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FORMIC ACID
ICSC: 0485
Peer-Review Status: 04.09.1997 Validated
Hydrogen carboxylic acid
Methanoic acid
Aminic acid
Formylic acid 
CAS #: 64-18-6 RTECS #: LQ4900000
UN #: 1779
EC #: 607-001-00-0
EINECS #: 200-579-1
    Formula: HCOOH
Molecular mass: 46

TYPES OF
HAZARD /
EXPOSURE
ACUTE HAZARDS / SYMPTOMS      PREVENTION      FIRST AID / FIRE FIGHTING
FIRE Combustible.  NO open flames.  Use water spray, powder, alcohol-resistant foam, carbon dioxide. 
EXPLOSION Above 69°C explosive vapour/air mixtures may be formed.  Above 69°C use a closed system and ventilation.  In case of fire: keep drums, etc., cool by spraying with water. 
 
EXPOSURE   AVOID ALL CONTACT!   
Inhalation Sore throat. Cough. Burning sensation. Shortness of breath. Laboured breathing. Unconciousness. Symptoms may be delayed. See Notes.  Use ventilation, local exhaust or breathing protection.  Fresh air, rest. Half-upright position. Refer for medical attention. 
Skin MAY BE ABSORBED! Pain. Blisters. Serious skin burns.  Protective gloves. Protective clothing.  Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. Refer for medical attention . 
Eyes Pain. Redness. Severe deep burns. Blurred vision.  Wear face shield or eye protection in combination with breathing protection.  First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then refer for medical attention. 
Ingestion Sore throat. Burning sensation. Abdominal pain. Abdominal cramps. Vomiting. Diarrhoea.  Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work.  Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Refer for medical attention . 

SPILLAGE DISPOSAL
PACKAGING & LABELLING
Personal protection: complete protective clothing including self-contained breathing apparatus. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable containers as far as possible. Cautiously neutralize spilled liquid with with weak alkaline solution such as disodium carbonate. Then wash away with plenty of water.  Do not transport with food and feedstuffs. 
EC Classification
Symbol: C; R: 35; S: (1/2)-23-26-45; Note: B 
UN Classification
UN Hazard Class: 8; UN Pack Group: II 
GHS Classification
 

EMERGENCY RESPONSE SAFE STORAGE
Transport Emergency Card: TEC (R)-89.
NFPA Code: H3; F2; R0. 
Separated from strong oxidants, strong bases, strong acids and food and feedstuffs. Well closed. Keep in a well-ventilated room. 

IMPORTANT DATA
Physical State; Appearance
COLOURLESS FUMING LIQUID WITH PUNGENT ODOUR. 

Physical dangers
 

Chemical dangers
Decomposes on heating and on contact with strong acids. This produces carbon monoxide. The substance is a medium strong acid. Reacts violently with oxidants. Reacts violently with strong bases. This generates fire and explosion hazard. Attacks many plastics and metals. 

Occupational exposure limits
TLV: 5 ppm, 9.4 mg/m³ as TWA; 10 ppm, 19 mg/m³ as STEL; (ACGIH 2000). 

Routes of exposure
The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its vapour, through the skin and by ingestion. 

Inhalation risk
A harmful contamination of the air can be reached rather quickly on evaporation of this substance at 20°C. 

Effects of short-term exposure
The substance is very corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Corrosive on ingestion. Inhalation of of the vapour may cause lung oedema. See Notes. The substance may cause effects on the energy metabolism. This may result in acidosis. 

Effects of long-term or repeated exposure
 


PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
Boiling point: 101°C
Melting point: 8°C
Relative density (water = 1): 1.2
Solubility in water: miscible
Vapour pressure, kPa at 20°C: 4.6
Relative vapour density (air = 1): 1.6
Relative density of the vapour/air-mixture at 20°C (air = 1): 1.03
Flash point: 69°C
Auto-ignition temperature: 520°C
Explosive limits, vol% in air: 18-51
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: -0.54  
The substance is harmful to aquatic organisms. 

NOTES
The symptoms of lung oedema often do not become manifest until a few hours have passed and they are aggravated by physical effort.
Rest and medical observation are therefore essential.
Immediate administration of an appropriate inhalation therapy by a doctor or a person authorized by him/her, should be considered.
The odour warning when the exposure limit value is exceeded is insufficient.
Card has been partially updated in January 2008: see Occupational Exposure Limits. 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
 

IPCS
International
Programme on
Chemical Safety
WHO ILO EC Prepared in the context of cooperation between the International Programme on Chemical Safety and the European Commission
© IPCS 2004-2012
LEGAL NOTICE Neither the EC nor the IPCS nor any person acting on behalf of the EC or the IPCS is responsible for the use which might be made of this information.
    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Formic acid (FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series 38a)
       Formic acid (WHO Food Additives Series 5)
       FORMIC ACID (JECFA Evaluation)