alpha-Tocopherol and mixed tocopherol concentrate were evaluated
    for acceptable daily intake at the sixth and seventeenth meetings of
    the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (Annex 1,
    references 6 and 32). Toxicological monographs were published after
    both meetings (Annex 1, references 6 and 33). At the seventeenth
    meeting, the Committee allocated an ADI of 0-2 mg/kg b.w. Because it
    is a nutrient, an ADI was established, even though the available
    toxicological studies were less than would normally be required for
    foreign substances used as food additives. A daily dietary allowance
    of from 3 mg in neonates to 10 mg in adult males has been recommended
    by the United States National Academy of Sciences/National Research
    Council (NAS/NRC, 1980).

         Since the previous evaluation, additional data have become
    available and are summarized and discussed in the following monograph.
    The previously-published monograph has been expanded and is reproduced
    in its entirety below.


    Biochemical aspects

         The metabolic fate of alpha-tocopherol is not fully known. When
    rats were given 3.5 mg daily by month, 3 to 15% appeared in the
    faeces. With larger doses, up to 25% appeared in the faeces. There is
    practically no urinary excretion of tocopherol but, from studies with
    labelled material, it appeared that one or more metabolites of
    tocopherol are excreted in the urine (Sternberg & Pascoe-Dawson,

         When more than the daily requirement is administered, there is
    some storage of tocopherol in the liver (Sebrell & Harris, 1972).

         Certain microsomal hydroxylations appear to be regulated by
    alpha-tocopherol (Carpenter, 1972), and d-alpha-tocopherol acetate
    given as a single oral dose or in 3 consecutive daily doses of
    450 mg/kg to rats caused a significant increase in aminopyrine
    demethylase activity in the liver (Cawthorne et al., 1970).

    Toxicological studies

    Special studies on carcinogenicity

         Early reports that high doses of tocopherol, in the form of wheat
    germ extracts, induced sarcomas in rats proved unrepeatable
    (Dingemanse & van Eck, 19391 Evans & Emerson, 1939).

         Mice treated with carcinogenic doses of dibenzanthrene had a
    higher incidence of lung tumours when given 2 mg alpha-tocopherol
    every 2 days than when fed a vitamin E-deficient diet (100% incidence
    versus 712); subcutaneous tumours were also more common (Telford,
    1949). Conversely, in more recent studies, vitamin E has been found to
    reduce skin tumour incidence induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthrene/
    croton oil (Shamberger & Rudolph, 1966; Shamberger, 1972; Slaga &
    Bracken, 1977).

    Special studies on mutagenicity/clastogenicity

         The addition of dl-alpha-tocopherol to leucocyte cultures at a
    concentration of 10 µM reduced by 63% the number of chromosome breaks
    induced by 1.6 µM 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (Shamberger et al.,

         dl-alpha-Tocopherol markedly reduced the mutagenic effect of
    malonaldehyde and ß-propiolactone in five strains of Salmonella
    typhimurium, which mutated with a frameshift mechanism
    (Shamberger et al., 1979).

    Special study on reproduction


         At the end of a 90-day study on d-alpha-tocopherol (polyethylene
    glycol) 1000 succinate (TPGS), a water-soluble form of vitamin E (see
    rat study under Short-term studies), half the rats from each dose
    group were maintained on their respective diets and used for a
    reproduction study. The dietary concentrations of TPGS were 0, 0.002,
    0.2, & 2%. The animals were mated on day 112 of treatment to produce
    the F1a generation and on day 175 to produce the F1b generation.
    The F0 animals were maintained on their respective diets to 265-265
    days of treatment, then sacrificed and examined histopathologically.

         Reproductive indices (mean gestation period, litter size, sex
    ratio, and mortality of pups or parents) were unaffected by treatment.
    Clinical chemical and haematological parameters were normal in the
    F0 generation 10 days before terminal sacrifice (Krasavage &
    Terhaar, 1977).

