              4.4.1. Explosion and fire hazards
              4.4.2. Prevention
              4.4.3. Fire-extinguishing agents
         4.5. Storage
         4.6. Transport
         4.7. Spillage and disposal
              4.7.1. Spillage
              4.7.2. Disposal



         7.1. Exposure limit values
         7.2. Specific restrictions
         7.3. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.4. Waste disposal



    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a
    chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological
    agents.  They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes. The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC. 
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly  familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is a Summary of Chemical Safety
    Information which should be readily available, and should be clearly
    explained, to all who could come into contact with the chemical.  The
    section on regulatory information has been extracted from the legal
    file of the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
    (IRPTC) and from other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes occupational health services, those in
    ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are
    involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
    environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on
    this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be
    familiar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably
    contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been included for
    readers who require further background information.

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27



    1.1  Identity

    Common name:             acrolein

    Chemical formula:        C3H4O

    Chemical structure:
                             H   C = O
                             '   '
                             C = C
                             '   '
                             H   H

    Common synonyms:         acraldehyde; acrylaldehyde; acrylic aldehyde;
                             allylaldehyde; propenal; 2-propenal;
                             prop-2-enal; prop-2-en-1-al

    Common trade names:      Acquinite; Aqualin; Aqualine; Biocide;
                             Magnicide-H; NSC 8819; Slimicide

    CAS registry number:     107-02-8

    RTECS registry number:   AS 1050000

    UN number:               UN 1092

    Conversion factor:       1 ppm = 2.29 mg/m3 air; 
                             1 mg/m3 air = 0.44 ppm:
                             at 25C and 101.3 kPa (760 mmHg)

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    Acrolein is a volatile, colourless, highly flammable liquid at
    ordinary temperature and pressure.  Its odour is pungent, choking, and
    disagreeable.  The compound is fairly soluble in water and in organic
    solvents, such as ethanol and diethylether.  It is extremely reactive
    and, in the absence of an inhibitor, highly exothermic polymerization
    occurs at room temperature, catalysed by light and air.  Highly
    exothermic polymerization also occurs in the presence of traces of
    acids or strong bases.  Inhibited acrolein shows dimerization at
    temperatures exceeding 150C.

    Some physical and chemical data on acrolein are presented in the
    Summary of Chemical Safety Information (section 6).

    1.3  Composition

    Commercial acrolein contains 95.5% or more of the compound, the main
    impurities being water (< 3.0% by weight) and other carbonyl
    compounds (< 1.5% by weight), mainly propanal and acetone. 
    Hydroquinone is added as an inhibitor of polymerization
    (0.1-0.25% by weight).

    1.4  Analysis

    Acrolein in ambient air, exhaust gas, and tobacco smoke can be
    determined colorimetrically following absorption in an ethanolic
    solution of 4-hexylresorcinol, mercuric chloride, and trichloroacetic
    acid.  The detection limit is 20 g/m3, with a sample volume of
    50 litres of ambient air.  A sample volume of 1 or 2 litres is
    sufficient for exhaust gas.  There is slight interference from dienes
    and alpha,-unsaturated aldehydes.  The method can be adapted for the
    analysis of liquid samples.

    An alternative analytical method requires adsorption of the acrolein
    on to a 2-(hydroxymethyl) piperidine-coated XAD-2 resin column,
    elution with toluene, followed by gas-phase chromatography.

    1.5  Production and Uses

    The world production of isolated acrolein was estimated to be
    59 kilotonnes in 1975.  However, a large amount is also produced as an
    intermediate in the synthesis of acrylic acid and its esters.  The
    compound is a product of the incomplete combustion, or chemical
    degradation by heat, of organic materials, such as fuels, synthetic
    polymers, food, and tobacco.  Acrolein is of rare natural occurrence. 
    The substance is primarily used as an intermediate in chemical
    synthesis and as an aquatic biocide.

    2.1  Exposure to Acrolein

    The general population will normally be exposed to acrolein through
    the air, particularly through exposure to smoke.  Only persons who are
    present when acrolein is being applied as a biocide, or who are near
    an accident during the transport of acrolein, are likely to have
    contact with the liquid or its solution in water.  Some alcoholic
    drinks contain a little acrolein, and it is also produced during the
    heating of foodstuffs.

