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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 103

    WHITE SPIRIT (STODDARD SOLVENT)
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1996

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization.


    WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    White Spirit (Stoddard solvent): health and safety guide.

    (Health and safety guide ; no. 103)

    1.Solvents - adverse effects        2.Solvent - toxicity
    3.Environmental exposure            I.Series

    ISBN 92 4 151103 6          (NLM Classification: QV 633)
    ISSN 0259-7268

    The World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to
    reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. 
    Applications and enquiries should be addressed to the Office of
    Publications, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, which
    will be glad to provide the latest information on any changes made to
    the text, plans for new editions, and reprints and translations
    already available.

    (c) World Health Organization 1996

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  All rights reserved.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    TABLE OF CONTENT

    1.   PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

         1.1   Identity
         1.2   Physical and chemical properties
         1.3   Analytical methods
         1.4   Production and uses

    2.   SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

         2.1   Environmental transport, distribution and transformation
         2.2   Environmental levels and human exposure
         2.3   Kinetics and metabolism
         2.4   Effects on laboratory and  in vitro systems
         2.5   Effects on humans
         2.6   Effects on other organisms in the laboratory and field

    3.   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

         3.1   Conclusions
         3.2   Recommendations

    4.   HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION

         4.1   Human health hazards, prevention and protection, first aid
               4.1.1   Advice to physicians
               4.1.2   Health surveillance advice
         4.2   Explosion and fire hazards
         4.3   Storage
         4.4   Transport
         4.5   Spillage and disposal

    5.   HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    6.   SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION

    7.   CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

         7.1   Previous evaluations by international bodies
         7.2   Exposure limit values
         7.3   Labelling, packaging and transport

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    

    INTRODUCTION

    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) monographs produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a
    chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological
    agents. They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes. The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC.
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency. Within the Guide is a Summary of Chemical Safety
    Information which should be readily available, and should be clearly
    explained, to all who could come into contact with the chemical. The
    section on regulatory information has been extracted from the legal
    file of the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
    (IRPTC) and from other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes occupational health services, those in
    ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are
    involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
    environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on
    this topic. An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be
    familiar to the intended user. However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably
    contain some technical terms. A bibliography has been included for
    readers who require further background information.

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology.
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

                                      The Director
                      International Programme on Chemical Safety
                               World Health Organization
                                     1211 Geneva 27
                                       Switzerland

                                                                        

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING 
    POINT TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME
                                                                        

    1.  PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

         Common names:  white spirit, Stoddard solvent.

         White spirit is a mixture of saturated aliphatic and alicyclic
    C7 to C12 hydrocarbons with a maximum content of 25% of C7 to C12
    alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons.

         Molecular formulae:

              CnH2n+2        ( n-alkanes and isoalkanes)
              CnH2n          (cycloalkanes)a
              CnH2n-6        (aromatics), n > 6

         Relative molecular mass:

              150            (Approximate average value)
              92-170         (for single constituents)

         Common synonyms:

         Lacknafta (Sweden); Lakkibensiini (Finland); Mineral Spirit;
    Mineral Turpentine; Mineralsk Terpentin (Denmark); Mineralterpentin
    (Sweden); Petroleum Spirits; Solvent Naphtha; Stoddard solvent; 
    Terpentin (Denmark); Testbenzin (Germany); Turpentine Substitute.

         Common trade name:

         B.A.S.; C.A.S.; Clairsol; Dilutine; Exxsol; Halpasol; Hydrosol;
    Indusol; Sane; Kristalloel; Laws; Ragia; Sangajol; Shellsol; Solfina;
    Solnap; Solvesso; Spezialbenzin; Spirdane; Spraysol; Stoddard Solvent;
    Supersol; Terpentina; Tetrasol; Thersol; Varnolene; Varsol; W.S.;
    White Spirit.

         CAS registry number:8052-41-3  (Stoddard solvent);
                             64742-82-1 (white spirit type 1);
                             64741-92-0 (white spirit type 2);
                             64742-48-9 (white spirit type 3);
                             64742-88-7 (white spirit type 0).

         Three different types and three different grades of white spirit
    exist.  The type refers to whether the solvent has been subjected to
    hydrodesulfurization (removal of sulfur) alone (type 1), solvent

              

    a  Aliphatic alkanes are also known as "paraffins", while
       "naphthenes" is a commonly used term for cycloalkanes.

    extraction (type 2) or hydrogenation (type 3).  Each type comprises
    three different grades:  low flash grade, regular grade and high flash
    grade.  The grade is determined by the crude oil used as the starting
    material and the conditions of distillation.

