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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 21

    ALDRIN AND DIELDRIN
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA


    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 91: Aldrin
    and Dieldrin

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization.

    ISBN 92 4 154343 4
    ISSN 0259 - 7268

    (c) World Health Organization 1989

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World Health
    Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health Organization
    welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
              1.1.1. Primary constituent: aldrin
              1.1.2. Primary constituent: dieldrin
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Analytical methods
         1.4. Uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
         2.1. Summary
         2.2. Evaluation of human health risks
         2.3. Evaluation of effects on the environment

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
         3.1. Conclusions
         3.2. Recommendations

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
         4.1. Main human health hazards, prevention and protection,
              first aid
              4.1.1. Advice to physicians
                        4.1.1.1   Symptoms of poisoning
                        4.1.1.2   Medical advice
              4.1.2. Health surveillance advice
         4.2. Safety in use
         4.3. Explosion and fire hazards
              4.3.1. Explosion hazards
              4.3.2. Fire hazards
         4.4. Storage
              4.4.1. Leaking containers in store
         4.5. Transport
         4.6. Spillage and disposal
              4.6.1. Spillage
              4.6.2. Disposal

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    6. INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Previous evaluations by international bodies
         7.2. Exposure limit values
         7.3. Specific restrictions
              7.3.1. Aldrin
              7.3.2. Dieldrin
         7.4. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.5. Waste disposal
         7.6. Other measures

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    

    INTRODUCTION

    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a
    chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological
    agents.  They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety
    programmes. The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC. 
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly  familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is an International Chemical Safety Card
    which should be readily available, and should be clearly explained, to
    all who could come into contact with the chemical.  The section on
    regulatory information has been extracted from the legal file of the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) and from
    other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes occupational health services, those in
    ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are
    involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of
    environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on
    this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be
    familiar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably
    contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been included for
    readers who require further background information.

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING POINT
    TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME


    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    1.1.1  Primary constituent: aldrin

    Chemical formula:                  C12H8Cl6

    Chemical structure:

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 1

    or

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 2

    Common synonyms and trade names:   ENT 15949 (compound 118); HHDN,
                                       Octalene, OMS 194

    IUPAC chemical name:               (IR,4S,5S,8R)-1,2,3,4,10,10-
                                       hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,8,8a-
                                       hexahydro-1,4:5,8-
                                       dimethanonaphthalene; or
                                       1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,
                                       8,8a-hexahydro- exo-1,4- endo-5,8-
                                       dimethanonaphthalene

    CAS registry number:               309-00-2

    RTECS registry number:             I02100000

    Relative molecular mass:           364.9

     Technical product

    Common trade name:                 Aldrin (this is the common name of
                                       an insecticide containing 95% (w/w)
                                       of HHDN)

    Purity:                            Technical aldrin contains a minimum
                                       of 90% (w/w) of aldrin, as defined
                                       above

    Impurities:                        octachlorocyclopentene (0.4%),
                                       hexachlorobutadiene (0.5%), toluene
                                       (0.6%), and a complex mixture of
                                       compounds formed by polymerization
                                       of HCCPD and BCH during the aldrin
                                       reaction (3.7%) and carbonyl
                                       compounds (2%).

    1.1.2  Primary constituent: dieldrin

    Chemical formula:                  C12H8OCl6

    Chemical structure:

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 3

    or

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 4

    Common synonyms and trade names:   ENT 16225 (compound 497); HEOD,
                                       Alvit, Octalox, OMS 18, Quintox

    IUPAC chemical name:               (IR,4S,5S,8R)-1,2,3,4,10,10-
                                       hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-
                                       octahydro-6,7-epoxy-1,4:5,8-
                                       dimethanonaphthalene; or
                                       1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7,-
                                       epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-
                                        endo-1,4- exo-5,8,-
                                       dimethanonaphthalene

    CAS registry number:               60-57-1

    RTECS registry number:             I01750000

    Relative molecular mass:           380.9

     Technical product

    Common trade name:                 Dieldrin (this is the common name
                                       of an insecticide containing 85%
                                       (w/w) of HEOD)

    Purity:                            Technical dieldrin contains not
                                       less than 95% (w/w)  of dieldrin,
                                       as defined above

    Impurities:                        Other polychloroepoxyoctahydro-
                                       dimethanonaphthalenes (endrin) 3.5%

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    Both technical products are light tan solids with a mild chemical
    odour.  Some physical and chemical properties are given on the
    International Chemical Safety Card on pages 24-27.

    1.3  Analytical Methods

    Analytical methods for the determination of aldrin and dieldrin are
    mainly based on gas-liquid chromatography with electron-capture
    detection.

    1.4  Uses

    Aldrin and dieldrin, both organochlorine pesticides commercially
    manufactured since 1950, were used throughout the world up to the
    early 1970s.  Both compounds act as a contact and stomach poison for
    insects and have been used as insecticides in agriculture for the
    control of many soil pests and in the treatment of seed.  Insects
    controlled by these compounds include termites, grasshoppers, wood
    borers, beetles, and textile pests.  Dieldrin is also used in public
    health for the control of the tse-tse fly and other vectors of
    debilitating tropical diseases.

    Since the early 1970s, use of the two compounds has been severely
    restricted or banned in several countries, especially in agriculture. 
    Nevertheless, they are still used in some other countries for
    termite control.  Global production, which was estimated to be
    13000 tonnes/year in 1972, had decreased to less than 2500 tonnes/year
    in 1984.

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Summary

    Dairy products, meat products, fish, oils and fats, and certain
    vegetables, such as root vegetables, often contain dieldrin.  The
    maximum residue limits recommended by the FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on
    Pesticide Residues range from 0.02 to 0.2 mg/kg product.  Recent
    measurements have shown that actual levels are lower, and this has
    been confirmed by total-diet studies.  Since the use of these two
    compounds has been restricted, there has been a steady, but slow,
    decrease in residue levels in the different food commodities.

