IPCS INCHEM Home
PHOSPHINE
(cylinder)
ICSC: 0694
Peer-Review Status: 12.04.2013 Validated
Phosphorus trihydride
Hydrogen phosphide 
CAS #: 7803-51-2 RTECS #: SY7525000
UN #: 2199
EC #: 015-181-00-1
EINECS #: 232-260-8
    Formula: PH3
Molecular mass: 34.00

TYPES OF HAZARD
/ EXPOSURE
ACUTE HAZARDS / SYMPTOMS PREVENTION FIRST AID / FIRE-FIGHTING
FIRE Extremely flammable. May ignite spontaneously on contact with air. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire.  NO open flames, NO sparks and NO smoking. NO contact with hot surfaces.  Shut off supply; if not possible and no risk to surroundings, let the fire burn itself out. In other cases extinguish with powder, carbon dioxide. 
EXPLOSION Gas/air mixtures are explosive.  Closed system, ventilation, explosion-proof electrical equipment and lighting.  In case of fire: keep cylinder cool by spraying with water. Combat fire from a sheltered position. 
 
EXPOSURE   AVOID ALL CONTACT!  FIRST AID: USE PERSONAL PROTECTION. IN ALL CASES CONSULT A DOCTOR! 
Inhalation Headache. Dizziness. Nausea. Diarrhoea. Chest pain. Shortness of breath. Irregular heartbeat. Convulsions. Unconciousness.  Use closed system or ventilation.  Fresh air, rest. Half-upright position. Administration of oxygen may be needed. Artificial respiration may be needed. Refer immediately for medical attention. 
Skin ON CONTACT WITH LIQUID: FROSTBITE.  Cold-insulating gloves. Protective clothing.  ON FROSTBITE: rinse with plenty of water, do NOT remove clothes. Refer for medical attention . 
Eyes ON CONTACT WITH LIQUID: FROSTBITE.  Wear face shield or eye protection in combination with breathing protection.  First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then refer for medical attention. 
Ingestion   Wash hands before eating.   

SPILLAGE DISPOSAL
PACKAGING & LABELLING
Evacuate danger area! Consult an expert! Ventilation. Personal protection: chemical protection suit including self-contained breathing apparatus.   
EC Classification
Symbol: F+, T+, N; R: 12-17-26-34-50; S: (1/2)-28-36/37-45-61-63 
UN Classification
UN Hazard Class: 2.3; UN Subsidiary Risks: 2.1 
GHS Classification
Signal: Danger
Extremely flammable gas
Contains gas under pressure; may explode if heated
Fatal if inhaled
Causes severe skin burns and eye damage 
flam;flamecylinder;gasskull;toxiccorr

EMERGENCY RESPONSE SAFE STORAGE
NFPA Code: H4; F4; R2.  Fireproof. Keep in a well-ventilated room. 

IMPORTANT DATA
Physical State; Appearance
COLOURLESS COMPRESSED LIQUEFIED GAS. 

Physical dangers
The gas is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible. 

Chemical dangers
Decomposes on heating and on burning. This produces toxic fumes including phosphorus oxides. Reacts violently with air, oxygen, oxidants such as chlorine oxides, nitrogen oxides, metal nitrates, halogens and many other substances. This generates fire and explosion hazard. Attacks many metals. 

Occupational exposure limits
TLV: 0.3 ppm, 0.42 mg/m³ as TWA; 1 ppm, 1.4 mg/m³ as STEL; (ACGIH 2012).
MAK: 0.1 ppm, 0.14 mg/m³; Peak limitation category: II(2); Pregnancy risk group: C; (DFG 2012). 

Routes of exposure
The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation. 

Inhalation risk
A harmful concentration of this gas in the air will be reached very quickly on loss of containment. 

Effects of short-term exposure
The substance is severely irritating to the respiratory tract. Inhalation of this gas may cause lung oedema. See Notes. Rapid evaporation of the liquid may cause frostbite. The substance may cause effects on the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, heart, gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys. This may result in impaired functions. Exposure above the OEL could cause unconsciousness and death. Medical observation is indicated. 

Effects of long-term or repeated exposure
Non-specific complaints like gastrointestinal disorders, headache, nausea etc. may occur. 


PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
Boiling point: -87.7°C
Melting point: -133°C
Relative density (water = 1): 0.8
Density (gas): 1.53 kg/m³
Solubility in water, ml/100ml at 17°C: 26 (very poor)
Vapour pressure, kPa at 20°C: 3488
Relative vapour density (air = 1): 1.18
Flash point: Flammable gas
Auto-ignition temperature: 38°C
Explosive limits, vol% in air: 1.6 - 100 (estimated) 
This substance does enter the environment under normal use. Great care, however, should be taken to avoid any additional release, for example through inappropriate disposal. 

NOTES
Turn leaking cylinder with the leak up to prevent escape of gas in liquid state.
The technical product often ignites spontaneously at room temperature because of the presence of other phosphorus hydrides, especially diphosphine (CAS:13445-5-6) as impurities.
Odourless when pure at concentrations up to 200 ppm (278 mg/m3) (a highly toxic level).
Technical product has odour of garlic or decaying fish due to impurities.
The odour warning when the exposure limit value is exceeded is insufficient.
The symptoms of lung oedema often do not become manifest until a few hours have passed and they are aggravated by physical effort. Rest and medical observation are therefore essential.
Immediate administration of an appropriate inhalation therapy by a doctor, or by an authorized person, should be considered. 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
 

IPCS
International
Programme on
Chemical Safety
WHO ILO EC Prepared in the context of cooperation between the International Programme on Chemical Safety and the European Commission
© IPCS 2004-2012
LEGAL NOTICE Neither the EC nor the IPCS nor any person acting on behalf of the EC or the IPCS is responsible for the use which might be made of this information.
    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Phosphine (HSG 28, 1989)
       Phosphine (PDS)
       Phosphine (PIM 865)