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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 108



    CARBON TETRACHLORIDE
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE





    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION





    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1998


    This is a companion volume to
    Environmental Health Criteria 208: Carbon tetrachloride

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization) and produced within the framework
    of the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of
    Chemicals


    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1998

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization.

    WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    Carbon tetrachloride: health and safety guide.

    (Health and safety guide ; no. 108)

    1.   Carbon tetrachloride - toxicity
    2.   Environmental exposure
    3.   Guidelines
    I.   International Programme on Chemical Safety
    II.  Series

    ISBN 92 4 151108 7  (NLM Classification: QD 305.H5)
    ISSN 0259-7268

    The World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to
    reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. 
    Applications and enquiries should be addressed to the Office of
    Publications, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, which
    will be glad to provide the latest information on any changes made to
    the text, plans for new editions, and reprints and translations
    already available.

    (c)  World Health Organization 1998

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  All rights reserved.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.


    The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and
    Nuclear Safety (Germany) provided financial support for, and undertook
    the printing of, this publication

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Analysis
         1.4. Production and uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    3. CONCLUSIONS

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY
         RESPONSE
         4.1. Human health hazards, prevention and protection, first aid
         4.2. Advice to physicians
         4.3. Health surveillance advice
         4.4. Explosion and fire hazards, prevention
              4.4.1. Explosion and fire hazards
              4.4.2. Prevention
         4.5. Storage
         4.6. Transport
         4.7. Disposal
         4.8. Spillage

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    6. SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Exposure limit values
         7.2. Specific restrictions/requirements
              7.2.1. USA
              7.2.2. Canada
              7.2.3. EEC
         7.3. Labelling, packaging and transport
              7.3.1. USA
              7.3.2. EEC
              7.3.3. United Kingdom

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    

    INTRODUCTION

    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) monographs produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a
    chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological
    agents.  They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes. The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC.
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is a Summary of Chemical Safety
    Information which should be readily available, and should be clearly
    explained, to all who could come into contact with the chemical.  The
    section on regulatory information has been extracted from the legal
    file of the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
    (IRPTC) and from other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes occupational health services, those in
    ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are
    involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
    environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on
    this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be
    familiar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably
    contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been included for
    readers who require further background information.

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:


    The Director
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

                                                                    


    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A
    STARTING POINT TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME


                                                                    


    1.  PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    Chemical formula:             CCl4

    Chemical structure:

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 1


    Common name:                  carbon tetrachloride

    Common synonyms:              Carbona, carbon chloride,
                                  tetrachloromethane, carbon tet, methane
                                  tetrachloride, perchloromethane,
                                  tetrachlorocarbon

    Trade names:                  Benzinoform, Fasciolin, Freon 10, Halon
                                  104, Tetraform, Tetrafinol

    CAS chemical name:            tetrachloromethane

    CAS registry number:          56-23-5

    RTECS registry number:        FG 4900000

    Conversion factor:            1 ppm = 6.41 mg carbon tetrachloride/m3
                                  air
                                  1 mg carbon tetrachloride/m3 air =
                                  0.156 ppm
                                  at 20C and 101.3  kPa (760 mmHg).

    1.2  Physical and chemical properties

         Carbon tetrachloride is a volatile, colourless, clear, heavy
    liquid with a characteristic sweet, non-irritant odour. The odour
    threshold in water is 0.52 mg/litre, and in air it is >64.1 mg/m3
    (10 ppm). Carbon tetrachloride is miscible with most aliphatic
    solvents and it is a solvent itself. The solubility in water is low.
    It is non-flammable and fairly stable in the presence of air and
    light. Decomposition of carbon terachloride forms phosgene, carbon
    dioxide and hydrochloric acid. It reacts explosively with aluminium
    powder and some other reactive metals, and, in the presence of
    peroxides or light, with unsaturated compounds.

         The most important physical and chemical properties of carbon
    tetrachloride are presented in the Summary of Chemical Safety
    Information (section 6).

    1.3  Analysis

         Several sufficiently sensitive and accurate analytical methods
    for determining carbon tetrachloride in air, water and biological
    samples are available. The majority of these methods are based on
    direct injection into a gas chromatograph or adsorption on activated
    charcoal, then desorption or evaporation and subsequent gas
    chromatographic detection. For air and water, detection limits of
    0.003 g/m3 and 0.001 g/litre, respectively, can be achieved.

    1.4  Production and uses

         Most of the carbon tetrachloride produced is used in the
    production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other chlorinated
    hydrocarbons. The global production of carbon tetrachloride amounted
    to 960 000 tonnes in 1987. However, since 1990 the use and
    consequently the production of carbon tetrachloride has decreased and
    will continue to decrease in future owing to the gradual phase-out,
    established by the Montreal Protocol and its amendments, of CFCs and
    carbon tetrachloride.

         Carbon tetrachloride has been mainly manufactured by the
    chlorination of methane or carbon disulfide.
    

    2.  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

         Nearly all carbon tetrachloride released to the environment will
    ultimately be present in the atmosphere, owing to its volatility.
    Since the atmospheric residence time of carbon tetrachloride is long,
    it is widely distributed. During the period 1980-1990, atmospheric
    levels were around 0.5-1.0 g/m3. Estimates of atmospheric lifetime
    are variable, but 45-50 years is accepted as the most reasonable
    value. Carbon tetrachloride contributes both to ozone depletion and to
    global warming. It is in general resistant to aerobic biodegradation
    but less so to anaerobic. Acclimation increases biodegradation rates.
    Although the octanol-water partition coefficient indicates moderate
    potential for bioaccumulation, short tissue lifetime reduces this
    tendency.

         In water, reports have indicated levels of less than 10 ng/litre
    in the ocean and generally less than 1 g/litre in fresh water, but
    much higher values close to release sites. Levels of up to 60 g/kg
    have been recorded in foods processed with carbon tetrachloride, but
    this practice has now ceased.

         The general population is exposed to carbon tetrachloride mainly
    via air. On the basis of the reported concentrations in ambient air,
    foodstuffs and drinking-water, a daily carbon tetrachloride intake of
    around 1 g/kg body weight has been estimated. This estimate is
    probably rather high for the present day, because the use of carbon
    tetrachloride as a fumigant of grain has stopped and the carbon
    tetrachloride values reported for food and used in the calculation
    were especially those found in fatty and grain-based foods. Values of
    0.1 to 0.27 g/kg body weight for daily exposure of the general
    population have been reported elsewhere. Exposure to higher levels of
    carbon tetrachloride can occur in the workplace as a result of
    accidental spillage.

         Carbon tetrachloride is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal
    and respiratory tract in animals and humans. Dermal absorption of
    liquid carbon tetrachloride is possible, but dermal absorption of the
    vapour is slow.

         Carbon tetrachloride is distributed throughout the whole body,
    with highest concentrations in liver, brain, kidney, muscle, fat and
    blood. The parent compound is eliminated primarily in exhaled air,
    while minimal amounts are excreted in the faeces and urine.

         The first step in the biotransformation of carbon tetrachloride
    is catalysed by cytochrome P-450 enzymes, leading to the formation of
    the reactive trichloromethyl radical. Oxidative biotransformation is
    the most important pathway in the elimination of the radical, forming
    the even more reactive trichloromethylperoxyl radical, which can react
    further to form phosgene. Phosgene may be detoxified by reaction with
    water to produce carbon dioxide or with glutathione or cysteine.
    Formation of chloroform and dichlorocarbene occurs under anaerobic
    conditions.

         Covalent binding to macromolecules and lipid peroxidation occur
    via metabolic intermediates of carbon tetrachloride.

         The liver and kidney are target organs for carbon tetrachloride
    toxicity. The severity of the effects on the liver depends on a number
    of factors such as species susceptibility, route and mode of exposure,
    diet or co-exposure to other compounds, in particular ethanol.
    Furthermore, it appears that pretreatment with various compounds, such
    as phenobarbital and vitamin A, enhances hepatotoxicity, while other
    compounds, such as vitamin E, reduce the hepatotoxic action of carbon
    tetrachloride.

         Moderate irritation after dermal application was seen on the
    skins of rabbits and guinea-pigs, and there was a mild reaction after
    application into the rabbit eye.

         The lowest LD50 of 2391 mg/kg body weight (14-day period) was
    reported in a study on dogs involving intraperitoneal administration.
    In rats the LD50 values ranged from 2821 to 10 054 mg/kg body weight.

         In a 12-week oral study on rats (5 days/week), the
    no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 1 mg/kg body weight. The
    lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) reported in this study
    was 10 mg/kg body weight, showing a slight, but significant increase
    in sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and mild hepatic
    centrilobular vacuolization. A similar NOAEL of 1.2 mg/kg body weight
    (5 days/ week) was found in a 90-day oral study on mice, with a LOAEL
    of 12 mg/kg body weight, where hepatotoxicity occurred.

         When rats were exposed to carbon tetrachloride by inhalation for
    approximately 6 months, 5 days/week, 7 h/day, a NOAEL of 32 mg/m3 was
    reported. The LOAEL, based on changes in the liver morphology, was
    reported to be 63 mg/m3. In another 90-day study on rats, a NOAEL of
    6.1 mg/m3 was found after continuous exposure to carbon
    tetrachloride. The lowest exposure level of 32 mg/m3 (the lowest
    concentration studied) in a 2-year inhalation study on rats caused
    marginal effects.

         The only oral long-term toxicity study available was a 2-year
    study in rats, which were exposed to 0, 80 or 200 mg carbon
    tetrachloride/kg feed. Owing to chronic respiratory disease in all
    animals beginning at 14 months, which resulted in increased mortality,
    the results reported upon necropsy at 2 years are inadequate for a
    health risk evaluation.

         It was concluded that carbon tetrachloride can induce embryotoxic
    and embryolethal effects, but only at doses that are maternally toxic,
    as observed in inhalation studies in rats and mice. Carbon
    tetrachloride is not teratogenic.

         Many genotoxicity assays have been conducted with carbon
    tetrachloride. On the basis of available data, carbon tetrachloride
    can be considered as a non-genotoxic compound.

         Carbon tetrachloride induces hepatomas and hepatocellular
    carcinomas in mice and rats. The doses inducing hepatic tumours are
    higher than those inducing cell toxicity.

         In humans, acute symptoms after carbon tetrachloride exposure are
    independent of the route of intake and are characterized by
    gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting,
    headache, dizziness, dyspnoea and death. Liver damage appears after 24
    h or more. Kidney damage is evident often only 2 to 3 weeks following
    the poisoning.

         Epidemiological studies have not established an association
    between carbon tetrachloride exposure and increased risk of mortality,
    neoplasia or liver disease. Some studies have suggested an association
    with increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and, in one study, with
    mortality and liver cirrhosis. However, not all of these studies
    pinpointed specific exposure to carbon tetrachloride, and the
    statistical associations were not strong.

         In general carbon tetrachloride appears to be of low toxicity to
    bacteria, protozoa and algae; the lowest toxic concentration reported
    was for methanogenic bacteria with an IC50 of 6.4 mg/litre. For
    aquatic invertebrates acute LC50 values range from 28 to > 770
    mg/litre. In freshwater fish the lowest acute LC50 value of 13
    mg/litre was found in the golden orfe  (Leuciscus idus melanotus), 
    and for marine species an LC50 value of 50 mg/litre was reported for
    the dab  (Limanda limanda). Carbon tetrachloride appears to be more
    toxic to embryo-larval stages of fish and amphibians than to adults.
    The common bullfrog  (Rana catesbeiara) is the most susceptible
    species, the LC50 being 0.92 mg/litre (fertilization to 4 days after
    hatching).

         The available data indicate that hepatic tumours are induced by a
    non- genotoxic mechanism, and it therefore seems acceptable to develop
    a tolerable daily intake (TDI) and a tolerable daily concentration in
    air (TC) for carbon tetrachloride.

         On the basis of the study of Bruckner et al. (1986), in which a
    NOAEL of 1 mg/kg body weight was observed in a 12-week oral study on
    rats, and incorporating a conversion factor of 5/7 for daily dosing
    and applying an uncertainty factor of 500 (100 for inter- and
    intraspecies variation, 10 for duration of the study, and modifying
    factor 0.5 because it was a bolus study), a TDI of 1.42 g/kg body
    weight is obtained.

         On the basis of a 90-day inhalation study on rats (Prendergast et
    al., 1967), in which a NOAEL of 6.1 mg/m3 was reported, a TC of 6.1
    g/m3 was calculated using the factors 7/24 and 5/7 to convert to
    continuous exposure and an uncertainty factor of 1000 (100 for inter-
    and intraspecies variation and 10 for the duration of the study). This
    TC corresponds to a TDI of 0.85 g/kg body weight.

         Comparing the estimated upper limit of prevailing human daily
    intake of 0.2 g/kg body weight with the lowest TDI value (0.85 g/kg
    body weight), the conclusion can be drawn that the currently
    prevailing exposure of the general population to carbon tetrachloride
    from all sources is unlikely to cause excessive intake of the
    chemical.

         In general, the risk to aquatic organisms from carbon
    tetrachloride is low. However, it may present a risk to embryo-larval
    stages at, or near, sites of industrial discharges or spills.
    

    3.  CONCLUSIONS

         The general population is generally exposed to only low levels of
    carbon tetrachloride via air, drinking-water and food (total daily
    uptake is estimated to be 0.2 g/kg body weight; see chapter 2).

         Carbon tetrachloride can induce embryotoxic and embryolethal
    effects at maternally toxic doses, but it is not teratogenic. The
    liver is the target organ for carbon-tetrachloride-induced toxicity.
    Carbon tetrachloride can produce hepatic tumours at dose levels that
    are higher than those producing toxic effects in the liver. The weight
    of evidence indicates that carbon tetrachloride has no genotoxic
    properties. On the basis of this fact and the fact that the induced
    hepatoxicity appears to be of major importance for its
    carcinogenicity, carbon tetrachloride can be considered as a compound
    with carcinogenic properties. A tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.85
    g/kg body weight and a tolerable daily concentration (TC) in air of
    6.1 g/m3 have been derived.

         Because carbon tetrachloride does not remain in water, due to its
    high volatility and low solubility, it is likely that it will present
    a risk only to the embryo-larval stages of some sensitive amphibians
    at times of industrial discharges or spills.
    

    4.  HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY
    RESPONSE

    4.1  Human health hazards, prevention and protection, first aid

         The human health hazards associated with exposure to carbon
    tetrachloride, together with preventive and protective measures, and
    first-aid recommendations, are listed in the Summary of Chemical
    Safety Information in section 6.

    4.2  Advice to physicians

         If carbon tetrachloride has been ingested, vomiting should not be
    induced. The patient should drink water to delay absorption, but not
    oil or milk. If the patient has been exposed to carbon tetrachloride
    vapour he should immediately be moved to fresh air (or given
    artificial respiration) and kept under observation. Special attention
    must be paid to the use of alcoholic beverages in combination with
    exposure to carbon tetrachloride, because the toxic effects are
    enhanced by ingestion of alcohol.

    4.3  Health surveillance advice

         Workers frequently exposed to carbon tetrachloride should be
    examined periodically and appropriate measures should be taken.
    Replacement and periodic examinations should include appropriate tests
    for liver and kidney functions, and special attention should be given
    to any history of alcoholism. In all cases of accidental exposure a
    medical practitioner should be immediately consulted.

    4.4  Explosion and fire hazards, prevention

    4.4.1  Explosion and fire hazards

         Carbon tetrachloride vapour is invisible, heavier than air and
    spreads along the ground. Carbon tetrachloride is non-flammable, but
    it can generate phosgene and similar toxic gases when heated to high
    temperatures or when involved in a fire. Carbon tetrachloride reacts
    explosively when mixed with unsaturated compounds in the presence of
    peroxides or light.

         Carbon tetrachloride reacts vigorously or explosively with
    chemically active metals (lithium, potassium, barium, aluminium,
    magnesium, zinc and uranium) or fluorine. Violent reactions occur
    between carbon tetrachloride and  N,N-dimethylacetamide or
     N,N-dimethylformamide in the presence of iron. Explosions have been
    reported with carbon tetrachloride and aluminium alkyls, boranes and
    carbaboranes, calcium disilicide, calcium hypochlorite, chlorine
    trifluoride, allyl alcohol, ethylene, liquid oxygen, nitrogen dioxide
    and silanes.

    4.4.2  Prevention

         If large closed containers with carbon tetrachloride are exposed
    to heat or fire, they must be kept cool by spraying with water.

         Work with carbon tetrachloride should be carried out with
    adequate ventilation. Breathing the vapour and skin contact should be
    avoided. Chemical protective clothing, masks and gloves made from
    materials that provide a high degree of permeation resistance and eye
    protection should be used. Note that rubber is not a suitable
    protective material since carbon tetrachloride migrates through it.

    4.5  Storage

         Carbon tetrachloride should be stored in labelled, airtight
    containers in a well-ventilated place protected from light and at a
    temperature below 30C. It must be stored separated from chemically
    active metals.

    4.6  Transport

         In case of accident, stop the engine. Notify police and fire
    brigade immediately, keep public away from danger area, mark roads and
    warn other road users. Do not smoke, do not use naked lights and keep
    upwind.

         In case of spillage or fire, the advice given in sections 4.8 and
    4.4, respectively, should be followed.

         In case of poisoning, the advice in the Summary of Chemical
    Safety Information should be followed.

    4.7  Disposal

         Small quantities of carbon tetrachloride may be disposed of by
    evaporation in a fume cupboard or in a safe, open area. Incineration
    is not recommended due to the non-flammability of carbon tetrachloride
    and to the formation of phosgene, hydrogen chloride and other toxic
    gases on heating.

    4.8  Spillage

         In case of spillage of carbon tetrachloride, ensure personel
    protection (protective clothing, safety goggles, rubber gloves and
    respiratory protective device) and carefully shut off leaks. Adsorb
    the spilt carbon tetrachloride in earth, sand or inert absorbent and
    remove to a safe place. Prevent liquid from entering sewers, basements
    and workpits because the vapour may create a toxic atmosphere.

         If carbon tetrachloride has entered a water course or sewer or if
    it has contaminated soil or vegetation, the police should be warned.
    

    5.  HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

         In view of the toxicity of carbon tetrachloride for embryo-larval
    stages of some aquatic organisms, it may present a hazard to these
    organisms at, or near, sites of industrial discharges or spills.

         Contamination of the environment can be minimized by proper
    methods of storage, handling, transport and protection.

         In case of spillage, the methods recommended in section 4.8
    should be used.
    

    6.  SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION

          This summary should be easily available to all health workers 
     concerned with, and users of, carbon tetrachloride. It should be 
     displayed at, or near, entrances to areas where there is potential 
     exposure to carbon tetrachloride, and on processing equipment and 
     containers. The summary should be translated into the appropriate 
     language(s). All persons potentially exposed to the chemical should 
     also have the instructions in the summary clearly explained.


    
    SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION

                                                                                                                                            
    Carbon tetrachloride

    CCl4; CAS Registry No. 56-23-5
                                                                                                                                            

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                             OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                            

    Melting point (C)                                    -22.92                    Carbon tetrachloride is a clear, volatile,
    Boiling point (C)                                    76.72                     colourless, heavy liquid, with a characteristic 
    Relative molecular mass                               153.8                     sweet, non-irritant odour. Although non-flammable,
    Density (20 C)                                       1.59 g/ml                 it decomposes in fire or in heat, giving off 
    Ignition temperature (C)                             >1000                     toxic fumes (phosgene and hydrochloric acid). 
    Water solubility (25 C)                              785 mg/litre              Owing to its low conductivity, vapour 
    Vapour pressure (0 C)                                4.4 kPa                   electrostatic charges may be generated through 
    Vapour pressure (20 C)                               12.2 kPa                  flow, movement etc.  It reacts violently with 
    Vapour density (101.3 kPa; 0 C)                      5.3 kg/m3                 chemically active metals (such as aluminium, 
    n-octanol-water partition coefficient (log Pow)       2.64                      magnesium, sodium, lithium, potassium, iron, zinc).
    Henry's law constant (24.8C)                         365 kJ/mole               It reacts explosively when mixed with unsaturated
    Flash point (C)                                      none                      compounds in the presence of peroxides or light.
    Explosive limits                                      none

                                                                                                                                            
    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                         PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                       FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                            

    SKIN: redness, pain, blisters; may be    Protective gloves and clothing                  Remove contaminated clothing and wash skin 
    absorbed                                                                                 with plenty of water; obtain medical attention

    EYES: redness, pain                      Safety goggles or face shield in combination    Wash the eyes with plenty of water or neutral 
                                             with breathing protection (organic filter)      saline solution for several minutes (remove 
                                                                                             contact lenses if possible) or blow out with 
                                                                                             an air stream; obtain medical attention

    INHALATION: dizziness, drowsiness,       Apply ventilation, use in an exhaust hood or    Remove victim to fresh air, apply artificial 
    headache, nausea, unconsciousness        use personal breathing protection (organic      respiration if indicated; obtain medical 
                                             filter)                                         attention or move if necessary to hospital

    SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION (continued)

                                                                                                                                            

    INGESTION: abdominal pain, diarrhoea,    Do not eat, drink, chew or smoke during         Rinse mouth; do not induce vomiting, let victim 
    dizziness, drowsiness, nausea,           work; do not keep food in areas with            drink water and refer for medical attention
    vomiting, unconsciousness                potential exposure; keep out of reach of 
                                             children

    ENVIRONMENT: may present a hazard to     Minimize contamination of water, soil and 
    embryo-larval stages of some aquatic     atmosphere by proper methods of storage, 
    organisms at discharges or spills        handling, transport and waste disposal

                                                                                                                                            

    SPILLAGE                                 STORAGE                                         FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                            

    Ensure personal protection;  shut off    Store separately from chemically active         CCl4 is not combustible, but gives off 
    leaks if without risk; collect           metals in a cool place; do not store in         irritating toxic fumes in a fire. All types 
    leaking liquid in closed containers;     aluminium containers; ventilate along           of extinguishing agents can be used when 
    absorb spilt carbon tetrachloride in     the floor                                       there is a fire in the direct environment;
    earth, sand or inert absorbent and                                                       in case of fire, keep containers cool by 
    remove to a safe place; prevent entry                                                    spraying with water
    into a sewer

                                                                                                                                            

    WASTE DISPOSAL                           NATIONAL INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                            

    Incineration is not recommended due to   National occupational exposure limit:
    non-flammability and formation of 
    phosgene, hydrogen chloride and other    National Poison Control Centre:
    toxic gases on heating
                                                                                                                                            
        


    7.  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS

         The information in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file. Its intention is to give the reader an overview of current
    regulations, guidelines and standards.

         Regulatory decisions about chemicals, taken in a certain country,
    can only be fully understood within the framework of the legislation
    of that country. Furthermore, the regulations and guidelines of all
    countries are subject to change and should always be verified with the
    appropriate regulatory authorities before application.

    7.1  Exposure limit values

         Some exposure limit values are given in the table. When no
    effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of the
    reference from which the data are taken is indicated by (r).

    7.2  Specific restrictions/requirements

    7.2.1  USA

         In the USA carbon tetrachloride and any mixture containing it is
    banned as a hazardous product because it posesses such a degree of
    hazard that adequate cautionary labelling cannot be written and public
    health can only be served by keeping it out of interstate commerce.
    This does not apply to unavoidable manufacturing residues in other
    chemicals if any reasonable use does not result in atmospheric
    concentrations of more than 63 mg/m3 (reference date, 1982).

    7.2.2  Canada

         In Canada it is illegal to sell, advertise or import products
    that consist of or contain carbon tetrachloride where it is packaged
    as a consumer product (effective date, 1971).

    7.2.3  EEC

    a)   In case of exposure to carbon tetrachloride, Member States shall,
         in addition to other general measures, ensure: 1) medical
         surveillance of workers prior to and/or during exposure; 2)
         access for workers to their individual and anonymus collective
         results. The general measures are in order to keep exposure as
         low as reasonably practicable (effective date, 1983).

    b)   Carbon tetrachloride must not form part of the composition of
         cosmetic products. The marketing of cosmetic products  containing
         the substance is prohibited (effective date, 1988).


    
    CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS

    Exposure limit values

                                                                                                                                

    Medium    Specification    Country/organization    Exposure limit description                   Value       Effective date
                                                                                                                                

    AIR       Occupational     Australia               Threshold limit value (TLV)                              1983 (r)
                                                       - Time-weighted average (TWA)                30 mg/m3
                                                       - Short-term exposure limit (STEL)           125 mg/m3

                               Belgium                 Threshold limit value (TLV)                              1984 (r)
                                                       - Time-weighted average (TWA)                30 mg/m3

                               Canada                  Threshold limit value (TLV)                              1980
                                                       - Time-weighted average (TWA)                30 mg/m3

                               Finland                 Maximum permissible concentration                        1982 (r)
                                                       - Time-weighted average (TWA)                33 mg/m3
                                                       - Short-term exposure limit (STEL)           66 mg/m3
                                                         (15 min)

                               Germany                 Maximum acceptable concentration                         1987 (r)
                                                       - Short-term exposure limit (STEL)           20 mg/m3

                               Hungary                 Maximum limit                                10 mg/m3    1988

                               Italy                   Threshold limit value (TLV)                  65 mg/m3    1978 (r)

                               Japan                   - Threshold limit value (TLV)                31 mg/m3    1991
                                                         (Skin adsorption)

                               The Netherlands         Maximum limit (MXL)                                      1986 (r)
                                                       - Time-weighted average (TWA)                12.6 mg/m3

                               Poland                  Maximum permissible concentration                        1982 (r)
                                                       - Time-weighted average (TWA)                20 mg/m3
                                                       - Short-term exposure limit (30 min TWA)     100 mg/m3

    CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (continued)

                                                                                                                                

    Medium    Specification    Country/organization    Exposure limit description                   Value       Effective date
                                                                                                                                

                               Romania                 Maximum permissible concentration                        1975 (r)
                                                       - Time-weighted average (TWA)                50 mg/m3
                                                       - Ceiling limit value (CLV)                  100 mg/m3

                               Russia                  Time-weighted average (TWA)                  20 mg/m3    1988

                               Sweden                  Hygienic limit value (HLV)                               1988
                                                       - Time-weighted average (TWA)                13 mg/m3
                                                       - Short-term exposure limit (STEL)           19 mg/m3
                                                         (15-min TWA)

                               Switzerland             Maximum acceptable concentration                         1987 (r)
                                                       - Time-weighted average (TWA)                30 mg/m3

                               United Kingdom          Time-weighted average (TWA)                  65 mg/m3    1987 (r)
                                                       - Short-term exposure limit (STEL)           130 mg/m3
                                                         (10-min TWA)

                               USA/ACGIH               Threshold limit value (TLV)                              1987 (r)
                                                       - Time-weighted average (TWA)                31 mg/m3
                                                       - Short-term exposure limit (STEL)           63 mg/m3

                               USA                     Permissible exposure limit (PEL)                         1974
                                                       - Time-weighted average (TWA)                63 mg/m3
                                                       - Ceiling limit value (CLV)                  160 mg/m3
                                                                                                                                
    

    c)   Carbon tetrachloride may not be used in ornamental objects
         intended to produce light or colour effects by means of different
         phases, for example in ornamental lamps and ashtrays (effective
         date, 1987)

    7.3  Labelling, packaging and transport

    7.3.1  USA

         In the USA it is permitted to use carbon tetrachloride as a
    component of adhesives in articles intended for use in packaging,
    transporting or holding food (reference date, 1981).

    7.3.2  EEC

         Carbon tetrachloride is considered to be a harmful substance.
    Member States shall ensure that dangerous preparations (solvents) are
    not placed on the market unless their packages and fastenings and
    labels comply with the EEC requirements (effective date, 1984).

    7.3.3  United Kingdom

         Labelling of road tankers: toxic substance (emergency action
    code, 2Z) (effective date, 1979).
    
    

    BIBLIOGRAPHY


    CEC/IPCS (1994) International Chemical Safety Card 0024: Carbon
    tetrachloride. Luxembourg, Commission of the European Communities.

    Dutch Chemical Industry Association (1994) Chemical safety sheets.
    Samson Chemical Publishers.

    IARC (1979) Some halogenated hydrocarbons. Lyon, International Agency
    for Research on Cancer. (IARC Monographs on the evaluation of
    carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans, volume 20).

    IRPTC Data Profile (legal file) on carbon terachloride. In: Database
    of ECDIN (via DIMDI), field 'Standards and Regulations'. Geneva,
    International Registry of Potentially Toxic Chemicals.

    Walsh D (1989) Chemical Safety Data Sheets, Volume 1. Royal Society of
    Chemistry, England.

    WHO (in press) Environmental Health Criteria 208: Carbon
    tetrachloride. Geneva, World Health Organization.

    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Carbon Tetrachloride (EHC 208, 1999)
       Carbon tetrachloride (ICSC)
       Carbon tetrachloride (FAO Meeting Report PL/1965/10/2)
       Carbon tetrachloride (FAO/PL:1967/M/11/1)
       Carbon tetrachloride (FAO/PL:1968/M/9/1)
       Carbon tetrachloride (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 1)
       Carbon tetrachloride (Pesticide residues in food: 1979 evaluations)
       Carbon Tetrachloride (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 71, 1999)