         In addition there is type 0, which is defined as distillation
    fraction with no further treatment, consisting predominantly of
    saturated C9 to C12 hydrocarbons with a boiling range of 140-200C.

         A USA variety of type 1 is called Stoddard solvent.  It is a
    petroleum distillate defined according to its boiling range of
    149-204C and the absence of rancid or objectionable odours.

    1.2  Physical and chemical properties

         White spirit is clear, colourless, non-viscous solvent with a
    characteristic odour.  Other properties are given in Table 1.

         Conversion factors (at 25C and normal atmospheric pressure):

         1 ppm = 5.25 to 6.0 mg/m3
         1 mg/m3 = 0.17 to 0.19 ppm

    1.3  Analytical methods

         Sampling of air for white spirit may be performed by the use of
    gas pipettes or flexible bags.  Alternatively, white spirit vapour can
    be trapped on charcoal tubes.

         Analytical measurements in air may be conducted by directly
    reading infrared instruments, which yield quantitative results of
    total content of hydrocarbons.  Qualitative results can be obtained by
    gas chromatographic separation of the sample and detection by flame
    ionization or mass spectrometry.

    1.4  Production and uses

         In 1985 the total amount of the various white spirit solvent
    produced in the USA was 922 000 tonnes.  This was made up of odourless
    white spirit (236 000 tonnes), Stoddard solvent (324 000 tonnes) and
    140 Flash solvent (326 000 tonnes).

         White spirit is used as an extraction solvent, as a cleaning
    solvent, as a degreasing solvent and as a solvent in aerosols, paints,
    wood preservatives, lacquers, varnishes and asphalt products.  In
    western Europe about 60% of the total white spirit consumption is used
    in paints, lacquers and varnishes.  White spirit is the most widely
    used solvent in the paint industry.

        Table 1.  Physical properties of white spirit
                                                                                                

                                            Low flash      Regular                 High flash
                                                                                                

    Initial boiling point (IBP) (C)        130-144        145-174                 175-200

    Final boiling point (C)                               IBP+21, max. 220

    Average relative molecular mass         140            150                     160

    Relative density (15C)                 0.765          0.780                   0.795

    Flash point (C)                        21-30          31-54                   > 55

    Vapour pressure (kPa, 20C)             1.4            0.6                     0.1

    Volatility (n-butyl acetate=1)          0.47           0.15                    0.04

    Autoignition temperature (C)           240            240                     230

    Explosion limits (% by volume in air)   0.6-6.5        0.6-6.5                 0.6-8

    Vapour density (air=1)                  4.5-5          4.5-5                   4.5-5

    Refractive index (at 20C)              1.41-1.44      1.41-1.44               1.41-1.44
                                                                                                

    Table 1.  (Cont'd)
                                                                                                

                                            Low flash      Regular                 High flash
                                                                                                

    Viscosity (cps, 25C)                   0.74-1.65      0.74-1.65               0.74-1.65

    Solubility (% by weight in water)       < 0.1          < 0.1                   < 0.1

    Kauri-butanol value                     29-33          29-33                   29-33

    Aniline point (C)                      60-75          60-75                   60-75

    Reactivity                                             reaction with strong
                                                           oxidizing agents

    Odour threshold (mg/m3)                 -              0.5-5                 4
                                                                                                
    
    2.  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Environmental transport, distribution and transformation

         The environmental transport and transformation of white spirit
    constituents will depend on the physico-chemical and biological
    properties of the constituents.  The lower molecular weight alkanes
    and aromatics tend to volatilize and undergo photodegradation in the
    atmosphere.  The higher molecular weight alkanes and cycloalkanes tend
    to be sorbed to organic matter in soil or water.  Biodegradation is
    expected to be the primary fate of white spirit in soil and water. 
    Biodegradation of C7 to C12 hydrocarbons is expected to be
    significant under environmental conditions favourable to microbial
    oxidation.  Ready biodegradability has been demonstrated in laboratory
    tests using sewage sludge. The low water solubility and moderate
    vapour pressure of white spirit suggest that volatilization and
    subsequent photooxidation are important for abiotic degradation. 
    Reported octanol/water partition coefficients (log Pow) of 3.5 to 6.4
    indicate a moderate potential for bioaccumulation.  However, the
    degradability and lowered bioavailability following sorption would
    reduce the likelihood of bioconcentration in the field.

    2.2  Environmental levels and human exposure

         There are few data on white spirit in air, water or soil. 
    Monitoring at a site contaminated with spilt white spirit (Stoddard
    solvent) revealed soil levels of up to 3600 mg/kg and deep soil water
    levels of up to 500 mg/litre.  Biodegradation led to a 90% reduction
    in soil concentration over a 4-month period following remediation.

         Humans are predominately exposed to white spirit through the
    inhalation of vapour.  The general population is exposed during the
    domestic use of paints and lacquers containing white spirit.  Mean
    exposure concentrations during amateur painting have not been
    estimated but would be expected to be similar to those encountered by
    professionals. Exposure concentrations for humans in recently painted
    rooms would be expected to be lower, but no estimated values are
    available.  Occupationally exposed humans would be exposed to similar
    concentrations during house painting.  Spray-painting could lead to
    higher exposures and exposure to aerosols.  An 8-h average exposure
    level of 150-240 mg/m3 has been estimated for painters in ventilated
    rooms.  Peak concentrations in closed or poorly ventilated rooms may
    be as high as 6200 mg/m3, particularly at high temperatures.

         Vehicle washers using products containing white spirit showed
    measured time-weighted average (TWA) exposures ranging from 5 to
    465 mg/m3 for automobiles and 45 to 805 mg/m3 for heavy vehicles. 
    TWA measurements of between 90 and 210 mg/m3 were made in dry

    cleaning plants using white spirit (Stoddard solvent).  The highest
    reported exposure concentration was for workers in airline hangars,
    with a short-term value of up to 8860 mg/m3.

    2.3  Kinetics and metabolism

         White spirit vapour is readily absorbed by inhalation.  In humans
    59% of the aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons and 70% of the
    aromatic hydrocarbons were absorbed at a white spirit vapour level of
    1000 mg/m3.  The hydrocarbons are distributed from blood to other
    tissues, and a human fat:blood partition coefficient of 47 has been
    calculated.  White spirit is widely distributed throughout the body in
    humans.  Experiments performed with single hydrocarbon exposure to
    rats revealed higher brain:blood partition ratios for aliphatics and
    alicyclics than for aromatic hydrocarbons.

         White spirit is eliminated from the blood in a biphasic manner
    after exposure.  After an initial and very short distribution phase
    with rapid elimination from the blood, a long phase with a
    considerably slower elimination (half-life of about 46 h) follows. 
    Thus, white spirit has been detected in blood 66 h after a single
    inhalation exposure.  The half-life in adipose tissue has been
    estimated to be 46-48 h.

         Only sparse data on elimination and metabolism of white spirit
    exist, but urinary excretion of metabolites and elimination of parent
    compounds through expiration have been demonstrated in humans.

    2.4  Effects on laboratory animals and in vitro systems

         White spirit possesses low acute toxicity for mammals.  Thus an
    LC50 for rats was not achieved with 8-h exposure to 8200 mg/m3
    (1400 ppm).  In a group of four cats, all were killed at 10 000 mg/m3
    (vapour and aerosols).  The general signs were irritation, loss of
    coordination, tremor and clonic spasms.  No mortality was found after
    oral administration (gavage) of 5000 mg/kg to rats.  In rabbits loss
    of appetite and hypoactivity followed a single dermal exposure of
    2000-3000 mg/kg, and death occurred in 1 out of 16 exposed animals.

         In skin irritation tests white spirit was determined to be a
    slight to moderate irritant.

         In short- and long-term toxicity studies on white spirit, the
    central nervous system (CNS), respiratory system, liver and kidney
    were generally found to be the target of white spirit toxicity.

         Irritation of the respiratory tract has been observed following
    inhalation exposure, and histopathological signs from irritation have
    been observed in rats exposed nose-only to 4-h exposures for 4 days at
    214 mg/m3.

         Guinea-pigs were the most sensitive of five species tested with
    long-term exposure.  There was increased mortality following 90 days
    of continuous exposure to levels of 363 mg/m3 or more.  During
    postmortem examinations pulmonary irritation was found.

         Rats exposed to 4800 mg/m3, 8 h daily, for 26 weeks exhibited
    reduced nerve conduction velocity in the tail axon.  Neurobehavioural
    tests indicated only mild effects and only immediately after a daily
    exposure.