    Human intake of low concentrations with the daily diet has resulted in
    low levels of dieldrin in adipose tissue and in a few other tissues
    and organs.  Global surveys have shown that mean values in man range
    from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/kg in adipose tissue.  Since the early 1970s, this
    concentration has also gradually decreased.

    Transplacental exposure of the fetus occurs so that the fatty tissues
    of the fetus also contain dieldrin, but in concentrations that are
    only 1/2-1/10 of those in the mother.  An equilibrium seems to exist
    between levels in the fetus and those in the mother.  Dieldrin is also
    excreted with the milk.

    Inhabitants of houses that have been treated for termite control, or
    in which wood has been treated against insects, may be exposed through
    inhalation.  Levels in the air after indoor treatment may range from
    0.01 to 7 g/m3, depending on the type of application, the
    concentration used, the type of ventilation, and the time of sampling. 
    Under these conditions, food may also be contaminated by direct
    contact or by sorption from the atmosphere.

    Metabolism takes place mainly in the liver where aldrin is readily
    transformed to dieldrin.  Dieldrin is degraded at a slower rate to
    hydrophilic metabolites, which are then excreted via the bile and
    urine.  The structures of these metabolites have been established.  In
    all species examined, including man, the existence of a steady state
    of storage at a certain level of intake for aldrin and dieldrin has
    been shown, and a linear relationship between log-intake and
    log-storage has been demonstrated.  The concentration of dieldrin in
    the body tissues decreases exponentially on termination of exposure to
    the compounds.

    The acute oral toxicity of both aldrin and dieldrin for mammals is
    high, while the dermal toxicity is moderate.  Dermal sensitization has
    not been found.  Effects observed in acute, short-, and long-term
    studies involved the central nervous system.  The liver is also a
    target organ.  In the liver of mice and rats, changes known as
    chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide rodent liver were found.

    Aldrin and dieldrin do not appear to cause teratogenic effects at
    doses below those causing maternal toxicity and fetotoxicity. 
    Reproductive toxicity has not been reported.

    The results of numerous in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity studies have
    shown that neither aldrin nor dieldrin has mutagenic potential.

    In long-term studies, aldrin and dieldrin induced benign and malignant
    liver tumours in the mouse.  No increased incidence of liver tumours
    or other tumours were found in rats and hamsters.

    2.2  Evaluation of Human Health Risks

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has stated that there
    is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in human beings and limited
    evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals.  Both aldrin and
    dieldrin have been classified in Group 3; however, the chemicals
    cannot be classified as to their carcinogenicity in human beings.

    On the basis of available short- and long-term toxicity data, the
    overall no-observed-adverse-effect level in the rat is 0.5 mg
    dieldrin/kg diet, equivalent to 0.025 mg/kg body weight.  In the dog,
    the lowest no-observed-adverse-effect level found was 0.04 mg/kg body
    weight.  The JMPR established an ADI of 0.0001 mg/kg body weight in
    1966 and 1977, on the basis that aldrin and dieldrin were not human
    carcinogens.

    Aldrin and dieldrin are highly toxic for man.  Severe cases of both
    accidental and occupational poisoning have occurred, but reported
    fatalities have been rare.  Survivors of acute or subacute
    intoxications recovered completely.

    Adverse effects are related to the concentration of dieldrin in the
    blood. Determination of the dieldrin level in blood provides a
    specific diagnostic test for aldrin/dieldrin exposure.  At a
    concentration of dieldrin in the blood below 105 g/litre, no adverse
    effects can be expected.  This level is considered to be a
    no-observed-adverse-effect level in blood, corresponding to a daily
    intake of 0.02 mg dieldrin/kg body weight per day.

    Environmental, mainly dietary, exposures lead to the presence of
    dieldrin in low concentrations in the human body.  However, the
    results of extensive clinical and epidemiological studies have
    indicated that these body burdens do not present a health hazard.

    No signs of any changes in liver function were found in a study that
    continued over 20 years, and involved more than 1000 industrial
    workers exposed to aldrin and dieldrin.  In this study and another
    study in the USA, no specific cancer risk could be identified
    associated with occupational exposure to (sometimes high levels of)
    aldrin and dieldrin.

    All the available information on aldrin and dieldrin, including the
    studies on human beings, supports the view that, for practical
    purposes, these chemicals make very little contribution, if any, to
    the incidence of cancer in man.

    The short-term toxicity of photodieldrin, the photodecomposition
    product of dieldrin, is similar to that of dieldrin.  However, the
    accumulation of photodieldrin in the adipose tissue of experimental
    animals was less than that of dieldrin.  Photodieldrin is not
    teratogenic or carcinogenic in mice and rats.

    2.3  Evaluation of Effects on the Environment

    Aldrin, used as soil insecticide, is the major source of dieldrin (up
    to 97%) in the environment.  Aldrin and the reaction product dieldrin
    are rapidly adsorbed on soils, especially soils containing a high
    level of organic matter.  Consequently, there is little penetration
    into the soil, and contamination of ground water does not generally
    occur.  Transport of both compounds takes place mainly through soil
    erosion (as wind drift) and sediment transport (surface run-off), but
    not through leaching.

    The use of aldrin and dieldrin in agriculture leads to residues
    (mainly of dieldrin) in the soil that can persist for years, the
    estimated half-life being between 4 and 7 years.  The compounds are
    less persistent under tropical conditions than under temperate
    conditions.

    Aldrin and dieldrin enter the atmosphere through volatilization from
    treated crops and soil or directly during the application of the
    pesticide. Dieldrin returns to soil and water surfaces hrough washout
    and dry deposition.  Thus, the compounds are found in the vapour phase
    (very low levels, in general 1-2 ng/m3), adsorbed on dust particles,
    or in rainwater (of the order of 10-20 ng/litre).

