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    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION



    Toxicological evaluation of some food colours, thickening
    agents, and certain other substancse



    WHO FOOD ADDITIVES SERIES NO. 8





    The evaluations contained in this publication were prepared
    by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives which
    met in Geneva, 14-23 April 19751



    World Health Organization, Geneva 1975



    1 Nineteenth Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food
    Additives, Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1975, No. 576;
    FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1975, No. 55.

    The monographs contained in the present volume are
    also issued by the Food and Agriculture Organization
    of the United Nations, Rome, as
    FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 55A



















    ISBN 92 4 166008 2

    (C) FAO and WHO 1975


    ANNEX 1

    REPORTS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS RESULTING FROM PREVIOUS MEETINGS OF 
    THE JOINT FAO/WHO EXPERT COMMITTEE ON FOOD ADDITIVES

    1.   General Principles Governing the Use of Food Additives. First
         Report. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1957, No. 15;
         Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1957, No. 129.

    2.   Procedures for the Testing of International Food Additives to
         Establish their Safety for Use. Second Report. FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, 1958, No. 17; Wld Hlth Org. techn.
         Rep. Ser., 1958, No. 144.

    3.   Specifications for Identity and Purity of Food Additives (Anti-
         microbial Preservatives and Antioxidants). Third Report. These
         specifications were subsequently revised and published as
         Specifications for Identity and Purity of Food Additives,
         vol. I. Antimicrobial Preservatives and Antioxidants, Rome,
         Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1962.

    4.   Specifications for Identity and Purity of Food Additives (Food
         Colours). Fourth Report. These specifications were subsequently
         revised and published as Specifications for Identity and Purity
         of Food Additives, vol. II. Food Colours, Rome, Food and
         Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1963.

    5.   Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Hazards of Food Additives. Fifth
         Report. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1961, No. 29;
         Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1961, No. 220.

    6.   Evaluation of the Toxicity of a Number of Antimicrobials and
         Antioxidants. Sixth Report. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, 1962, No. 31; Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1962,
         No. 228.

    7.   Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives and
         their Toxicological Evaluation: Emulsifiers, Stabilizers,
         Bleaching and Maturing Agents. Seventh Report. FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, 1964, No. 35; Wld Hlth Org. techn.
         Rep. Ser., 1964, No. 281.

    8.   Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives and
         their Toxicological Evaluation: Food Colours and some Anti-
         microbials and Antioxidants. Eighth Report. FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, 1965, No. 38; Wld Hlth Org. techn.
         Rep. Ser., 1965, No. 309.

    *9.  Specifications for Identity and Purity and Toxicological
         Evaluation of Some Antimicrobials and Antioxidants.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1965, No. 38A; WHO/Food
         Add/24.65.

    *10. Specifications for Identity and Purity and Toxicological
         Evaluation of Food Colours. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, 1966, No. 38B; WHO/Food Add/66.25.

    11.  Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives and
         their Toxicological Evaluation: Some Antimicrobials,
         Antioxidants, Emulsifiers, Stabilizers, Flour-Treatment Agents,
         Acids and Bases. Ninth Report. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, 1966, No. 40; Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1966,
         No. 339.

    12.  Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives and
         their Toxicological Evaluation: Some Emulsifiers and Stabilizers
         and Certain other Substances. Tenth Report. FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, 1967, No. 43; Wld Hlth Org. techn.
         Rep. Ser., 1967, No. 373.

    *13. Toxicological Evaluation of Some Antimicrobials, Antioxidants,
         Emulsifiers, Stabilizers, Flour-treatment Agents, Acids and
         Bases. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 40A, B, C;
         WHO/Food Add/67.29.

    14.  Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives and
         their Toxicological Evaluation: Some Flavouring Substances and
         Non-Nutritive Sweetening Agents. Eleventh Report. FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, 1968, No. 44; Wld Hlth Org. techn.
         Rep. Ser., 1968, No. 383.

    *15. Toxicological Evaluation of Some Flavouring Substances and Non-
         Nutritive Sweetening Agents. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, 1968, No. 44A; WHO/Food Add/68.33.

    *16. Specifications and Criteria for Identity and Purity of Some
         Flavouring Substances and Non-Nutritive Sweetening Agents.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1969, No. 44B; WHO/Food
         Add/69.31.

    17.  Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives and
         their Toxicological Evaluation: Some Antibiotics. Twelfth Report.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1969, No. 45; Wld Hlth
         Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1969, No. 430.

    *18. Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Some Antibiotics.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1969, No. 45A; WHO/Food
         Add/69.34.

    19.  Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives and
         their Toxicological Evaluation: Some Food Colours, Emulsifiers,
         Stabilizers, Anticaking Agents, and Certain Other Substances.
         Thirteenth Report. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1970,
         No. 46; Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1970, No. 445.

    *20. Toxicological Evaluation of Some Food Colours, Emulsifiers,
         Stabilizers, Anticaking Agents and Certain Other Substances.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 46A; WHO/Food
         Add/70.36.

    *21. Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Some Food Colours,
         Emulsifiers, Stabilizers, Anticaking Agents and Certain Other
         Food Additives. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 46B;
         WHO/Food Add/70.37.

    22.  Evaluation of Food Additives. Specifications for the Identity and
         Purity of Food Additives and their Toxicological Evaluation: Some
         Extraction Solvents and Certain Other Substances; and a Review of
         the Technological Efficacy of Some Antimicrobial Agents.
         Fourteenth Report. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1971,
         No. 48; Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1971, No. 462.