    Special studies on teratogenicity


         Pregnant ICR mice were given daily doses of 591 mg d-alpha-
    tocopherol by gavage on days 7 to 11 of pregnancy; control
    animals were untreated or received the same volume of saline by
    gavage. In a total of 91 offspring from 7 litters, one malformation
    (exencephaly, open eye, and micrognathia) was observed in the
    offspring from treated animals; no malformations were seen in 177
    offspring (13 litters) from untreated dams or 117 offspring
    (8 litters) from dams given saline by gavage. This type of
    malformation has never been seen in control animals of this strain in
    this testing laboratory, but it can be induced by known teratogens
    (Book et al., 1974).


         Groups of 15 pregnant Charles River CD rats were given TPGS in
    the diet at concentrations of 0, 0.002, 0.2, or 2% on days 6 to 16 of
    gestation. On day 20 of gestation, the dams were sacrificed, the uteri
    excised, and the number of implantation sites (live fetuses, dead
    fetuses, or resorption sites) were counted. All the fetuses were
    examined for gross anomalies; half were examined for soft-tissue
    abnormalities (Wilson technique) and half were examined for skeletal
    defects (alizarin red stain). No differences were observed between
    controls and any of the treatment groups with respect to the
    parameters studied (Krasavage & Terhaar, 1977).

    Acute toxicity

         The LD50 value for alpha-tocopherol is not known, but the acute
    oral LD50 values for TPGS and d-alpha-tocopheryl succinate are >
    7000 mg/kg b.w. for young adult Charles River CD rats of both sexes
    (Krasavage & Terhaar, 1977).

    Short-term studies


         It has been found that mice will tolerate oral doses of 50 g/kg
    daily for two months (Demole, 1939).


         Rats were reported to tolerate doses of 4 g/kg daily for two
    months (Demole, 1939).

         Rats receiving alpha-tocopherol at a dosage of 100 mg/rat/day for
    19 weeks showed an increase in phosphorus metabolism, but no effect
    was found when the dose was 10 mg/rat/day (Weissburger & Harris,

         Rats treated with weekly oral doses of about 50 mg of a vitamin E
    concentrate were found to have fatty changes in the liver. In
    addition, intimal sclerosis of the aorta was seen, with the
    over-development of collagenous tissue at the base of the aortic valve
    and in the medial coat of the aorta (Marxs et al., 1947).

         Rats given high doses of alpha-tocopherol had elevated liver
    cholesterol levels and altered tissue fatty acids (Alfin-Slater
    et al., 1972).

         Vitamin E itself, at a dietary level of 500 mg dl-alpha-
    tocopheryl acetate/kg, had little effect on liver triglycerides.
    However, it accentuated the fatty changes produced by ethanol in
    weanling F344 rats given 20% ethanol in drinking water for 35-39 
    days (Levander et al., 1973).

         Five groups of weanling rats were fed a control diet containing
    the normal level of 35 mg d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet or 25,
    50, 100, or 1000 times this amount. After 8 weeks, rats in the
    highest-dose group had significantly lower feed and protein
    efficiencies. Serum and liver vitamin E levels increased progressively
    with dose. After 13 weeks, haemoglobin, serum cholesterol, and urinary
    creatine and creatinine were unaffected by treatment, but SGPT was
    elevated in the highest-dose group. Dietary levels of 25 and 50 times
    the normal allowance of vitamin E (i.e. 875 and 1750 mg dl-alpha-
    tocopheryl acetate/kg diet) produced no detectable adverse effects
    (Dysmsza & Park, 1975).

         Groups of 30 Charles River CD rats of each sex were fed diets
    containing TPGS at dietary concentrations of 0, 0.002, 0.2, or 21 for
    90 days. Haematological and clinical chemical examinations were made
    on 15 rats of each sex in the control and high-dose groups at 42 and
    84 days. At terminal necropsy, organ weights were determined for
    liver, spleen, brain, pituitary, kidneys, gonads, adrenals, and
    thyroids, and a histopathological examination was performed. TPGS at
    the doses studied had no effect on body-weight gain, food consumption,
    haematology, organ weights, serum chemistry, or histopathology
    (Krasavage & Terhaar, 1977).