         Rats exposed to 2290 and 4580 mg/m3, 6 h daily, for 3 weeks or 6
    months were found to develop increases in the levels of catecholamines
    and serotonine in the brain and reduced protein content in
    synaptosomes isolated from the animals.  No effects were noted in
    neurobehavioural tests.

         Neurophysiological recordings have shown changes in sensory
    evoked potentials in the brain of rats measured 2 months after a
    6-month period of exposure to either 2339 or 4679 mg/m3 (400 or
    800 ppm) of dearomatized white spirit.  Three weeks of exposure to
    this solvent also resulted in increased levels of reactive oxygen
    species in brain tissue from the rats.

         In several inhalation studies, male rats developed the so-called
    "alpha2-microglobulin nephropathy".

         Repeated dermal exposure of rabbits caused reduction in weight
    gain and liver toxicity at dose levels of 2000 mg/kg, given 3 times
    weekly for 4 weeks.

         There have been three developmental toxicity studies, all of
    which reported essentially negative findings.  However, insufficient
    data are available for a comprehensive assessment.

         White spirit was not found to be genotoxic in assays using
     Salmonella typhimurium and  Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a mouse
    lymphoma mutation assay, mouse and rat bone marrow cytogenic tests,
    and rodent (rat and mouse) dominant lethal tests.

         No carcinogenicity studies have been performed with experimental
    animals exposed to white spirit.  Related heavier and lighter refinery
    distillation streams such as kerosene, straight-run and light
    straight-run naphtha have induced skin tumours in mice after 80 weeks
    of skin application.

    2.5  Effects on humans

         The odour threshold of white spirit is quite low, and vapours can
    be detected at levels of 0.5-5 mg/m3.  Tolerance of the odour may be
    developed.

         Eye irritation has been reported in connection with acute
    exposure down to a level of 600 mg/m3 (100 ppm).  At higher levels
    respiratory irritation and more pronounced eye irritation occur. 
    Acute CNS symptoms such as headache, drunkenness, dizziness and
    fatigue have been reported in several cases of occupational exposure.

         Controlled 7-h exposure to levels of 600 mg/m3 or more resulted
    in impaired balance during walking and to an increased reaction time. 
    Exposure to 4000 mg/m3 for 50 min resulted in impaired performance in
    tests for perceptual speed and short-term memory.

         One case of cyanosis, apnoea and cardiac arrest after excessive
    inhalation exposure during painting has been reported.

         Ingestion of white spirit has been reported to produce
    gastrointestinal irritation with pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. 
    Lesions of the mucous membranes in the oesophagus and the
    gastrointestinal tract followed the oral exposure.

         Due to its low viscosity and low surface tension, white spirit
    poses a risk of aspiration into the lungs following oral exposure.  A
    few ml of solvent aspirated into the lungs is able to produce serious
    bronchopneumonia and 10-30 ml may be fatal.

         Prolonged dermal exposure to white spirit, e.g., resulting from
    wearing clothes that have been soaked or moistened by white spirit for
    hours, may produce irritation and dermatitis.

         Single cases of acute toxicity to the kidney, liver and bone
    marrow have been reported following exposure to white spirit at high
    levels.  However, owing to lack of details and the sporadic nature of
    the reportings, the relevance of these findings is unclear.

         There have been few reports concerning the haematological or
    biochemical effects of white spirit.  However, clinical studies reveal
    decreased erythrocyte, leucocyte and platelet counts, and increased
    mean corpuscular volume in exposed workers.  Similar haematological
    changes have been observed in animal studies.  There are no consistent
    serum biochemical changes; reduced aspartate aminotransferase and
    lactate dehydrogenase activity and elevated creatinine kinase activity
    have been observed.

         Numerous epidemiological studies have been performed involving
    painters with long-term exposure to white spirit.  Increased incidence
    of complaints of memory impairment, fatigue, impaired concentration,
    irritability, dizziness, headache, anxiety and apathy have been
    demonstrated in several cross-sectional studies.  Studies including
    neuropsychological tests have shown impaired ability in performing
    some of the tests.  In some studies an overall reduction in cognitive
    functioning was noted to a degree that corresponded to a diagnosis of

    chronic toxic encephalopathy.  In a few studies a dose-response
    relationship was established.  This was the case in a comprehensive
    study in which painters predominantly exposed to white spirit were
    compared with non-exposed bricklayers.  Painters with low solvent
    exposure were comparable to non-exposed bricklayers with regard to
    neuropsychological test results.  However, the prevalence of impaired
    functioning increased with increasing exposure in the groups of
    painters with medium and high exposure.