    The occurrence of dieldrin in the aquatic environment has been
    reported by several authors.  The concentrations in surface water are
    mainly very low, less than 5 ng/litre.  However, concentrations in
    water may be higher, especially in areas of soil erosion or
    agricultural use.  Sediment in rivers in these areas may contain up to
    1 mg dieldrin/kg.  The high capacity for aquatic organisms to
    concentrate dieldrin from very low levels in water could lead to toxic
    levels in the organisms.  Concentration through aquatic foodchains is
    of less importance than direct uptake from water.

    Because of the widespread occurrence of dieldrin in the environment
    and its persistence, a wide range of concentrations of dieldrin are
    found in non-target organisms.  While earlier concentrations ranged
    from 0.001 mg to 100 mg/kg tissue, they are now mostly below 1 mg/kg
    tissue.

    In terrestrial ecosystems, aldrin and dieldrin are accumulated by a
    wide variety of organisms, principally as dieldrin.  Dieldrin is
    probably responsible for the deaths of mammals in the field and for
    the decline in population of some species, such as the otter.  Small
    mammals would be killed by eating dieldrin-dressed grain, but
    populations of these animals are likely to be replenished by
    immigration from surrounding areas.  Birds of prey that eat small
    mammals, and small birds contaminated by dieldrin, take up and
    accumulate dieldrin in their own tissues and eggs.  Granivorous birds
    are killed by eating dressed grain.  It is probable that the
    population decline in birds of prey has been caused by dieldrin
    residues in their tissues.  The effects of dieldrin are seen much
    later than the time of contamination, because residues are stored in
    fat over winter, to be released in the spring.  Control of the use of
    dieldrin at certain times of the year did not prevent bird
    mortalities.

    The widespread use of aldrin and dieldrin, in conjunction with other
    organochlorine pesticides, has led to severe detrimental effects on
    the environment, though with drastic curtailment of use, particularly
    in seed dressings, there has been some recovery in bird populations.

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    3.1  Conclusions

    (a)  Both aldrin and dieldrin have been subjected to intensive and
         wide-ranging study, toxicologically, clinically, and
         epidemiologically.  Residues in the diet generally seem to fall
         within promulgated ADIs.  Evaluation of the overall data strongly
         supports the view that the body burden resulting from the present
         levels of exposure, mainly oral and to a lesser extent through
         inhalation, do not constitute a health risk for the general
         population.

    (b)  Analyses have shown that dieldrin occurs almost ubiquitously in
         human breast milk.  Nevertheless, the concentration of this
         chemical in the blood and adipose tissue of suckling infants does
         not increase with age during the first six months, nor is the
         dieldrin level in their blood higher than that in the blood of
         bottle-fed babies.  Under these circumstances, the benefits of
         natural breast feeding may still be regarded as outweighing the
         alternative methods of infant feeding.

    (c)  In the treatment of premises, notably for termite control, the
         exposure of occupants does not appear to be significantly
         increased to a level that would endanger their health, as long as
         the directions for safe practice are conscientiously respected.

    (d)  Despite the highly toxic nature of aldrin and dieldrin, both of
         these chemicals can be handled safely provided that the
         recommended precautions to  minimize worker exposure are always
         observed.  Neglect of these rules may lead to poisoning of
         operators.

    (e)  During the period of high usage of aldrin and dieldrin, between
         1950 and 1970, detrimental effects were undoubtedly inflicted on
         species in the environment.  These effects were due partly to
         dieldrin and partly to other organochlorine compounds also
         present in the species.  Since the drastic curtailment of the use
         of these materials, there has been a recovery in numbers among
         these species.

    3.2 Recommendations

    (a)  To protect the environment, the resumption of the large-scale use
         of aldrin and dieldrin must be avoided and applications should be
         confined to situations in which no safer and equally effective
         alternatives can be recommended.

    (b)  For the health and welfare of workers and the general population,
         it is desirable to entrust the handling and application of aldrin
         and dieldrin only to well trained competent operators, who will
         follow adequate safety measures.

    (c)  To avoid accidental poisoning from aldrin, especially in
         children, the use of granules of this chemical as an ant bait
         should be forbidden.

    From: Environmental Health Criteria 91: Aldrin and Dieldrin

    4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION

    4.1  Main Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Aldrin and dieldrin are organochlorine insecticides.  They are highly
    toxic and can be hazardous for human beings if incorrectly or
    carelessly handled.  It is therefore essential that the correct
    precautions are observed during handling and use.

    For details see the International Chemical Safety Card on pages 24-27.

    4.1.1  Advice to physicians

    4.1.1.1  Symptoms of poisoning

    Aldrin and dieldrin are toxic by mouth, by skin contact (especially
    liquid formulations), and by inhalation of dust from powder
    concentrates.  They act as stimulants of the central nervous system.

    Following accidental ingestion or over-exposure, symptoms may include
    headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, weakness in the legs, and
    stimulation of the central nervous system with clonic jerks and
    convulsions, sometimes leading to death.

    4.1.1.2  Medical advice

    Medical treatment is largely symptomatic and supportive and directed
    against convulsions and anoxia.  If swallowed, vomiting should not be
    induced and emetics are contraindicated, because many liquid
    formulations contain hydrocarbon solvents and there is risk of
    aspiration pneumonia.  Instead, the stomach should be emptied as soon
    as possible by careful gastric lavage (with a cuffed endotracheal tube
    in place), avoiding aspiration into the lungs.  This should be
    followed by intragastric administration of 3-4 tablespoons of
    activated charcoal and 30 g of magnesium or sodium sulfate in a 30%
    aqueous solution.  Oily purgatives are contraindicated.  No fats,
    oils, or milk should be given.

    If convulsions occur, anticonvulsants should be given, e.g., diazepam
    10 mg slowly intravenously (children 1-5 mg),  repeated as necessary; 
    or thiopental sodium, or hexobarbital sodium slowly, intravenously in
    a dose of 10 mg/kg, with a maximum total dose of up to 750 mg for an
    adult, or paraldehyde at 5 ml by intramuscular injection.  The
    short-acting anti-convulsants should always be followed by
    phenobarbital given orally at 3 mg/kg (up to 200 mg for an adult), or
    phenobarbital sodium given intramuscularly at 3 mg/kg (also up to
    200 mg for an adult).

     Morphine and its derivatives, atropine, epinephrine, and noradrenaline
    should never be given.

    An unobstructed airway must be maintained.  Respiratory inadequacy,
    which may be accentuated by barbiturate anticonvulsants, should be
    corrected, and oxygen and/or artificial ventilation may be needed.

    4.1.2  Health surveillance advice

    A complete medical history and physical examination of regularly
    exposed workers should be made, on an annual basis.  The dieldrin
    level in blood is a measure of exposure to both aldrin and dieldrin
    (see also Plestina, 1984).

    4.2  Safety in Use

     Manufacturing and formulation:

    All efforts should be made to control exposure through enclosure of
    dusty operations, exhaust ventilation, and good housekeeping. Use full
    protective clothing (see also GIFAP, 1982, 1983).

     Handling liquid formulations:

    Wear protective neoprene or PVC gloves, cotton overalls, rubber boots,
    and face shield.

     Handling powder formulations:

    Avoid raising a dust cloud.  Wear protective gloves and dust mask. 
    Follow the advice relating to personal hygiene.

     Ground spray application:

    Wear hat or cap, cotton overalls or long-sleeved cotton shirt, long
    trousers, and boots or shoes. When there is a risk of accidental
    contamination by the spray, also wear an impermeable hood and jacket. 
    At all times avoid exposure to the spray mist.  Do not spray into the
    wind.

    Read and observe the instructions applying to the equipment being
    used.  Pay proper regard to wind speed and direction.  Always spray
    downwind.  Do not spray if there are other people immediately
    downwind.

     Applications for termite control in buildings:

    Reduce applicator exposure by keeping windows open and by use of
    portable exhausts in basements.  Wear full protective clothing. Never
    handle concentrate material in any part of a house or building.  Store
    food and feed away before application.  Observe re-entry period where
    applicable.

     After application:

    Ensure that equipment is thoroughly cleaned and stored away ready for
    use next time.  Carry out any essential maintenance.

    Partly used containers must be reclosed and returned to store.  Empty
    containers should be disposed of as advised in section 4.6.2.  Change
    out of working clothes and take a bath or shower.  Launder clothing
    before re-use.

    4.3  Explosion and Fire Hazards

    4.3.1  Explosion hazards

    The explosion hazard will depend on the solvent used in the
    formulation or on the characteristics of the dust.

    4.3.2  Fire hazards

    Liquid products containing organic solvents may be flammable. 
    Extinguish fires with alcohol-resistant foam, carbon dioxide, or
    powder.  With sufficient burning or external heat, aldrin and dieldrin
    will decompose emitting toxic fumes.  Fire-fighters should be equipped
    with self-contained breathing apparatus, eye protection, and full
    protective clothing.

    The use of water spray should be confined to the cooling of unaffected
    stock, thus avoiding the accumulation of polluted run-off from the
    site.

    4.4  Storage

    Products should be stored in locked buildings, preferably dedicated to
    insecticides, out of reach of children and unauthorized personnel.  Do
    not store near foodstuffs or animal feed.

    4.4.1  Leaking containers in store

    Take precautions and use appropriate personal protection (section
    4.2).  Any product remaining in damaged or leaking containers should
    be emptied into a clean empty drum, which should then be tightly
    closed and suitably labelled.

    Spillage should be swept up with sawdust, sand, or earth (moisten for
    powders), and disposed of safely (section 4.6.2).

    After emptying, leaking containers should be rinsed with at least
    1 litre of water per 20-litre drum.  Swirl round to rinse the walls,
    empty, and add the rinsings to the sawdust or earth.  Damaged
    containers should be punctured to prevent re-use.

    4.5  Transport

    Local requirements regarding movements of hazardous goods must be
    complied with. Products should not be transported in the same
    compartment as feed or foodstuffs.  Containers should be checked
    before dispatch to make sure that they are in good condition and that
    the labels are undamaged.

    4.6  Spillage and Disposal

    4.6.1  Spillage

    Before dealing with any spillage, precautions should be taken as
    required and appropriate personal protection should be used (section
    4.2).

    Solid products should be swept up and the remaining spilled product
    absorbed with moist sawdust, sand, or earth and transferred in
    suitable container to a safe place for disposal (section 4.6.2).

    Liquid can be prevented from spreading or contaminating other cargo,
    vegetation, or waterways by making a barrier of the most suitable
    available material, e.g., earth or sand.

    Spilled liquid should be absorbed on sawdust, sand, or earth, swept
    up, and placed in a closeable container for later transfer to a safe
    place for disposal.

    Since aldrin and dieldrin are toxic for fish, care should be taken to
    avoid run-off into water courses.

    4.6.2  Disposal

    Surplus product, contaminated absorbents, and containers should be
    disposed of in an appropriate way.  Aldrin and dieldrin are not
    readily decomposed chemically or biologically and are relatively
    persistent.  Waste material should be burned only in  a proper
    incinerator designed for organochlorine waste disposal (1000C and
    30-min residence time with effluent gas scrubbing).  If this is not
    possible, it should be buried in an approved dump or landfill where 
    there is no risk of contamination of surface or ground water, as long
    as local legislation is not contravened.  Containers must be punctured
    to prevent re-use.

    5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    Aldrin and dieldrin may pose a toxic hazard to many aquatic and
    terrestrial species.  Industrial discharges and indiscriminate waste
    disposal have caused the death of both fish and birds.  The compounds
    may give rise to bioaccumulation and biomagnification and are rather
    persistent in the environment.  Their use as seed dressing agents has
    caused the death of large numbers of wood pigeons and other birds, and
    indirectly of birds of prey.

    Industrial discharges occurring during manufacture, formulation,
    mothproofing, or other technical applications should not be allowed to
    pollute the environment and should be treated properly.

    Any spillage or unused product should be prevented from spreading to
    vegetation or waterways and should be treated and disposed of
    properly.

    Aldrin and dieldrin should only be used in situations in which no
    safer and equally effective alternatives can be recommended.

    6.  INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

     This card should be easily available to all health workers concerned
     with, and users of, aldrin and dieldrin. It should be displayed at,
     or near, entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to
     aldrin and dieldrin, and on processing equipment and containers.  The
     card should be translated into the appropriate language(s).  All
     persons potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the
     instructions on the chemical safety card clearly explained.

     Space is available on the card for insertion of the National
     Occupational Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the 
     National Poison Control Centre, and for local trade names.



    
    ALDRIN                                                        DIELDRIN
    C12H8Cl6                                                      C12H8OCl6
    CAS registry number: 309-00-2                                 CAS registry number: 60-57-1
    RTECS registry number: I02100000                              RTECS registry number: I01750000
    CAS chemical name: endo,exo-1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-         CAS chemical name:  endo,exo-1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-
    1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4:5,8-dimethanonaphthalene (8CI)    6,7-epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-
                                                                  1,4:5,8-dimethanonaphthalene (8CI)

                                                                                                                                         

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                ALDRIN        DIELDRIN     OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                       (technical)   (technical)
                                                                                                                                         

    Setting point (range) (C)         49- 60        95           Light tan solid or flakes with mild chemical odour;
    Density (20C) (g/ml)              1.54          1.62         both technical materials are stable in storage at
    Vapour pressure (mmHg)                                        ambient temperatures; they are also stable in
      (20C)                           6.5 x 10-5    3.1 x 10-6   formulation in the presence of basic reagents,
    Relative molecular mass            364.9         380.9        alkaline oxidizing agents, emulsifiers, wetting
    n-Octanol/water partition                                     agents, and solvents; they may decompose when mixed
      coefficient                      7.4           6.2          with catalytically active carriers; both substances
    Solubility in water                                           can be absorbed into the body by inhalation or
      (mg/litre) (25C)                0.027         0.186        ingestion, or through the skin; they act as stimulants
      (practically insoluble)                                     to the central nervous system and may cause convulsions
    Solubility in:                                                on overexposure
      - paraffinic and aromatic
          hydrocarbons                 moderate      sparing
      - esters and ketones             moderate      moderate
      - alcohols                       sparing       pract. insol.


                                                                                                                                         

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                        PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                    FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                         

    SKIN: Overexposure may cause            Avoid skin contact; wash contaminated        Remove contaminated clothing
    poisoning                               clothing before re-use; wear protective      immediately; wash skin with water
                                            clothing, PVC or neoprene gloves,            and soap
                                            rubber boots

    EYES: Irritation, redness               Wear faceshield or goggles                   Flush with clean water for 15 minutes; if
                                                                                         irritation persists, seek medical attention

    INHALATION: Dust may irritate           Wear dust mask; use appropriate
                                            ventilation in buildings

    INGESTION: Unlikely occupational        Do not eat, drink, or smoke during
    hazard                                  work; wash hands before eating,
                                            drinking, or smoking

    Accidental or intentional ingestion                                                  Obtain medical attention immediately;
    may cause lethal poisoning                                                           do not induce vomiting; keep at rest, 
                                                                                         lying face downwards

    REPEATED EXPOSURE: SKIN,                As above; shower and put on clean            In case of poisoning, as above
    INHALATION, INGESTION:                  clothing after work
    Poisoning may occur after a
    considerable time, owing to the
    slow build up of toxicants in the
    body

    ENVIRONMENT: Toxic for aquatic          Do not spill on animal feed
    and terrestrial life; bioaccumulates    or in waterways; do not use as
                                            a seed-dressing

                                                                                                                                         

    SPILLAGE                                STORAGE                                      FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                         

    Take appropriate personal               Products should be stored in                 Liquid products burn; emulsifiable concentrates
    precautions; prevent liquid             locked buildings preferably                  are miscible with water; extiguish fires with
    from spreading or contaminating         dedicated to insecticides;                   alcohol-resistant foam, CO2, or powder; with
    other cargo, vegetation, or             keep products out of reach of                sufficient burning or external heat, any of these
    waterways, with a barrier of the        children and unauthorized                    products will decompose, emitting toxic fumes;
    most suitable available material,       personnel; do not store near                 the smoke and fumes could be injurious through
    e.g., earth or sand; absorb spilled     foodstuffs or animal feed                    inhalation, or absorption through the skin;
    liquid with sawdust, sand, or                                                        therefore, protective clothing and self-contained
    earth; sweep up and place it in                                                      breathing apparatus should be worn;
    a closeable container for later                                                      confine the use of water spray to the cooling
    safe disposal                                                                        of unaffected stock, thus avoiding the
                                                                                         accumulation of polluted  run-off from the site

                                                                                                                                         

    WASTE DISPOSAL                          NATIONAL INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                         

    Aldrin and dieldrin are not             National Occupational Exposure UN No. 2761, 2762, 2995, 2996
    readily decomposed chemically           Limit:
    or biologically and are rather
    persistent; waste material should
    be burned in a proper incinerator
    designed for organochlorine waste       National Poison Control Centre:
    disposal; if this is not possible,
    bury in an approved dump or landfill
    where there is no risk of 
    contamination of surface or ground      Local Trade Names:
    water; comply with any local 
    legislation regarding disposal of
    toxic wastes
    FIGURE 1
    

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file and other UN sources.  The intention is to give the reader a
    representative but not exhaustive overview of current regulations,
    guidelines, and standards.