         The effects of feeding dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate to white
    leghorn chicks at dietary levels of 220 to 2200 IU/kg diet were
    studied in a series of experiments of 3-8 weeks duration. Growth rate
    was unaffected by dietary levels of up to 1000 IU/kg, but it was
    depressed at the 2200 IU/kg level. Thyroid hypertrophy in response to
    a thiouracil challenge was reduced at the 220 IU/kg level, as were
    thyroidal uptake and release of 131I. The respiration rate of
    mitochondria from skeletal muscle isolated from chicks fed 2200 IU
    dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet for 55 days was only two-thirds
    that of control mitochondria. Bone calcification was depressed when
    excess vitamin E was fed to, or injected into, chicks fed either a
    calcium- or vitamin D-deficient diet; it was concluded that excess
    vitamin E increased the requirement for vitamin D. At a level of
    2200 IU/kg diet, dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate caused prolonged
    prothrombin times, reticulocytosis, and a reduced haematocrit value.
    The prolonged prothrombin times were rapidly reversed by injection of
    vitamin K (March et al., 1973).

    Long-term studies

         Groups of weanling female Wistar rats were fed diets containing
    0, 25, 250, 2500, 10,000, or 25,000 IU vitamin E/kg diet for 8 and 16
    months. Vitamin E depressed body-weight gain at concentrations of
    10,000 and 25,000 IU/kg diet, and increased relative heart and spleen
    weights were seen at 8 months and 16 months, respectively. There was
    an increase in plasma alkaline phosphatase and a decrease in the ash
    content of bone after 16 months at these two dose levels. Prothrombin
    time was reduced at 12 months, but not at 9 or 16 months. Urinary
    excretion of creatine and creatinine was normal at 11 months. No
    histological examinations were reported (Yang & Desai, 1977).

         Groups of 60 male and 60 female Charles River CD rats, initial
    body weight 134 g (males) or 130 g (females), were fed a diet
    supplemented with dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate at levels calculated to
    give a dose of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg b.w./day. A control group
    received unsupplemented basal diet stated to contain 39 mg vitamin
    E/kg b.w. and 10 mg vitamin K3/kg b.w. Through weeks 24, 25, and 26,

    vitamin K1 was administered in the drinking water at 7 mg/l to
    counteract an observed haemostatic failure. Subsequently, the vitamin
    K1 supplement was added to the diet at a concentration of 5 mg/kg.
    Control rats were given the same vitamin K supplement as test rats.
    Food intake and body weights were recorded weekly. After 4, 8, 13, 26,
    52, 78, and 95 weeks of treatment, blood samples from 10 male and 10
    female animals of the control and highest-dose groups were examined
    haematologically (RBC and total leucocyte counts, haematocrit,
    haemoglobin, differential leucocytes, and prothrombin time) and
    urinalysis was carried out (SG, reducing substances, glucose, ketones,
    protein, sedimentary cell counts, and blood and bile pigments). At
    similar times, half this number of rats were examined in respect of
    serum biochemical parameters (urea, glucose, bilirubin, total protein,
    electrophoretic protein fractionation, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate
    aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, sodium, and potassium).
    Whenever there were significant or suggestive differences between
    controls and the high-dose group, some of these tests were extended to
    the intermediate and low-dose groups. After 52 weeks of treatment, 10
    rats/sex/dose were killed, necropsied, and examined histologically.
    The remaining animals remained on the respective diets until
    termination at 104 weeks. Rats which died on test or which were killed
    at termination were necropsied and absolute and relative organ weights
    determined for adrenals, brain, heart, liver, lungs, testes or
    ovaries, pituitary, spleen, thyroid, and prostate or uterus. Detailed
    histopathological examination was performed on control and high-dose
    groups; in other dose groups, histopathology was restricted to the
    liver and any macroscopically-abnormal tissue.

         Occasional difficulties in arresting bleeding were observed when
    blood samples were collected after 8 weeks and frank haemorrhages were
    observed in males only from week 15 (high-dose), week 16
    (intermediate-dose), or week 18 (low-dose). Haemorrhages occurred
    variously in the gut, urinary tract, orbit and meninges, and from
    minor injuries to the claws or vibrissal pits. Vitamin K
    supplementation was effective in bringing about recovery within one to
    three days. In all other respects, the appearance and behaviour of
    treated animals were similar to controls, and food consumption and
    body-weight gain were similar to or slightly greater than controls.

         Mortality due to haemorrhage in males during the first 26 weeks,
    maximally 10% in the high-dose group, was balanced by a similar number
    of deaths in control males between weeks 26 and 52, and thereafter
    alpha-tocopherol did not adversely affect survival. At termination,
    there were no significant differences in mortality between any
    treatment groups of either sex and their respective controls.
    Pro-thrombin times were prolonged in males of all treatment groups at
    week 4 until week 13, but these returned to normal by week 26 (after
    initiation of vitamin K supplementation in week 24); females were
    unaffected. No other haematological differences between treated and
    control animals were seen except for a transient, slight lowering of

    the haematocrit and haemoglobin at week 8 in both males and females in
    the highest-dose group. Serum alkaline phosphatase was occasionally
    significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in the high-dose group, but the
    differences were not consistent nor progressive with time; no such
    changes were seen at lower-dose levels. A dose-related elevation of
    alanine aminotransferase was observed in treated males at week 4,
    persisting to week 26, but later it lost statistical significance.
    Aspartate aminotransferase and all other blood chemical parameters
    were unaffected, and no significant changes were seen on urinalysis.

         At necropsy, no macroscopic changes related to treatment were
    observed. In females (but not males) of the high-dose group, a
    slightly elevated absolute liver weight was seen at the interim
    sacrifice, but the relative liver weight was not increased and no
    significant differences in relative or absolute organ weights were
    seen at termination of the study. Histopathological examination of the
    livers did not reveal any treatment-related changes with the exception
    of agglomerations of vacuolated ("foamy") macrophages in the
    centriacini of some treated rats, distributed among the treated rats
    without dose-relation, but never occurring in controls. The foamy
    macrophages stained strongly with periodic acid schiffs (PAS) and Oil
    Red O, which distinguished them from occasional peribiliary
    macrophages seen in controls; they were seen in 17% of treated males
    and 77% of treated females across the study as a whole. No other
    treatment-related effects were observed. Whether considered separately
    by tumour type, or in aggregate, the tumour incidence did not reveal
    any neoplastic effects of treatment. In both sexes, there were
    indications of an inverse relationship between dosage and incidence of
    mammary fibro-adenomas, but this effect was statistically significant
    only in females (Wheldon et al., 1983).

    Observations in man

         Adult humans have tolerated 1 g per day alpha-tocopherol for
    months or larger doses for shorter periods with no undesirable
    effects. Therapeutically, daily doses of 20 to 600 mg of
    alpha-tocopherol or its acetate salt are often taken with no toxic
    effects (Finkler, 1949; McLaren, 1949; Sebrell & Harris, 1954).

         The clinical literature contains references to complaints of
    gastric distress and other symptoms in patients receiving much smaller
    dosages; these symptoms are probably attributable to fatty substances
    present in alpha-tocopherol concentrates or, in some instances, to
    psychic factors (Sebrell & Harris, 1954).