         Similar complaints and neuropsychological test results, although
    more severe, were reported from clinical studies in which painters
    predominantly exposed to white spirit had been referred to
    occupational medical clinics for detailed examinations because of
    health complaints and suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy due to
    the long-term solvent exposure.

         In case-control studies, increased odds ratios for the award of
    disability pension because of mental disturbances were found for
    painters compared to other occupational groups not exposed to white
    spirit or other solvents.

         Several case-control studies have shown a high risk of
    glomerulonephritis among painters.  Even though cross-sectional
    studies using early markers of nephropathy were inconclusive, they are
    consistent with the hypothesis that painters have an increased risk of
    glomerulonephritis and renal dysfunction.

         Several minor studies concerning reproductive effects in humans
    have been undertaken.  In one of the most extensive studies,
    reproductive parameters were compared between members of a union for
    painters and members of a union for electricians.  No firm conclusion
    in this or in the other studies could be drawn as no significant
    differences occurred.  Nevertheless, there is a suggestion that
    parental exposure to solvents may have an untoward effect on the
    offspring.  However, there is no adequately reported information
    directly related to white spirit.

         Few epidemiological studies of cancer in humans exposed solely to
    white spirit are available.  Increased risks of respiratory,
    pancreatic and kidney cancer have been reported in three studies on
    dry cleaners where white spirit was the predominant cleaning solvent. 
    For painters, an occupational group widely exposed to white spirit,
    evidence has been found of increased cancer risks, particularly in the
    lung and bladder.

         There was no increase in sister-chromatid exchange in a group of
    painters with long-term solvent exposure.  However, there were some
    small increases in cytogenetic damage in a small number of humans
    exposed mainly to petroleum vapours.

    2.6  Effects on other organisms in the laboratory and field

         Few studies on the toxicity of white spirit to organisms other
    than laboratory mammals have been reported.

         Reports of inhibitory effects on growth of the fungus
     Aspergillus niger have been made, although concentrations of the
    white spirit in the growth medium were difficult to assess.  No
    effects were found on mycorrhizal fungi is a single study.  Increased
    oxygen uptake by excised plant root tips has been reported; the
    significance of this finding is doubtful for actual exposure in the
    field.

         The few studies on the aquatic toxicity of white spirit and
    related hydrocarbon mixtures indicate moderate toxicity to freshwater
    and marine organisms.  The toxicity is probably due to the dissolved
    fraction and leads to 96-h LC50 values of the order of 0.5 to
    5.0 mg/litre.

         These results are likely to overestimate the effects of white
    spirit in the field, given its volatility and lowered bioavailability
    following sorption to soil/sediment.

    3.  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    3.1  Conclusions

         White spirit has low acute toxicity by inhalation, dermal and
    oral routes.  However, acute exposure can lead to central nervous
    system (CNS) depression resulting in lack of coordination and slowed
    reactions.  Exposure to very high concentrations in enclosed spaces
    can lead to narcotic effects and loss of consciousness.  Oral
    ingestion presents a high aspiration hazard.  Prolonged or repeated
    skin exposure can result in severe irritant dermatitis.

         Exposure to an average white spirit concentration of 240 mg/m3
    (40 ppm) for more than 13 years could lead to chronic CNS effects. 
    White spirit is implicated in the development of "chronic toxic
    encephalopathy" among house painters.

         Owing to the volatility and low bioavailability of its
    constituents, white spirit, although it is moderately toxic to aquatic
    organisms, is unlikely to present significant hazards to the
    environment.

    3.2  Recommendations

    a)   In order to reduce exposure concentrations for the general
         public and the occupationally exposed, paints based on white
         spirit should only be used in adequately ventilated areas.

    b)   All practicable methods should be used to minimize exposure
         of indoor painters to white spirit.  Greater use should be
         made of water-based and other paints.

    4.  HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION

    4.1  Human health hazards, prevention and protection, first aid

         The human health effects associated with exposure to white spirit
    are summarized in section 2.5.  They are also listed in the Summary of
    Chemical Safety Information (section 6), along with preventive and
    protective measures and first-aid recommendations.

    4.1.1  Advice to physicians

         Exposure to high vapour concentrations can lead to headache,
    dizziness and fatigue.  CNS depression may result in lack of
    coordination and extended response time.  Chest pain, cyanosis, apnoea
    and cardiac arrest have been reported.

         If white spirit is swallowed, droplets can enter the lungs and
    cause pneumonitis.  Symptoms usually take several hours to become
    apparent and are aggravated by physical effort.  Rest and observation
    are therefore essential.

         Following ingestion, vomiting should not be induced, because of
    the danger of aspiration into the lungs. Gastric lavage should only be
    given when aspiration into the lungs can be avoided by the use of a
    cuffed endotracheal tube.

    4.1.2  Health surveillance advice

         Depending on the extent of exposure, regular medical check-ups
    are advisable.  Emphasis should be placed on examination of the
    central nervous system function.  However the skin should also be
    examined since white spirit is a defatting agent and can cause
    dermatitis on prolonged exposure.

         Since white spirit may cause liver damage, a profile of liver
    function should be obtained.  Urinalysis should also be undertaken as
    the kidneys may be affected by white spirit.  A complete blood count
    should be performed.

    4.2  Explosion and fire hazards

         White spirit is flammable and presents a moderate fire and
    explosion risk, especially when exposed to heat or flame.  Depending
    on the grade, the flashpoint can lie between 21 and 55C or higher. 
    Combustion results in the formation of carbon monoxide.  White spirit
    forms explosive air-vapour mixtures above 21C.

         Adequate ventilation should be provided and smoking prohibited. 
    Sealed machinery and explosion-proof electrical equipment should be
    used.

         Fire extinguishers containing powder, foam or carbon dioxide are
    recommended.  Containers should be kept cool by spraying with water.

    4.3  Storage

         White spirit should be stored in a well-ventilated cool area in
    tightly closed fire-resistant clearly labelled containers.  It should
    be kept away from strong oxidants.  No smoking should be allowed
    whithin the storage area.

    4.4  Transport

         Containers should be in good condition and properly labelled, and
    should be kept in a well-ventilated place, away from sources of
    ignition.  Transport should comply with national and international
    requirements regarding the transport of flammable material.

    4.5  Spillage and disposal

         In the event of spillage, naked flames, sparks and heat should be
    avoided.  Protective clothing should be worn.  Leaking liquid should
    be collected in a sealable container.  Spilled liquid should be
    absorbed in sand or other inert absorbent and removed to a safe place. 
    White spirit should not be allowed to enter a sewer because of the
    possibility of an explosion.  If it has entered drains, the local
    authorities should be informed.

         The International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
    recommends disposal of terpentine as follows: "Spray into a furnace. 
    Incineration will become easier by mixing with a more flammable
    solvent".

    5.  HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

         Only as a result of spillage are substantial amounts of white
    spirit likely to be found in the environment.  However, most of the
    constituent compounds evaporate fairly rapidly.  The less volatile
    constituents partition to soil and sediment; this lowers the
    bioavailability and reduces the uptake by organisms.

         White spirit is moderately toxic to aquatic organisms.  There is
    moderate potential for bioaccumulation but the tendency for bio-
    concentration is probably low.

    6.  SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION

         This summary should be easily available to all health workers
    concerned with, and users of, white spirit.  It should be displayed
    at, or near, entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to
    white spirit and on processing equipment and containers.  The summary
    should be translated into the appropriate language(s).  All persons
    potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions
    in the summary clearly explained.

         Space is available for insertion of the National Occupational
    Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the National
    Poison Control Centre, and local trade names.

        SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                              

                                                 WHITE SPIRIT (STODDARD SOLVENT)
                                                                                                                                              

    CAS registry numbers:                        64742-82-1 (white spirit type 1)
                                                 64741-92-0 (white spirit type 2)
                                                 64742-48-9 (white spirit type 3)
                                                 64742-88-7 (white spirit type 0)
                                                 8052-41-3  (stoddard solvent)
                                                                                                                                              

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                          (Regular grade)                                OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                              

    Relative molecular mass                      150                                            Clear colourless liquid with a characteristic
                                                                                                odour (odour threshold=0.5-5 mg/m3);
    Initial boiling point (C)                   145-174                                        reacts with strong oxidants causing fire and
                                                                                                explosion hazards; attacks some forms of
    Flash point (C)                             31-54                                          plastics, rubber and coatings

    Autoignition temperature (C)                240

    Explosive limits                             0.6-6.5
    (% volume in air)

    Relative density (15C)                      0.78

    Relative vapour density                      4.5-5

    Vapour pressure (Pa at 20C)                 600

    Volatility (n-butyl acetate=1)               0.15

    Refractive index (20C)                      1.41-1.44
                                                                                                                                              

    SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION (Con't)
                                                                                                                                              