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
    taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the legislation of that country.a

    7.1  Previous Evaluations by International Bodies

    Aldrin and dieldrin were evaluated by the FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on
    Pesticide Residues (JMPR) in 1963, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970,
    1974, 1975, and 1977.  From 1966 onwards, the JMPR established an
    acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0-0.0001 mg/kg body weight (combined
    total for aldrin + dieldrin).  This was based on
    no-observed-adverse-effect levels of:

          -   0.5 mg/kg diet, equivalent to 0.025 mg/kg body weight in the
              rat; and
          -   1 mg/kg diet, equivalent to 0.025 mg/kg body weight in the
              dog.

    The maximum residue limits (MRLs) listed in the table on page 29 were
    recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 1986 and are
    quoted as the sum of aldrin + dieldrin.

    A guideline value of 0.03 g/litre for aldrin and dieldrin in
    drinking-water has been recommended by WHO.

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated aldrin
    and dieldrin on several occasions.  Aldrin and dieldrin were found to
    be carcinogenic for the liver of mice, but there was no evidence for
    carcinogenicity in other organs.  The data available did not provide
    evidence of carcinogenicity in rats.  Data on dogs, monkeys, and man
    were too limited for any  conclusions to be drawn (IARC, 1974). IARC




              

    a    The regulations and guidelines of all countries are subject
         to change and should always be verified with the appropriat
         regulatory authorities before application.

    Maximum Residue Limits

                                                         

    Commodity                                     MRL
                                                 (mg/kg)
                                                         

    Fat of meata                                   0.2

    Asparagus, aubergines, broccoli,
    Brussels sprouts, cabbage,
    carrotsa cauliflower, cucumbers,
    horseradish, lettucea,onions,
    parsnips, peppers, pimentos,
    potatoes, radishes, radish tops                0.1

    Eggs (shell-free)                              0.1

    Fruit                                          0.05

    Rice (in husks)                                0.02

    Raw cereals (other than rice)                  0.02a

    Milk                                           0.006a
                                                         

    a   Extraneous residue limit derived from crops grown on 
        previously treated soils.


    regarded each compound as a chemical that could not be classified as
    to its carcinogenicity for human beings (IARC, 1982).  At a meeting on
    aldrin and dieldrin in 1987, it was considered that there was
    inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in human beings and limited
    evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals.  Accordingly,
    both chemicals were classified in Group 3: the agent cannot be
    classified as to its carcinogenicity for humans (IARC, in press).

    WHO classified the acute hazard to health for technical aldrin and
    dieldrin as highly hazardous (WHO, 1988).  WHO/FAO has also issued
    data sheets on aldrin (79.41) and dieldrin (75.17).

    7.2  Exposure Limit Values

    Some exposure limit values for aldrin are given in the table on pages
    30-34 and for dieldrin on pages 35-40.


        ALDRIN - EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    AIR         Work-place          Argentina           Maximum permissible concentration
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.25 mg/m3
                                                        - Short-term exposure limit (STEL)           0.75 mg/m3

                                    Australia           Threshold limit value (TLV)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.25 mg/m3

                                    Belgium             Threshold limit value (TLV)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.25 mg/m3

                                    Finland             Maximum permissible concentration
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.25 mg/m3
                                                        - Short-term exposure limit (STEL)           0.75 mg/m3

                                    Germany,            Maximum work-site concentration (MAK)
                                    Federal             - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.25 mg/m3
                                    Republic of         - Short-term exposure level (STEL)           2.5 mg/m3
                                                          (30-min) (1 x per shift)

    AIR         Work-place          Netherlands         Maximum limit                                0.25 mg/m3
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)

                                    Poland              Maximum permissible concentration
                                                        - Ceiling value (CLV)                        0.01 mg/m3

                                    Romania             Maximum permissible concentration
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.20 mg/m3
                                                        - Ceiling value (CLV)                        0.25 mg/m3

    ALDRIN - EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES (continued)

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

                                    Switzerland         Maximum work-site concentration (MAK)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.25 mg/m3

                                    Thailand            Maximum permissible concentration (MAC)                           1977
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.25 mg/m3

                                    United Kingdom      Recommended limit
                                                        - 8-h Time-weighted average (TWA)            0.25 mg/m3
                                                        - Short-term exposure level (STEL)           0.75 mg/m3
                                                          (10-min time-weighted average)

                                    USA                 Permissible exposure limit (PEL)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.25 mg/m3

    AIR         Work-place          USSR                Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)
                                                        - Ceiling value (CLV)                        0.01 mg/m3

                                    Yugoslavia          Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.25 mg/m3

    FOOD        Intake from         USSR                Acceptable daily intake (ADI)                0-0001 mg/kg

    FOOD        General             Argentina           Maximum limit                                0-0.1 mg/kg

                                    USA                 Acceptable residue limit (ARL)
                                                        - Raw agricultural products                  0-0.1 mg/kgb

    FOOD        Plant               Brazil              Acceptable limit (AL)                        0.01-0.2 mg/kg

                                    Czechoslovakia      Maximum residue limit (MRL)
                                                        - For imported food only                     0.02-0.2

    ALDRIN - EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES (continued)

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

                                    FAO/WHO             Extraneous residue limit (ERL)               0.02-0.2 mg/kgb

                                    FAO/WHO             Maximum residue limit (MRL)                  0.02-0.2 mgb

    FOOD        Plant               Germany,            Maximum residue limit (MRL)                  0.01-0.1 mg/kgb
                                    Federal
                                    Republic of

                                    India               Maximum tolerable concentration              0.01 - 0.2 mg/kgb

                                    Japan               Acceptable residue limit                     0-0.02 mg/kgb

                                    Kenya               Maximum limit                                0.1-0.2 mg/kgb

                                    USSR                Prohibited in food

                                    Sweden              Maximum tolerable concentration              0.05 mg/kg

                                    Thailand            Maximum residue limit (MRL)                  0.01-0.15 mg/kg      1982

    FOOD        Animal              Sweden              Maximum tolerable concentration              0.005-0.1 mg/kg

                                    Thailand            Maximum residue limit (MRL)                  0.1-0.3 mg/kg        1982

    FEED                            Argentina           Maximum limit                                0 mg/kg

                                    USA                 Acceptable residue limit (ARL)               0-0.1 mg/kgb
                                                        - Raw agricultural products

    FEED                            USSR                Maximum residue limit (MRL)
                                                        - Prohibited in animal feed                  0 mg/kg

    ALDRIN - EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES (continued)

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

                                    WHO                 Guideline level                              0.03 g/litre        1984

    WATER       Ambient             USSR                Maximum allowable concentration              0.002 mg/litre

    WATER       Fishing             USSR                                                             0 mg/litre

              

    a TWA = time-weighted average over one working day (usually 8 h).
    b Total of aldrin and dieldrin.