         Side effects reported in clinical use of vitamin E supplements
    include severe weakness and fatigue induced in healthy adults by daily
    doses of around 720 mg alpha-tocopherol (Cohen, 1973a, b). These side
    effects were observed in a double-blind study on two healthy young
    males receiving 720 mg alpha-tocopherol daily (Briggs, 1974; Briggs &
    Briggs, 1974). In the latter study, the symptoms were associated with
    an increase in serum creatine kinase activity and greatly increased
    24-hour urinary creatine excretion; asymptomatic creatinuria was
    reported in a young male taking high doses of vitamin E
    (Hillman, 1957).

         A 55 year-old patient presented with ecchymoses and prolonged
    prothrombin time after self-administration of a vitamin E preparation
    at up to 1200 IU/day for two months while receiving warfarin and
    clofibrate therapeutically. The prothrombin time returned to its
    baseline value after vitamin E administration was stopped while
    warfarin and clofibrate treatment continued. In a subsequent challenge
    study, vitamin E (90% alpha-tocopherol) was given for 7 weeks at a
    daily dose of 800 IU/day; at the same time the patient received his
    normal medication of digoxin (0.25 mg/day), sodium warfarin (5 mg/day
    alternating with 2.5 mg/day), clofibrate (500 mg four times a day),
    and procainamide (500 mg four times a day). By the fourth week the
    prothrombin time was increased from an initial value of 20.7 seconds
    to 24 seconds and continued to increase to 29.2 seconds after 7 weeks;
    levels of Factors II, VIII, IX, and X were depressed. At this time,
    multiple ecchymoses and a small haematoma were evident, so vitamin E
    was discontinued. The prothrombin time and levels of clotting factors
    returned to baseline values within 7 days and clinical signs of
    haemorrhage disappeared (Corrigan & Marcus, 1974).

         The haematological response to iron therapy by children with
    iron-deficiency anaemia has been reported to be significantly impaired
    if vitamin E supplements are given simultaneously (Melhorne & Gross,

         Allergic reactions shown by some individuals to topical creams or
    sprays containing vitamin E were shown by patch tests to be due to
    alpha-tocopherol (Brodkin & Bleiberg, 1965; Minkin et al., 1973;
    Aeling et al., 1973).

         Skin rashes and gastrointestinal irritation were reported in
    early studies of oral vitamin E supplementation in the form of
    wheat-germ oil, but it is not known whether this was due to
    alpha-tocopherol (Shute, 1938).

         Effects of alpha-tocopherol on some biochemical parameters have
    been reported in man. A group of 52 patients (average age 72 years)
    showed a mean increase in serum cholesterol of 74 mg/dl while
    receiving 300 mg alpha-tocopherol daily (Dahl, 1974), but no such
    increase was seen in a small group of healthy young men taking 800 mg
    daily (Briggs, 1974; Briggs & Briggs, 1974).

         When patients with porphyria cutanea tarda were given daily doses
    of 1000 mg alpha-tocopherol for 3 months, there were marked increases
    in 24-hour urinary excretion of androsterone and etiocholanone +
    dehydroepiandrosterone and a large decrease in 24-hour excretion of
    pregnanediol (Pinelli et al., 1972).


         alpha-Tocopherol was non-mutagenic and non-carcinogenic, and the
    results of reproduction/teratology studies did not indicate that
    alpha-tocopherol had adverse effects on reproductive function.
    However, in a long-term study in rats, a no-effect level could not be
    established with respect to effects on blood clotting and liver
    histology, and there was evidence from human studies that excessive
    intakes of alpha-tocopherol could cause haemorrhage. Other adverse
    effects noted in clinical studies at doses of > 720 mg
    alpha-tocopherol/day included weakness, fatigue, creatinuria and
    effects on steroid hormone metabolism.

         Clinical studies indicate that, generally, intakes of below about
    720 mg/day are without adverse effects in man, but one investigation
    in elderly patients showed an increase in serum cholesterol at doses
    of 300 mg alpha-tocopherol daily. Incidences of allergic reactions
    seem to be very rare.

         alpha-Tocopherol may be an essential nutrient. The U.S. National
    Academy of Sciences/National Research Council has recommended a
    dietary allowance of 0.15 mg/kg b.w./day. However, excessive intakes
    of alpha-tocopherol produce adverse clinical and biochemical effects,
    and self-medication with large doses of vitamin E preparations could
    present a hazard.

         The previously-allocated ADI was amended to include a lower
    value, which reflects the fact that alpha-tocopherol may be an
    essential nutrient. The upper value, which represents the maximum
    value for the AID, is based on clinical experience in man.


    Estimate of acceptable daily intake for man

         0.15-2 mg/kg b.w.

    Further work or information


         Studies on the mechanisms by which alpha-tocopherol interferes
    with vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors.


    Aeling, J.L., Panagotacos, P.J., & Andreozzi, R.J. (1973). Allergic
         contact dermatitis to vitamin E aerosol deodorant.
         Arch. Dermatol., 108, 579-580.

    Alfin-Slater, R.B., Aftergood, L., & Kishineff, S. (1972).
         Investigations on hypervitaminosis E in rats. Abst. Int. Congr.
         Nutr., 9, 191.

    Briggs, M.H. (1974). Vitamin E supplements and fatigue. N. Engl.
         J. Med., 290, 579-580.

    Briggs, M.H. & Briggs, M. (1974). Are vitamin E supplements
         beneficial? Med. J. Aust., 1, 434-437.

    Brodkin, R.H. & Bleiberg, J. (1965). Sensitivity to topically applied
         vitamin E. Arch. Dermatol., 92, 76-77.

    Carpenter M.P. (1972). Vitamin E and microsomal drug hydroxylations.
         Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 203, 81-92.

    Cawthorne, M.A., Bunyan, J., Sennitt, M.V., & Green, J. (1970).
         Vitamin E and hepatotoxic agents. 3. Vitamin E synthetic
         antioxidants and carbon tetrachloride toxicity in the rat.
         Br. J. Nutr., 24, 357-384.

    Cohen, N.M. (1973a). Fatigue caused by vitamin E? Calif. Med.,
         199, 72.

    Cohen, H.M. (1973b). Effects of vitamin E; good and bad. N, Engl.
         J. Ned., 289, 979-980.

    Corrigan, J.J. & Marcus, F.I. (1974). Coagulopathy associated with
         vitamin E ingestion. JAMA, 230, 1300-1301.

    Dahl, S (1974). Vitamin E in clinical medicine. The Lancet,
         1, 465.

    Demole, V. (1939). Pharmakologisches Uber Vitamin E (Verträglichkeit
         der synthetischen dl-alpha-tocopherols und seines Acetats).
         Int. Z. Vitaminforsch., 8, 338-341.

    Dingemanse, E. & Van Eck, W.S. (1939). Wheat germ oil and tumour
         formation. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 41, 622-624.

    Dysmaza, H.A. & Park, J. (1975). Excess dietary vitamin E in rats.
         Fed. Proc., 43, 912.

    Evans, H.M. & Emerson, G.A. (1939). Failure to produce abdominal
         neoplasms in rats receiving wheat germ oil extracted in various
         ways. Proc. Soc. Ext. Biol. Med., 41, 318-320.

    Finkler, R.S. (1949). Effect of vitamin E in menopause.
         J. Clin. Endocrinol., 9, 89-94.

    Hillman, R.W. (1957). Tocopherol excess in man. Creatinuria associated
         with prolonged ingestion. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 5, 597-600.

    Hook, E.H., Nealy, K.M., Niles, A.M., & Skalko, R.C. (1974). Vitamin
         E: teratogen or anti-teratogen? The Lancet, 1, 809.

    Kresavage, W.J. & Terhaar, C.J. (1977). d-alpha-Tocopheryl
         (polyethylene glycol) 1000 succinate. Acute toxicity, subchronic
         feeding, reproduction and teratologic studies in the rat.
         J. Agric. Food Chem., 25, 273-278.