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                          (Regular grade)                                OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                              

    Viscosity (cps at 25C)                      0.74-1.65

    Solubility in water (% by weight)            < 0.1
                                                                                                                                              

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                             PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                      FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                              

    EYES:  Redness, irritation                   Wear safety goggles                            Rinse with plenty of water for at least 15
                                                                                                minutes (remove contact lenses if possible);
                                                                                                obtain medical attention

    SKIN:  Dry rough skin with small cracks;     Avoid skin contact; wear protective clothing   Remove contaminated clothes; wash skin with
    defatting; possibility of severe irritant    and gloves                                     soap and plenty of water
    dermatitis

    INHALATION:  Headache, nausea, fatigue,      Ventilation, local exhaust or breathing        Fresh air, rest, artificial respiration if
    pulmonary irritation, dizziness, confusion,  protection                                     necessary; obtain medical attention
    slowed reactions, unconsciousness

    INGESTION:  Sore throat, cough, headache,    Do not eat, drink or smoke during work         Rinse mouth; do NOT induce vomiting; obtain
    nausea, vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness,                                                    medical attention immediately
    gastrointestinal irritation, diarrhoea;
    aspiration in lungs can cause chemical
    pneumonitis and be fatal
                                                                                                                                              

    SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION (Con't)
                                                                                                                                              

    SPILLAGE                                     STORAGE                                        FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                              

    Ventilate area; collect leaking and spilled  Keep in fire-proof place, separate from        Flammable; explosive vapour/air mixtures may
    liquid in sealable containers as far as      strong oxidants                                be formed; in case of fire, keep containers
    possible, absorb remaining liquid in sand                                                   cool by spraying with water; use powder, foam
    or  other inert absorbent and remove to                                                     or carbon dioxide to extinguish fire
    safe place
                                                                                                                                              

    WASTE DISPOSAL                               NATIONAL INFORMATION                           LABELLING
                                                                                                                                              

    Incinerate                                   National occupational exposure limit:          United Nations Hazard Class:  3
                                                 National Poison Control Centre:
                                                 Local trade names:
                                                                                                                                              
        7.  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

         The information given in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) level
    file.  A full reference to the original national document from which
    the information was extracted can be obtained from IRPTC.  When no
    effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of the
    reference from which the data are taken is indicated by (r).

         The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about
    chemicals, taken in a certain country, can only be fully understood in
    the framework of the legislation of the country.  Furthermore, the
    regulations and guidelines of all countries are subject to change and
    should always be verified with appropriate regulatory authorities
    before application.

    7.1  Previous evaluations by international bodies

         IPCS (1982) evaluated petroleum solvents, including white spirit,
    and drew attention to acute CNS effects (narcosis) resulting from
    accidental inhalation of very high vapour concentrations and to
    feelings of ill health resulting from excessive chronic exposure.

         In 1986 the Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational
    Exposure Limits concluded that the critical effects of white spirit
    are irritation of the eyes and mucous membranes, and acute and chronic
    CNS effects.  It also noted that the risk of developing chronic toxic
    encephalopathy following long-term exposure should be considered.

         The International Agency for Research on Cancer evaluated certain
    petroleum solvents, including white spirit, in 1989 and found these
    solvents not classifiable with respect to their carcinogenicity to
    humans (Group 3).  There was inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity
    in humans and no experimental animal data on white spirit were
    available (IARC 1989a).

         In 1994 the European Union classified white spirit, owing to the
    aspiration risk, as harmful (Xn) and attached the risk phrase R22
    (harmful if swallowed).  This phrase may soon be replaced by phrase
    R65 (harmful, it may cause lung damage if swallowed).

    7.2  Exposure limit values

         Some exposure limit values are given in the Current Regulations,
    Guidelines and standards table.

    7.3  Labelling, packaging and transport

         The International Maritime Organization classified white spirit
    as a category B substance, "a substance which is bioaccumulated with a
    short retention time of the order of one week or less, or which is

    liable to produce a tainting of sea food, or which is moderately toxic
    to aquatic life.  Discharge into the sea of white spirit, of ballast
    water, tank washings or other residues or mixtures containing white
    spirit shall be prohibited except where specific conditions are
    satisfied".