    DIELDRIN - EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

    AIR         Work-place          Australia           Threshold limit value (TLV)
                                                         - Time-weighted average (TWA)               0.25 mg/m3

                                    Belgium             Threshold limit value (TLV)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.25 mg/m3

                                    Bulgaria            Maximum permissible concentration            0.01 mg/m3

                                    Finland             Maximum permissible concentration
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.25 mg/m3

                                    Germany,            Maximum work-site concentration (MAK)
                                      Federal           - 8-h time-weighted average (TWA)            0.25 mg/m3
                                      Republic of       - Short-term exposure level (STEL)           2.5 mg/m3
                                                        (30-min) (1 x per shift)

    AIR         Work-place          Netherlands         Maximum limit
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.25 mg/m3

                                    Poland              Maximum permissible concentration
                                                        - Ceiling value (CLV)                        0.01 mg/m3

                                    Romania             Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.20 mg/m3
                                                        - Ceiling value (CLV)                        0.25 mg/m3

                                    Switzerland         Maximum work-site concentration (MAK)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.25 mg/m3

                                    Thailand            Maximum permissible concentration                                 1977
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.25 mg/m3

    DIELDRIN - EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES (continued)

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

                                    United Kingdom      Recommended limit (RECL)
                                                        - 8-h time-weighted average (TWA)            0.25 mg/m3
                                                        - Short-term exposure level (STEL)           0.75 mg/m3
                                                        (10-min time-weighted average)

    AIR         Work-place          USA                 Permissible exposure limit (PEL)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.25 mg/m3

                                    USSR                Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)
                                                        - Ceiling value (CLV)                        0.01 mg/m3

                                    Yugoslavia          Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)
                                                        - Time-weighted average (TWA)                0.25 mg/m3

    FOOD        Intake from         FAO/WHO             Acceptable daily intake (ADI)                                     1977
                                                        - Total of aldrin and dieldrin               0.0001 mg/kg
                                                                                                     body weight

    FOOD        General             Argentina           Maximum limits                               0-0.25 mg/kg         1969

                                    USA                 Acceptable residue limit                     0-0.1 mg/kgb
                                                        - Raw agricultural products

    FOOD        Plant               Brazil              Acceptable limit                             0.01-0.2 mg/kg

                                    Czechoslovakia      Maximum residue limit (MRL)                                       1978
                                                        - For imported food only                     0.02-0.2 mg/kg

    FOOD        Plant               FAO/WHO             Maximum residue limit (MRL)                  0.02-0.2 mg/kgb

    DIELDRIN - EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES (continued)

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

                                    Germany,            Maximum residue limit (MRL)                  0.01-0.1 mg/kgb       1984
                                      Federal
                                      Republic of

                                    India               Maximum tolerable concentration              0.01-0.2 mg/kgb      1976

                                    Japan               Acceptable residue limit (ARL)               0-0.02 mg/kgb

                                    Kenya               Maximum limit                                0.02-0.2 mg/kg

                                    Sweden              Maximum tolerable concentration              0.05 mg/kgb          1985

                                    Thailand            Maximum residue limit (MRL)                  0.02-0.1 mg/kg       1982

    FOOD        Animal              FAO/WHO             Maximum residue limit (MRL)                  0.1-0.2 mg/kgb

    FOOD        Animal              Germany,            Maximum residue limit (MRL)                  0.1-1 mg/kg
                                      Federal
                                      Republic of

    FOOD                            Sweden              Maximum tolerable concentration              0.005-0.1 mg/kgb     1983

                                    Thailand            Maximum residue limit (MRL)                  0.1-0.3 mg/kg        1982

    FEED                            Argentina           Maximum limits                               0 mg/kg

                                    USA                 Acceptable residue limit (ARL)
                                                        - Raw agricultural products                  0-0.1 mg/kgb

    DIELDRIN - EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES (continued)

                                                                                                                                         

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                         

                                    USSR                Maximum residue limit (MRL)
                                                        - Prohibited in animal feed                  0 mg/kg

    WATER       Drinking-           EEC                 Requirement (RQR)                                                 1977
                                                        - Surface water to be treated for            0.001-0.005 
                                                          drinking (all methods)                     mg/litre

                                    WHO                 Guideline value                              0.03 g/litre        1984

    GOODS                           Germany,            Maximum recommended limit (MRL)                                   1984
                                      Federal            - Tobacco                                   0.3 mg/kg
                                      Republic of

                                    Japan               Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                           1978
                                                        - Textile products                           <30 g/kg

              

    a TWA = time-weighted average over one working day (usually 8 h).
    b Total of aldrin and dieldrin.
    

    7.3  Specific Restrictions

    7.3.1  Aldrin

    Aldrin is prohibited for use in, among others, Argentina, Brazil,
    Canada, Chile, Ecuador, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary,
    Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, the USA, and the USSR.  The European
    Community legislation prohibits the marketing of phytopharmaceutical
    products containing aldrin. In India, Mauritius, the United Kingdom,
    Venezuela, and Yugoslavia it is restricted to specific uses.  In
    Finland, it is prohibited for use in agriculture, but accepted as a
    termiticide in a glue mixture for export plywood.