    Average levels of up to approximately 15 g/m3 and maximum levels of
    up to 32 g/m3 were measured in urban air, away from industrial

    Acrolein is principally produced by fire, especially during the
    partial burning of organic material.  Thus, atmospheric levels ten or
    one hundred times higher than those mentioned above may be found near
    exhaust pipes, near hot smoking oil, or in the smoke of wood or
    garbage fires.

    In indoor air, smoking one cigarette per m3 room in 10-13 min was
    found to lead to acrolein vapour concentrations of 450-840 g/m3.

    Thus, humans may be exposed in the home through cigarette smoking or
    through the smoke from cooking; they may also be exposed in a street
    polluted by exhaust gases, or near a fire.  In the workplace, exposure
    may occur through the heating of organic material during the welding,
    cutting, or sealing of plastic sheeting, or near hot smoking oil in
    oil-seed mills, where levels as high as 10 000 g/m3 have been

    2.2  Fate of Acrolein

    Acrolein is degraded in the atmosphere.  In natural water, it
    dissipates fairly rapidly, though the toxicity of the compound for
    microorganisms may limit biodegradation.  Bioaccumulation of acrolein
    is not expected, and it is not likely to persist in the environment.

    2.3  Uptake, Metabolism, and Excretion

    Acrolein is a very reactive substance and reacts with substances
    present in the tissue at the site of contact.  As a result, irritation
    and damage occur at these contact sites and transport through the body
    is only slight.  Thus, metabolism is expected to occur only on a minor

    2.4  Effects on Organisms in the Environment

    Acrolein is very toxic for aquatic organisms and kills many bacteria,
    algae, crustacea, and fish at concentrations ranging from 0.02 to
    2.5 mg/litre.  The concentration that did not affect fish was
    0.01 mg/litre.  This toxic property is used in the control of aquatic
    weeds, for which dosages of between 4 and 26 mg/litre.h are
    recommended; concentrations raging from 0.4 to 0.6 mg/litre are
    adequate for the control of slime in industrial waters. 
    Acrolein-treated water, when used for irrigation, caused damage to
    crops when the concentration was 15 mg/litre.

    2.5  Effects on Animals

    Liquid acrolein is corrosive, and the vapour is highly toxic for
    experimental animals.  Irritation to the eyes, nose, and respiratory
    tract, and effects on breathing occur at, or above, a level in air of
    0.5 mg/m3.  With increasing concentration or long-term exposure,
    inflammation and degeneration of the tissues are observed, mortality
    occurring at concentrations exceeding 9 mg/m3.

    Acrolein has been shown to affect the animal fetus only at
    concentrations that are toxic for the mother.  In some animal studies,
    acrolein has been shown to decrease the ability of the lungs to cope
    with infections.

    Weak effects of acrolein were seen in some tests designed to
    investigate the interaction of chemicals with genetic material.  The
    ability of acrolein to produce cancer in animals is not known, because
    of the inadequacy of the studies carried out to date.

    2.6  Effects on Human Beings

    Some human health effects are summarized in Table 1.

    Acrolein is toxic for humans.  It can be detected through its odour by
    sensitive persons at 0.07 mg/m3, and the eyes begin to become
    irritated at 0.13 mg/m3.  Irritation is marked and the respiratory
    tract is affected at, or above, 1 mg/m3.  At higher levels, oedema
    of the trachea and bronchi occurs and may result in breathing

    The effects of long-term atmospheric exposure of humans to acrolein at
    tolerable levels are not known, but the concentrations likely to be
    found in the environment or workplace should not affect human

    In the liquid state, acrolein is highly corrosive.  In solution in
    ethanol, for example, it causes swelling and blistering of the skin at
    a concentration of 1%.  It is not known whether acrolein causes

    Table 1. Thresholds for the acute effects of acrolein in human beings


    Concentration          Time         Effect
    (mg/m3)                             (min)