         The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of
    Dangerous Goods classified white spirit (terpentine substitute) as a
    flammable liquid (Hazard Class 3).  It adds the following special
    provision:

         "Packing Group according to grouping criteria for flammable
    liquids.  Substances not meeting the criteria of Packing Group I, II
    or III are considered non-dangerous provided they do not meet the
    definition of any other class or division".

         European Economic Community legislation requires white spirit
    (Stoddard solvent) to be labelled as a toxic substance, using the
    symbol Xn.

    FIGURE 1

         The following label statements are required:

         R 10   Flammable
         R 22   Harmful if swallowed
         S 45   In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical
                advice immediately (show the label where possible)
         S 53   Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use

        CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS
                                                                                                                        

    EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES
                                                                                                                        

    Medium   Specification     Country      Exposure limit description                   Value           Effective date
                                                                                                                        

    AIR      Occupational      Argentina    Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                      1991
                                            -  Time-weighted average (TWA)               525 mg/m3

                               Australia    Threshold limit value (TLV)                                  1991(r)
                                            -  Time-weighted average                     790 mg/m3

                               Belgium      Threshold limit value (TLV)                                  1991(r)
                                            -  Time-weight average                       525 mg/m3

                               Canada       Threshold limit value (TLV)                                  1991
                                            -  Time-weighted average                     525 mg/m3
                                            -  Short-term exposure limit (STEL)          1050 mg/m3

                               Denmark      Threshold limit value (TLV)                                  1994
                                            -  Time-weight average                       145 mg/m3

                               Mexico       Threshold limit value                                        1991
                                            -  Time-weighted average                     525 mg/m3

                               USA          Threshold limit value (TLV)                                  1991
                               (ACGIH)      -  Time-weighted average                     525 mg/m3

                               USA          Permissible exposure limit (PEL)                             1989
                               (OSHA)       -  Time-weighted average                     525 mg/m3

                               USA          Recommended exposure limit (REL)                             1977
                               (NIOSH)      -  Time-weighted average                     350 mg/m3
                                            -  Ceiling value (15 min.)                   1800 mg/m3
                                                                                                                        
        BIBLIOGRAPHY

    ACGIH (1986) Documentation of the threshold limit values and
    biological exposure indices.  Cincinnati, American Conference of
    Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

    ACGIH (1989) Threshold limit values and biological exposure indices
    for 1989-1990.  Cincinnati, American Conference of Governmental
    Industrial Hygienists.

    CEC/IPCS (1981) International Chemical Safety Card 361 Stoddard
    solvent.  Luxembourg, Commission of the European Communities.

    Clayton GD & Clayton FE (1981)  Patty's industrial hygiene and
    toxicology.  Vol. 2B.  New York, John Wiley & Sons.

    Dutch Chemical Industry Association (1991) Chemical Safety sheets. 
    Kluwer Academic Publishers, Samson Chemical Publishers, Dutch
    Institute for the Working Environment, Dutch Chemical Industry
    Association.

    Gosselin RE, Hodge, HC, Smith RP & Gleason MN (1976) Clinical
    toxicology of commercial products.  4th ed. Baltimore, Maryland, The
    William and Wilkins Company.

    IARC (1989) Some petroleum solvents.  In: Some organic solvents, resin
    monomers and related compounds, pigments and occupational exposures in
    paint manufacture and painting.  Lyon, International Agency for
    Research on Cancer, pp. 43-77 (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of
    Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Volume 47).

    IPCS (1982) Environmental Health Criteria 20: Selected petroleum
    products.  Geneva, World Health Organization.

    IPCS (1996) Environmental Health Criteria 187:  White spirit (Stoddard
    solvent).  Geneva, World Health Organization.

    IRPTC (1992-1993)  Legal file.  Geneva, International Register of
    Potentially Toxic Chemicals.

    Sax NI (1984) Dangerous properties of industrial materials.  New York,
    Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

    US NIOSH (1976)  A guide to industrial respiratory protection.  3 Vol. 
    Cincinnati, Ohio, US National Institute for Occupational Safety and
    Health.  Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    US NIOSH/OSHA (1981) Occupational health guidelines for chemical
    hazards.  3 Vol. Washington  DC, US Department of Health and Human
    Services, US Department of Labour (Publication No. DHHS (NIOSH)
    01-123).

    US NIOSH/OSHA (1985) Pocket guide to chemical hazards.  Washington DC,
    US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Occupational
    Safety and Health Administration (Publication No. 85.114).
    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       White spirit (EHC 187, 1996)