    7.3.2  Dieldrin

    Dieldrin is prohibited for use in agriculture in, among others,
    Brazil, Ecuador, Finland, the German Democratic Republic, Singapore,
    Sweden, Yugoslavia, and the USSR.  The European Community legislation
    prohibits the marketing of phytopharmaceutical products containing
    dieldrin. In Argentina, Canada, Chile, the Federal Republic of
    Germany, Hungary, and the USA its use is prohibited, with some
    exceptions.  The use of dieldrin is restricted in India, Mauritius,
    Togo, and the United Kingdom.  Its use in industry is prohibited in
    Switzerland and its manufacture and use in Japan is under government
    control.  In Finland, the only accepted use for dieldrin is as a
    termiticide in one glue mixture for exported plywood.  India requires
    registration and licences for all importation, manufacture, sale, or
    storage.

    7.4  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transportation of
    Dangerous Goods classifies aldrin and dieldrin in:

         -    Hazard Class 6.1: poisonous substances;

         -    Packing Group II: substances and preparations presenting a
              serious risk of poisoning, when the active ingredient is
              75-100%;

         -    Packing Group III: substance presenting a relatively low
              risk of poisoning in transport, when the active ingredient
              ranges from 19 to 75% (solid) or 7-75% (liquid).

    The label should be as follows:

    FIGURE 2

    FIGURE 3

    The FAO specifications for plant protection products containing aldrin
    or dieldrin specify the composition and purity of the technical
    product and its formulation.  They also advise on methods for checking
    this.

    The material shall consist, essentially, of HHDN (minimum 85.5% w/w)
    in the case of aldrin or HEOD (minimum 80%) in the case of dieldrin,
    together with its related manufacturing impurities.  It shall be white
    to tan granules, flakes, or powder, free from extraneous impurities or
    added modifying agents.  Its content of active ingredient shall be
    declared and, when determined, the percentage may not differ from that
    declared by more than 4 percentage units for the technical product
    and 4-10% for the formulations.

    The European Community legislation requires the labelling of aldrin as
    a dangerous substance using the symbol:

    FIGURE 4

    The label must read:

          Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed; possible risks of
          irreversible effects; danger of serious damage to health by
          prolonged exposure; do not breathe dust; wear suitable
          protective clothing and gloves; if you feel unwell, seek medical
          advice (show the label where possible).

    The European Community legislation on the labelling of pesticide
    preparations classifies aldrin in Class 1/b for the purpose of
    determining the label for  preparations containing aldrin and other
    active ingredients.

    The European Community legislation requires the labelling of dieldrin
    as a dangerous substance using the symbol:

    FIGURE 5

    The label must read:

          Toxic if swallowed, very toxic in contact with skin; possible
          risks of irreversible effects; danger of serious damage to
          health by prolonged exposure; do not breathe dust; wear suitable
          protective clothing and gloves; in case of accident or if you
          feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label
          where possible).

    The European Community legislation on the labelling of pesticide
    preparations classifies dieldrin in Class 1/a for the purpose of
    determining the label for preparations containing dieldrin and other
    active ingredients.

    7.5  Waste Disposal

    In the USA, aldrin and dieldrin are classified as toxic pollutants and
    acute hazardous wastes, subject to handling, transport, treatment,
    storage, and disposal regulations and permit and notification
    requirements.  An owner or operator of a hazardous waste incinerator
    must achieve 99.99% destruction and removal efficiency for these
    substances.

    7.6  Other Measures

    The European Community legislation requires that Member States shall
    prescribe that, from the time they are put into circulation, cereals
    (wheat, rye, barley, oats, maize, paddy rice, buckwheat, millet, grain
    sorghum, triticale) may not contain levels of residues (in and on
    cereals) of aldrin, dieldrin (HEOD), singly or combined, expressed as
    dieldrin (HEOD), greater than a maximum of 0.01 mg/kg (applicable
    latest by June 1988).

    The European Community legislation further requires that Member States
    shall prescribe that, from the time they are put into circulation,
    foodstuffs of animal origin (meat, poultry, milk, butter, cheese,
    etc.) may not contain residue levels of aldrin, dieldrin (HEOD),
    singly or combined, expressed as dieldrin (HEOD), greater than a
    maximum of 0.2 mg/kg in the fat of meat and poultry, and greater than
    a maximum of 0.006 mg/kg in raw cow's milk, whole cream cow's milk,
    butter, or cheese (applicable latest by 30 June 1988).

     Aquatic environment

    The European Community legislation has established limit values for
    the discharge of, and quality objectives for, aldrin, dieldrin,
    endrin, and isodrin in the aquatic environment.

    The limit values for emission standards are:

    (a) Plants producing aldrin and/or dieldrin and/or endrin, including
    formulation of these substances on the same site, must:

      -  on a monthly average value, not exceed 3 g in effluent per tonne
         of production capacity (g/tonne) or a concentration in effluent
         of 2 g/litre of water discharged (to be complied with as from 1
         January 1989).

       - on a daily average value, not exceed 15g in effluent per tonne of
         production capacity (g/tonne) or a concentration in effluent of
         10g/litre of water discharged (to be complied with as from 1
         January 1989).

    (b) For inland surface waters, estuary waters, internal coastal waters
    other than estuary waters, territorial waters, for the compounds
    aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and isodrin together:

      -  30 ng/litre (to be complied with as from 1 January 1989); and
         10 ng/litre for aldrin, 10 ng/litre for dieldrin, 5 ng/litre for
         endrin, and 5 ng/litre for isodrin (to be complied with as from 1
         January 1994).

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    FAO  (1985a)  Guidelines for the packaging and storage of pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985b)  Guidelines for the disposal of waste pesticides and
     pesticide containers on the farm. Rome, Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations.

    FAO  (1985c)  Guidelines on good labelling practice for pesticides.
    Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

    GIFAP  (1982)  Guidelines for the safe handling of pesticides during
     their formulation, packing, storage and transport. Brussels,
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    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Aldrin and Dieldrin (EHC 91, 1989)