    0.07                   -            odour perception
    0.1-0.2                5            eye irritation
    0.3                    10           nasal irritation
                           30           increased eye blinking
    0.7                    40           decreased respiratory rate
    1.0                    5            lacrimation
    2.0                    0.3          extreme irritation of mucosal


    The general population is affected by acrolein through the respiration
    of air that is contaminated by the fumes of partly burned organic
    material.  The vapour is irritating to the eyes, nose, and the
    respiratory system at levels exceeding 0.13 mg/m3.  The liquid is
    corrosive to the skin and, in solution in ethanol, acrolein causes
    swelling and blistering at a concentration of 1%.  Because of its
    reactivity, it mainly combines with components of the tissues near the
    point of contact; thus transport through the body is reduced.

    The urban ambient air levels observed, which have rarely exceeded
    0.03 mg/m3, would not be expected to cause annoyance to, or adverse
    effects on, humans.  Evidence from animal studies indicates possible
    effects on the resistance to lung infection.  Available
    carcinogenicity studies are inadequate to make a final evaluation of
    the carcinogenicity of acrolein for humans.

    Acrolein is very toxic for aquatic organisms and is used as an aquatic
    herbicide and slimicide.  Its discharge into surface waters presents a
    risk for aquatic life.  It is, however, quite rapidly destroyed both
    in surface water and in the atmosphere, and is not expected to


    4.1  Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    The human health hazards associated with certain types of exposure to
    acrolein, together with preventive and protective measures and
    first-aid recommendations, are listed in the Summary of Chemical
    Safety Information (section 6).

    4.2  Advice to Physicians

    Although no specific antidote is known, it is probable that sulfhydryl
    compounds, such as  N-acetylcysteine or mercaptoethanesulfonic acid
    sodium salt, would be of benefit.

    Treatment of the irritative effects of acrolein should be symptomatic
    and supportive.  Following inhalation of acrolein, signs of
    respiratory dysfunction should be sought and hypoxia corrected. 
    Specific treatment for bronchospasm and non-cardiogenic pulmonary
    oedema may be necessary.  Hypoxia may also occur following the
    ingestion of acrolein if there is pulmonary aspiration and/or
    laryngeal oedema.  The extent and severity of the corrosive effects on
    the upper gastrointestinal mucosa should be determined, for example,
    by endoscopy, and advice should be sought regarding the need for
    surgical intervention.

    4.3  Health Surveillance Advice

    Workers who are frequently potentially exposed to acrolein should be
    examined for irritant and respiratory effects.

    4.4  Explosion and Fire Hazards and Their Prevention

    4.4.1  Explosion and fire hazards

    Acrolein is a highly flammable liquid.  Mixtures with air containing
    2.8-31% by volume of acrolein are explosive, and at, or above, -26C
    acrolein can be ignited by sources of heat or ignition. The
    autoignition temperature is 234C.  The substance is not sensitive to
    shock.  The vapour is heavier than air, and may travel along the
    ground and be ignited from a distance. The compound reacts with
    alkalis, acids, amines, sulfur dioxide, thiourea, metal salts, and
    oxidants.  Highly exothermic polymerization of the uninhibited
    compound is catalysed by heat, light, and air, and can begin at room

    Highly exothermic polymerization of the inhibited compound can also
    occur in the presence of traces of strong acids, alkalis, or amines
    (see section 4.5). 

    4.4.2  Prevention

    Use closed apparatus, ventilation, explosion-proof electrical
    equipment and lighting, and reduced-sparking hand tools. Do not use
    acrolein near sources of ignition.  Do not smoke. Do not use
    compressed air for filling, discharging, or handling.  Do not allow
    the compound to come into contact with strong oxidants (see section

    In case of fire, keep containers cool by spraying with water.
    Fire-fighters should use self-contained breathing apparatus.

    4.4.3  Fire-extinguishing agents

    Use dry chemical powder, alcohol-resistant foam, copious amounts of
    water, or carbon dioxide. 

    4.5  Storage

    Acrolein should be stored under an inert gas, with the addition of an
    inhibitor (hydroquinone: 0.1-0.25% by weight), away from foodstuffs
    and incompatible materials (see section 4.4.1) in a cool, dark,
    fire-proof container.  The pH should be adjusted to 5-6 by the
    addition of acetic acid, and an emergency supply of buffer solution
    containing glacial acetic acid (84%), photo-grade hydroquinone (8%),
    and sodium acetate (8%) must be available, in case a temperature rise
    occurs.  Water must not be added to stored acrolein.

    4.6  Transport

    In case of an accident, stop the engine. Remove all sources of
    ignition.  Keep bystanders at a distance and mark the roads. Keep
    upwind. In case of spillage or fire, use the methods advised in
    sections 4.7 and 4.4, respectively. Notify the police and the fire
    brigade immediately. In case of poisoning, follow the advice in
    section 4.1.

    4.7  Spillage and Disposal

    4.7.1  Spillage

    Ensure personal protection.  Remove all ignition sources.  Evacuate
    the area. Ventilate the area.  If practicable, collect leaking liquid
    in a sealable container. Absorb spilt liquid in earth or suitable
    absorbent and remove to a safe place. Flush the area with plenty of
    water.  For large quantities, cover with sodium bisulfite
    (Na2HSO3), add a small amount of water, and mix. Then, after one
    hour, flush with large amounts of water.  Avoid entry of liquid
    acrolein into sewers or other confined places, as the vapour may
    create an explosive atmosphere.

    4.7.2  Disposal

    Aqueous wastes containing low concentrations of acrolein are usually
    neutralized with sodium hydroxide and fed to a sewage treatment plant
    for biological treatment.  Concentrated wastes are reprocessed,
    whenever possible, or burnt in special waste incinerators.

    Acrolein may be subject to explosive self-polymerization.  Handle with
    care. Discharge carefully into water, add excess 10% sodium bisulfite
    (Na2HSO3) solution.  Dilute product with a lot of water and
    discharge into an oxidation pond, or transport without dilution to an
    incineration plant.


    In view of the high toxicity of acrolein for aquatic organisms, the
    substance presents a risk to aquatic life at, or near, sites of
    industrial discharges or spills, and during biocidal use.

    Contamination of soil, water, and the atmosphere can be avoided by the
    use of proper methods of storage, transport, and waste disposal. In
    case of spillage, apply the methods recommended in section 4.7.1. Use
    closed systems, where feasible.


     This summary should be easily available to all health workers
     concerned with, and users of, acrolein. It should be displayed at, or
     near, entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to
     acrolein, and on processing equipment and containers.  The summary
     should be translated into the appropriate language(s).  All persons
     potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions
     in the summary clearly explained.

     Space is available for insertion of the National Occupational
     Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the National
     Poison Control Centre, and local trade names.


    (2-propenal, acrylaldehyde, allylaldehyde)

    CH2 = CHCHO


    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                   OTHER CHARACTERISTICS

    Relative molecular mass                         56.06                 Volatile, colourless liquid with pungent, choking, and
    Melting point (C)                              -87                   disagreeable odour; extremely reactive substance;
    Boiling point (C)                              52.5                  highly exothermic polymerization occurs, in presence of
    Water solubility (g/litre, 20C)                206                   traces of acids or strong bases even when an inhibitor is
    Specific density (20C)                         0.8427                present; the vapour is heavier than air, and may travel
    Relative vapour density                         1.94                  along the ground and be ignited from a distance;
    Vapour pressure (kPa) (20C)                    29.3                  the compound is destructive to mucous membranes, and may
    Ignition temperature (C)                       235                   be fatal, if inhaled or swallowed
    Flash point (closed cup) (C)                   -26
    Flammability (explosive) limits (vol %)         2.8-31.0


    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                        PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                    FIRST AID

    SKIN:  corrosive, burns, redness,       Wear clean, impervious clothing,             Remove contaminated clothing and
    pain                                    gloves, and shoes                            shoes instantly; wash with plenty of
                                                                                         water and soap for at least 15-20 minutes;
                                                                                         obtain medical attention immediately

    EYES: corrosive, redness, pain,         Wear safety goggles or face-shield           Rinse with plenty of water for at
    lacrimation                                                                          least 15 minutes; obtain medical
                                                                                         attention immediately