    Levander, O.A., Morris, V.C., Bless, D.J., & Varma, R.N. (1973).
         Nutritional interrelationships among vitamin E, selenium,
         antioxidants and ethyl alcohol in the rat. J. Nutr.,
         103, 536-542.

    March, B.E., Wong, E., Seier, L., Sire, J., & Eieley, J. (1973).
         Hyper-vitaminosis E in the chick. J. Nutr., 103, 371-377.

    Marxs, W., Marks, L., Messrve, E.R., Shimoda, F., & Deuele H.J.
         (1947). Effects of the administration of a vitamin E concentrate
         and of cholesterol and bile salts on the aorta of the rat.
         Arch. Pathol., 47, 440.

    McLaren H.C. (1949). Vitamin E in menopause. Brit. Med. J.,
         2, 1378-1382.

    Melhorne, D.K. & Gross, S. (1969). Relationships between iron-dextran
         and vitamin E in iron-deficiency anaemia in children.
         J. Lab. Olin. Med., 74, 789-802.

    Minkin, W., Cohen, H.J., & Frank, S.B. (1973). Contact dermatitis from
         deodorants. Arch. Dermatol., 107, 774-775.

    NAS/NRC (1980). Recommended dietary allowances, revised edition.
         National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council,
         Washington, DC, USA.

    Pinelli, A., Pozzo, G., Formemro, M.L., Favalli, L., & Coglio, G.
         (1972). Effect of vitamin E on urine porphyrin and steroid
         profiles in porphyria cutanea tarda; report of four cases.
         Eur. J. Pharmacol., 5, 100.

    Sebrell, W.H. Jr. & Harris, R.S. (1954). The Vitamins, Academy Press,
         New York, Vol. 3, p. 481.

    Sebrell, W.H. Jr. & Harris, R.S. (1972). Tocopherols. In: The
         Vitamins: Chemistry, Physiology and Pathology. Academic Press,
         New York, Vol. 5, chapter 16.

    Shamberger, R.J. & Rudolph, G. (1966). Protection against
         cocarcinogenesis by antioxidants. Experienta., 22, 116.

    Shamberger, R.J. (1972). Increase of peroxidation in carcinogenesis.
         J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 48, 1491-1497.

    Shamberger, R.J., Baughman, F.F., Kalchert, S.L., Willis, C.E., &
         Hoffman, G.C. (1973). Carcinogen-induced chromosomal breakage
         decreased by antioxidants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA),
         70, 1461-1463.

    Shamberger, R.J., Corlett, C.L., Beaman, K.D., & Kasten, B.L. (1979).
         Antioxidants reduce the mutagenic effect of malonaldehyde and
         5-propiolactone. Part IX, Antioxidants and cancer. Mutat. Res.,
         66, 349-355.

    Shute, E. (1938). Wheat-germ oil therapy. I. Dosage idiosyncracy.
         Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 35, 249-255.

    Slaga, J. & Bracken, N.M. (1977). The effects of antioxidants on skin
         tumour initiation and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase.
         Cancer Res., 37, 1631-1635.

    Steinberg, J. & Pascoe-Dawson, E. (1959). Canad. Med. Assoc. J.,
         80, 266.

    Telford, I.R. (1949). The effects of hypo- and hyper-vitaminosis E on
         lung tumour growth in mice. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.,
         52, 132-134.

    Weissberger, L.H. & Harris, P.L. (1943). Effect of tocopherols on
         phosphorus metabolism. J. Biol. Chem., 151, 543-551.

    Wheldon, G.H., Bhatt, A., Keller, P., & Hummler, H. (1983).
         dl-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (vitamin E): A long-term toxicity and
         carcinogenicity study in rats. Internat. J. Vit. Nutr. Res.,
         53, 287-296.

    Yang, N.Y.J. & Desai, I.D. (1977). J. Nutr., 107, 1410-1417.

    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations