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PARAQUAT DICHLORIDE
ICSC: 0005
Peer-Review Status: 08.06.2012 Validated
Paraquat
1,1'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride
Methyl viologen dichloride 
CAS #: 1910-42-5 RTECS #: DW2275000
UN #: 2781
EC #: 613-090-00-7
EINECS #: 217-615-7
    Formula: C12H14Cl2N2 / CH3(C5H4N)2CH3・2Cl
Molecular mass: 257.2

TYPES OF HAZARD
/ EXPOSURE
ACUTE HAZARDS / SYMPTOMS PREVENTION FIRST AID / FIRE-FIGHTING
FIRE Not combustible. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire.    In case of fire in the surroundings, use appropriate extinguishing media. 
EXPLOSION      
 
EXPOSURE   PREVENT DISPERSION OF DUST! STRICT HYGIENE!   
Inhalation Cough. Sore throat. Headache. Nosebleeds.  Use local exhaust or breathing protection.  Fresh air, rest. Refer immediately for medical attention. 
Skin Redness.  Protective gloves. Protective clothing.  Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap. 
Eyes Redness. Burning sensation. Pain.  Wear face shield or eye protection in combination with breathing protection if powder.  Rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible). Refer immediately for medical attention. 
Ingestion Sore throat. Abdominal pain. Nausea. Vomiting. Diarrhoea. See Notes.  Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Wash hands before eating.  Rinse mouth. Give one or two glasses of water to drink. Give a slurry of activated charcoal in water to drink. Refer immediately for medical attention. 

SPILLAGE DISPOSAL
PACKAGING & LABELLING
Consult an expert! Personal protection: chemical protection suit including self-contained breathing apparatus. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable containers as far as possible. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations. Sweep spilled substance into covered sealable containers. If appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Carefully collect remainder. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations.  Put breakable packaging into closed unbreakable container.
Do not transport with food and feedstuffs. 
EC Classification
Symbol: T+, N; R: 24/25-26-36/37/38-48/25-50/53; S: (1/2)-22-28-36/37/39-45-60-61 
UN Classification
UN Hazard Class: 6.1; UN Pack Group: I 
GHS Classification
Signal: Danger
Fatal if inhaled
Toxic if swallowed
May be harmful in contact with skin
Causes mild skin irritation
Causes serious eye irritation
Causes damage to lungs, kidneys, liver and the cardiovascular system
May cause respiratory irritation
Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects 
skull;toxiccancer;health hazenviro;aqua

EMERGENCY RESPONSE SAFE STORAGE
  Keep in a well-ventilated room. Well closed. Separated from food and feedstuffs. Provision to contain effluent from fire extinguishing. Store in an area without drain or sewer access. 

IMPORTANT DATA
Physical State; Appearance
COLOURLESS HYGROSCOPIC CRYSTALS. 

Physical dangers
 

Chemical dangers
Decomposes above 300°C . This produces toxic fumes including nitrogen oxides and hydrogen chloride. Attacks metals. 

Occupational exposure limits
TLV (respirable fraction as Paraquat): 0.1mg/m³ as TWA; (ACGIH 2011).
TLV (as Paraquat): 0.5mg/m³ as TWA; (ACGIH 2011).
MAK: 0.1 ppm; Peak limitation category: I(1); Skin absorption (H); (DFG 2011). 

Routes of exposure
The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its aerosol, through the skin and by ingestion. 

Inhalation risk
Evaporation at 20°C is negligible; a harmful concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly on spraying or when dispersed, especially if powdered. 

Effects of short-term exposure
The substance is severely irritating to the eyes. The substance is irritating to the respiratory tract. The substance is mildly irritating to the skin. Inhalation at high concentrations and ingestion of large amounts may cause effects on the lungs, kidneys, liver and cardiovascular system. This may result in impaired functions and tissue lesions including haemorrhage and lung fibrosis. Exposure to high concentrations could cause death. Medical observation is indicated. The effects may be delayed. 

Effects of long-term or repeated exposure
Repeated or prolonged contact with skin may cause dermatitis. The substance may have effects on the nails. This may result in nail damage. 


PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
Decomposes at 300°C
Density: 1.24 g/cm³
Solubility in water, g/100ml at 20°C: 62
Vapour pressure, Pa at 25°C: <0.0001
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: -4.5  
The substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms. The substance may cause long-term effects in the aquatic environment. This substance does enter the environment under normal use. Great care, however, should be taken to avoid any additional release, for example through inappropriate disposal. 

NOTES
The toxicological information is the same for paraquat (CAS 4685-14-7).
Depending on the degree of exposure, periodic medical examination is indicated.
The symptoms of lung fibrosis (shortness of breath, laboured breathing) do not become manifest until several days.
Rest and medical observation are therefore essential.
Do NOT take working clothes home.
Carrier solvents used in commercial formulations may change physical and toxicological properties.
If the substance is formulated with solvents also consult the ICSCs of these materials. 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
 

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International
Programme on
Chemical Safety
WHO ILO EC Prepared in the context of cooperation between the International Programme on Chemical Safety and the European Commission
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       Toxicological Abbreviations