    INHALATION: severe irritation of        Apply ventilation, local exhaust, or         Remove victim to fresh air and keep
    all exposed mucosae; painful            breathing protection by a positive           quiet and warm; if breathing has
    sensation in nose and throat; at        pressure respirator                          stopped, apply artificial respiration;
    higher exposures, inflammation and                                                   obtain medical attention immediately
    damage to the respiratory tract
    and breathing difficulties

    INGESTION: severe irritation or         Do not eat, drink, chew, or smoke            Rinse mouth; immediately give large
    corrosion of mouth, throat, and         during work; do not keep food in             quantities of water or milk to
    gastrointestinal tract                  areas with potential exposure; keep          drink; do NOT induce vomiting;
                                            out of reach of children                     obtain medical attention immediately 

    ENVIRONMENT: presents a                 Contamination of water, soil,
    severe risk for aquatic organisms       and atmosphere can be avoided by
                                            proper methods of storage, transport,
                                            and waste disposal


    SPILLAGE                                STORAGE                                      FIRE AND EXPLOSION

    Ensure personal protection;             Store with addition of an inhibitor,         Acrolein is highly flammable; 
    remove ignition sources; evacuate       away from foodstuffs and separately          air-vapour mixtures may be explosive;
    and ventilate the area; collect         from other chemicals in a cool,              keep away sources of ignition; use
    leaking liquid in container; absorb     dark, fire-proof, and well-labelled          closed apparatus, and explosion-proof
    spilt liquid in earth or inert          area with ventilation across the             equipment; apply ventilation;
    absorbent, flush area with plenty of    floor; containers must be labelled,          in case of fire, keep containers cool
    water; for large quantities cover       tightly closed, and kept in a good           by water spraying; extinguish fires
    with sodium bisulfite, add water,       condition; for large quantities, an          with dry chemical powder, alcohol
    and mix, flush with water after         acetic acid-sodium acetate-hydroquinone      foam, much water, carbon dioxide
    1 h; do not allow run-off into          buffer must be available
    a sewer



    Neutralize aqueous waste with           National occupational exposure               UN 1092
    sodium hydroxide and treat              limit:
    biologically; reprocess or 
    incinerate concentrates                 National Poison Control Centre: 



    The information given in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file. A full reference to the original national document from which
    the information was extracted can be obtained from IRPTC.  When no
    effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of the
    reference from which the data are taken is indicated by (r).

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
    taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the legislation of that country.  Furthermore, the
    regulations and guidelines of all countries are subject to change and
    should always be verified with appropriate regulatory authorities
    before application.

    7.1  Exposure Limit Values

    Exposure limit values are listed in the table on page 22. 

    7.2  Specific restrictions

    In the USA, the substance may be used in the manufacture of the food
    additive "modified food starch" in an amount not to exceed that which
    is reasonably required to accomplish the intended effect, or to exceed
    4% when added alone, or 0.6% when added with vinyl acetate (effective
    date: 1983 (r)).

    The substance may be used as a slimicide in the manufacture of paper
    and paperboard that come into contact with food (effective date: 1983

    Pesticide products containing the substance are normally limited to
    use by, or under the direct supervision of, a certified applicator,
    and must be so labelled together with the words "restricted use
    pesticide" and a summary of the terms of the restricitions (effective
    date: 1975). 

        Exposure limit values


    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date

    AIR         Occupational        Australia           Threshold limit value (TWA)                  0.25 mg/m3           1989 (r)
                                    Belgium             Threshold limit value (TWA)                  0.25 mg/m3           1985 (r)
                                    Germany, Federal    Maximum worksite concentration (TWA)         0.25 mg/m3           1986 (r)
                                    Republic of         Short-term exposure limit (5-min)            0.50 mg/m3b          1986 (r)
                                    Hungary             Maximum allowable concentration (TWA)        0.7 mg/m3            1985 (r)
                                                        Short-term exposure limit (20-min)           1.4 mg/m3            1985 (r)
                                    Japan               Maximum allowable concentration (TWA)        0.25 mg/m3           1982 (r)
                                    Sweden              Highest limit value (TWA)                    0.2 mg/m3            1989
                                                        Short-term exposure limit (15-min TWA)       0.7 mg/m3            1989
                                    USA (OSHA)          Permissible exposure level (TWA)             0.25 mg/m3           1974
                                    USA (ACGIH)         Threshold limit value (TWA)                  0.25 mg/m3           1989 (r)
                                                        Short-term exposure limit (TWA)              0.8 mg/m3            1989 (r)
                                    USSR                Ceiling value                                0.2 mg/m3            1977
    AIR         Ambient             USSR                Maximum allowable concentration
                                                          average per day                            0.03 mg/m3           1984
                                                          once per day                               0.03 mg/m3           1984 


    a TWA = time-weighted-average over one working day (usually 8 h).
    b Ceiling value, 8 times per shift, local irritant.

    7.3  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    The European Economic Community legislation requires labelling as a
    highly flammable and toxic substance using the symbols:

    FIGURE 1

    FIGURE 2

    The label must read:

          Toxic by inhalation; irritating to eyes, respiratory system and
          skin; do not empty into drains; take precautionary measures
          against static discharges; if you feel unwell, seek medical
          advice (show the label where possible).

    If the substance is not stabilized, this must be stated on the label
    by adding the words "non-stabilized" after the name of the substance
    (effective date:  1982 (r)).

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transportation of
    Dangerous Goods and the International Maritime Organisation classify
    acrolein as a flammable liquid (Class 3 and 3.1, respectively) with
    subsidiary risk as a poisonous substance. Acrolein is also classified
    as a very dangerous substance for packing purposes (Packing Group I).
    Packing methods and labels are recommended (effective dates: 1982
    (r)). The recommended labels are:

    FIGURE 3

    FIGURE 4

    In Japan, acrolein is designated as deleterious by law (effective
    date: 1983 (r)), and must be labelled in red letters on a white
    background "NOT FOR MEDICATION".

    7.4  Waste Disposal

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the air emissions of organic
    compounds in Class I, which includes acrolein, must not exceed (as the
    sum of all compounds in this class) a mass concentration of 20 mg/m3
    at a mass flow of more than 0.1 kg/h. If compounds of different
    classes are present, the mass concentration must not exceed 30 mg/m3
    (effective date:  1982 (r)).

    In the USA, any solid waste (except domestic) that contains acrolein
    must be listed as hazardous waste, subject to handling, transport,
    treatment, storage, and disposal requirements, unless it is found that
    the waste cannot pose a threat to human health or the environment when
    improperly managed (effective date: 1980).  If acrolein is a
    commercial chemical product, it is identified as "acute hazardous
    waste", subject to handling, transport, treatment, storage, and
    disposal regulations and permit and notification requirements
    (effective date: 1980).  An owner or operator of a hazardous waste
    incinerator must achieve 99.99% destruction and removal efficiency for
    the substance, if it is designated as a principal organic hazardous
    constituent in its EPA permit (effective date: 1981).

    In the USA, the substance, including any isomers, hydrates, and
    solutions and mixtures containing the substance, is designated as a
    hazardous substance for the purposes of discharge under the water
    pollution control act (effective date: 1983 (r)).  Permits are
    required for the discharge of acrolein from any point source into US
    waters (effective date: 1980). The US EPA is required to set, or has
    set, effluent limitations and pretreatment standards for 21 major
    industries regarding acrolein (effective date: 1983 (r)).

    Information regarding effluent guidelines and standards for acrolein
    can be found in 40 CFR 122,a 40 CFR 125, 40 CFR 413, 40 CFR 423 and
    40 CFR 433.  Currently, landfilling of acrolein at the US EPA-approved
    site is an acceptable method of disposal;  however, land disposal
    restrictions are being considered by the US EPA. 


    a USA: Code for Federal Regulations.


    ACGIH (1986)  Documentation of the threshold limit values and
     biological exposure indices. Cincinnati, American Conference of
    Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

    ACGIH (1989)  Threshold limit values and biological exposure indices
     for 1989-1990. Cincinnati, American Conference of Governmental
    Industrial Hygienists.

    CHUNG, F.-L., YOUNG, R., & HECHT, S.S (1984) Formation of cyclic
    1, N-2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts in DNA upon reaction with
    acrolein or crotonaldehyde.  Cancer Res., 44: 990-995.

    CLAUSSEN, U. HELLMANN, W., & PACHE, G. (1980) The embryotoxicity of
    cyclophosphamide metabolite acrolein in rabbits, tested  in vivo by
    iv injection and by the yolk-sac method.  Drug Res., 30: 2080-2083.

    CLAYTON, G.D. & CLAYTON, F.E. (1981)  Patty's industrial hygiene and
     toxicology. Vol. 2B.  New York, John Wiley & Sons.

    COHEN, I.R. & ALTSHULLER, A.P. (1961) A new spectrophotometric method
    for the determination of acrolein in combustion gases and in the
    atmosphere.  Anal. Chem., 33: 726-733.

    COOMBER, J.W. & PITTS, J.N. (1969) Molecular structure and
    photochemical reactivity. XII. The vapor-phase photochemistry of
    acrolein at 3130 .   J. Am. Chem. Soc., 91: 547-550.

    COOPER, K.O., WITMER, C.M., & WITZ, G. (1987 Inhibition of microsomal
    cytochrome c reductase activity by a series of a,b-unsaturated
    aldehydes.  Biochem. Pharmacol., 36: 627-631.

    COSTA, D.L., KUTZMAN, R.S., LEHMANN, J.R., & DREW, R.T. (1986) Altered
    lung function and structure in the rat after subchronic exposure to
    acrolein.  Am. Rev. respir. Dis., 133: 286-291.

    COX, R. GOORHA, S., & IRVING, C.C. (1988) Inhibition of DNA methylase
    activity by acrolein.  Carcinogenesis, 9: 463-465.

    CRANE, C.R., SANDERS, D.C., ENDECOTT, B.R., & ABBOTT, J.K. (1968)
     Inhalation toxicology. VII. Times to incapacitation and death for
     rats exposed continuously to atmospheric acrolein vapor. Washington,
    DC, US Office of Aviation Medicine, Federal Aviation Administration
    (DOT/ FAA/AM-86/5).

    CROOK, T.R., SOUHAMI, R.L., & McLEAN, A.E.M. (1986) Cytotoxocity,
    DNA cross-linking, and single strand breaks induced by activated
    cyclophosphamide and acrolein in human leukemia cells. Cancer Res.,
    46: 5029-5034.

    DUTCH CHEMICAL INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (1989)   Handling chemicals
     safely. 2nd ed., Dutch Association of Safety Experts, Dutch Chemical
    Industry Association, Dutch Safety Institute.

    GOSSELIN, R.E., HODGE, H.C., SMITH R.P., & GLEASON, M.N. (1976)
     Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 4th ed. Baltimore,
    Maryland, The Williams and Wilkins Company.

    IRPTC (1988)  Data profile (legal file).  Geneva, International
    Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals.

    KATZ, M. (1977) Methods of air sampling and analysis., 2nd ed.,
    Washington, USA, American Public Health Association.

    SAX, N.I. (1984)  Dangerous properties of industrial materials.  New
    York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

    US NIOSH (1976)  A guide to industrial respiratory protection. 3 Vol.
    Cincinnati, Ohio, US National Institute for Occupational Safety and
    Health, Occupational Safety and Heath Administration, 

    US NIOSH (1978)  Occupational health guideline for acrolein.
    Cincinnati, Ohio, US National Institute of Occupational Safety and
    Health, Occupational Safety and Heath Administration.

    US NIOSH/OSHA (1981)  Occupational health guidelines for chemical
     hazards. 3 Vol. Washington, DC, US Department of Health and Human
    Services, US Department of Labor (Publication No. DHHS(NIOSH) 01-123).

    US NIOSH/OSHA (1985)  Pocket guide to chemical hazards.  Washington
    DC, US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health,
    Occupational Safety and Heath Administration (Publication No. 85.114).

    WHO (1991)  Environmental Health Criteria 127: Acrolein. Geneva,
    World Health Organization.


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Acrolein (EHC 127, 1991)
       Acrolein (ICSC)
       Acrolein (CICADS 43, 2002)
       Acrolein (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 63, 1995)