    *23. Toxicological Evaluation of Some Extraction Solvents and Certain
         Other Substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1971,
         No. 48A; WHO/Food Add/70.39.

    *24. Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Some Extraction
         Solvents and Certain Other Substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings
         Report Series, 1971, No. 48B; WHO/Food Add/70.40.

    *25. A Review of the Technological Efficacy of Some Antimicrobial
         Agents. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1971, No. 48C;
         WHO/Food Add/70.41.

    26.  Evaluation of Food Additives. Some Enzymes, Modified Starches,
         and Certain Other Substances: Toxicological Evaluations and
         Specifications and a Review of the Technological Efficacy of Some
         Antioxidants. Fifteenth Report. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report
         Series, 1972, No. 50; Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1972,
         No. 488.

    27.  Toxicological Evaluation of Some Enzymes, Modified Starches and
         Certain Other Substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series,
         1972, No. 50A; WHO Food Additives Series, 1972, No. 1.

    28.  Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Some Enzymes and
         Certain Other Substances. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series,
         1972, No. 50B; WHO Food Additives Series, 1972, No. 2.

    29.  A Review of the Technological Efficacy of Some Antioxidants and
         Synergists. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1972, No.
         50C; WHO Food Additives Series, 1972, No. 3.

    30.  Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and the Contaminants
         Mercury, Lead and Cadmium. Sixteenth Report. FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, 1972, No. 51; Wld Hlth Org. techn.
         Rep. Ser., 1972, No. 505.

    31.  Evaluation of Mercury, Lead, Cadmium and the Food Additives
         Amaranth, Diethylpyrocarbonate and Octyl Gallate. FAO Nutrition
         Meetings Report Series, 1972, No. 51A; WHO Food Additive
         Series, 1972, No. 4.

    32.  Toxicological Evaluation of Certain Food Additives with a Review
         of General Principles and of Specifications. Seventeenth Report.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1974, No. 53; Wld Hlth
         Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1974, No. 539.

    33.  Toxicological Evaluation of Certain Food Additives Including
         Anticaking Agents, Antimicrobials, Antioxidants, Emulsifiers, and
         Thickening Agents. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No.
         53A; WHO Food Additives Series, 1974, No. 5.

    34.  Evaluation of Certain Food Additives. Eighteenth Report.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1974, No. 54; Wld Hlth
         Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1974, No. 557.

    35.  Toxicological Evaluation of Some Food Colours, Enzymes, Flavour
         Enhancers, Thickening Agents, and Certain Other Food Additives.
         FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 55; WHO Food
         Additives Series, 1975, No. 6.

              

    *    These documents can be obtained on request from: Food Additives,
    World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, or Food Policy
    and Food Science Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the
    United Nations, 00100 Rome, Italy.

    ANNEX 2

    MEMBERSHIP OF THE NINETEENTH JOINT FAO/WHO EXPERT COMMITTEE ON 
    FOOD ADDITIVES

    Geneva, 14-23 April 1975

    Members invited by FAO

    Mr D. F. Dodgen, Director, Food Chemicals Codex, National Academy of
         Sciences, Washington, DC, USA

    Mr A. W. Hubbard, Head, Food Science Division, Ministry of
         Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, London, England
         (Vice-Chairman)

    Dr K. Kojima, Director, Laboratory for Medicinal Plants, National
         Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo, Japan

    Mr A. J. Schmitz, jr, Director, Quality Control and Assurance, Pfizer,
         Inc., New York, NY, USA

    Dr P. L. Schuller, Head, Laboratory for Chemical Analysis of
         Foodstuffs, National Institute of Public Health, Bilthoven,
         Netherlands

    Members invited by WHO

    Dr F. Berglund, Aktiebolaget KABI, Stockholm, Sweden (Rapporteur)

    Professor I. A. Karpljuk, Head, Department of Hygiene of Nutrition,
         Central Institute of Postgraduate Training, Moscow, USSR

    Dr P. Shubik, Director, Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer,
         University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
         (Chairman)

    Professor R. Truhaut, Director, Toxicological Research Centre,
         Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, René
         Descartes University, Paris, France

    Dr A. Wolf, Research Centre for Food Hygiene and Human Nutrition,
         Institute of Hygiene, Prague, Czechoslovakia

    Professor G. Zbinden, Institute of Pathological Anatomy, University of
         Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

    Observers (invited by FAO)

    Dr R. Marcuse, Chairman, Food Section, IUPAC, Swedish Institute for
         Food Preservation Research, Göteborg, Sweden

    Dr G. F. Wilmink, Chairman, Codex Committee on Food Additives,
         Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, The Hague, Netherlands

    Secretariat

    Dr H. Blumenthal, Acting Director, Division of Toxicology, Bureau of
         Foods, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC, USA
         (Temporary Adviser)

    Miss S. Edstam, Food Standards and Food Science Service, Food Policy
    and
         Nutrition Division, FAO, Rome, Italy

    Dr P.S. Elias, Principal Medical Officer, Department of Health and
         Social Security, London, England (Temporary Adviser)

    Dr K. O. Herz, Nutrition Officer, Food Standards and Food Science
         Service, Food Policy and Nutrition Division, FAO, Rome, Italy
         (Joint Secretary)

    Dr F. C. Lu, Chief, Food Additives, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland (Joint
         Secretary)

    Dr G. Vettorazzi, Scientist, Food Additives, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland





















    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations