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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 3

    1-BUTANOL
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1987

    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 65:
    Butanols -- Four Isomers: 1-Butanol, 1-Butanol,  tert-Butanol,
    Isobutanol

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization

    ISBN 92 4 154365 6
    ISSN 0259-7268

    The World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to
    reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. 
    Applications and enquiries should be addressed to the Office of
    Publications, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, which
    will be glad to provide the latest information on any changes made to
    the text, plans for new editions, and reprints and translations
    already available.

    (c) World Health Organization 1987

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  All rights reserved.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    CONTENTS

    IPCS

    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE FOR 1-BUTANOL

    INTRODUCTION

    HOW TO USE THE GUIDE

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
         2.1. Exposure to 1-butanol
         2.2. Uptake, metabolism, and excretion
         2.3. Effects on organisms in the environment
         2.4. Effects on animals
         2.5. Effects on human beings

    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    4. HEALTH HAZARDS FOR MAN, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY
         ACTION
         4.1. Main hazards for man, prevention and protection, first aid
         4.2. Advice to physicians
         4.3. Health surveillance advice
         4.4. Explosion and fire hazards
               4.4.1. Explosion hazards
               4.4.2. Fire hazards
         4.5. Storage
         4.6. Transport
         4.7. Spillage and disposal
               4.7.1. Spillage
                       4.7.1.1   Small spillage
                       4.7.1.2   Large spillage
               4.7.2. Disposal

    5. INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

    6. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Exposure limit values
         7.2. Specific restrictions
         7.3. Labelling, packaging, and transport

    

    INTRODUCTION

    The International Programme on Chemical Safety is responsible for the
    publication of a series of Environmental Health Criteria documents,
    each of which assesses the existing information on the relationship
    between exposure to a specific chemical, mixture of chemicals, or
    combination of chemicals and physical and biological agents, and man's
    health and the integrity of the environment. The documents provide
    guidelines for setting exposure limits consistent with the protection
    of human health and the environment.

    To facilitate the application of these guidelines in national chemical
    safety programmes, "Health and Safety Guides" are being prepared,
    highlighting the information contained in the documents for those who
    need to know the health and environmental issues involved, but not the
    scientific details. The Guides include advice on preventive and
    protective measures and emergency action.

    Review and revision of the information in this Health and Safety Guide
    will take place in due course, and the eventual aim is to use
    standardized terminology. We should be grateful if you would help by
    telling us of any difficulties encountered in using the information in
    this guide.

    Comments please, addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    HOW TO USE THE GUIDE

    All people in the work-place environment should be given the relevant
    written information in this book, supplemented by a clear, personal
    explanation to ensure that they are fully aware of the dangers and the
    current courses of protective and emergency action.

    The International Chemical Safety Card should be displayed as directed
    and its contents clearly explained to all working personnel.

    Medical staff should be fully conversant with the medical information
    to ensure they can act rapidly and efficiently in an emergency.

    Posters should be used to give impact to basic safety measures.

    Further copies of the Health and Safety Guide, and, for those
    requiring more detailed scientific information, the relevant
    Environmental Health Criteria publication, are available to order.

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING POINT
    TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME

    1  PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    Chemical formula:                 C4H10O

    Chemical structure:               CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2OH

    Primary constituent:              1-butyl alcohol

    Common synonyms:                   n-butanol; butanol-1; normalbutyl-
                                      alcohol; 1-hydroxy butane;
                                      normalpropyl carbinol; butyric
                                      alcohol; NBA

    CAS registry number:              71-36-3

     Conversion factor

    1 mg/m3 = 0.325 ppm
    1 ppm 1-butanol = 3.078 mg/m3 at 25C
    and 101.3 kPa (760 mmHg).

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    1-Butanol is a flammable, colourless liquid with a rancid sweet odour.
    Some physical and chemical properties of 1-butanol are given in the
    Sample International Chemical Safety Card on pages 26 and 27.

    1.3  Uses

    1-Butanol occurs naturally as a product of fermentation of
    carbohydrates. It is also synthesized from petrochemicals and is
    widely used as an organic solvent and as an intermediate in the
    manufacture of other organic chemicals.

    2  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Exposure to 1-butanol

    Human exposure to 1-butanol is mainly occupational.

    Exposure of the general population is principally through its natural
    occurrence in foods and beverages, and its use as a flavouring agent,
    but it may also result from industrial emissions. Levels of exposure
    of the general population to 1-butanol through food and beverages are
    not available, and occupational exposure levels are limited and
    inadequate.

    2.2  Uptake, Metabolism, and Excretion

    1-Butanol is readily absorbed through the skin, lungs, and
    gastrointestinal tract. It is rapidly metabolized by alcohol
    dehydrogenase to the corresponding acid and via the aldehyde to carbon
    dioxide, which is the major metabolite. It does not bioaccumulate.

    2.3  Effects on Organisms in the Environment

    No quantitative data on levels of 1-butanol in the general environment
    are available, but, because it is readily biodegradable, substantial
    concentrations are only likely to occur locally when there is a major
    spillage.

    At the background concentrations expected to occur in the environment,
    1-butanol is not directly toxic for fish, amphibia, or crustacea and
    is practically non-toxic for algae. Some protozoa are slightly
    sensitive to the compound. However, 1-butanol poses an indirect hazard
    for the aquatic environment, because its biodegradability may lead to
    oxygen depletion.

    1-Butanol should be managed in the environment as a slightly toxic
    compound.

    2.4  Effects on Animals

    The oral LD50 values for 1-butanol for the rat range from 0.7 to
    2.1 g/kg body weight. Therefore, it is slightly toxic according to the
    classification of Hodge & Sterner. It is markedly irritating to the
    eyes and moderately irritating to the skin. The primary effects from
    exposure to vapour for short periods are irritation of the mucous
    membranes, and central nervous system depression. The potency of
    1-butanol for intoxication is approximately 6 times that of ethanol. A
    number of investigations have shown non-specific membrane effects of
    1-butanol. Effects of repeated inhalation exposure in animals include
    pathological changes in the lungs, degenerative lesions in the liver
    and kidneys, and narcosis. However, it is not possible to determine a
    no-observed-adverse-effect level from the animal studies available.

    1-Butanol has been found to be non-mutagenic.

    Adequate data are not available on carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, or
    effects on reproduction.

    2.5  Effects on Human Beings

    In man, 1-butanol liquid or vapour can cause moderate skin irritation
    and severe eye irritation manifested as a burning sensation,
    lachrymation, blurring of vision, and photophobia. Ingestion of the
    liquid or inhalation of the vapour may result in headache, drowsiness,
    and narcosis. The occurrence of vertigo under conditions of severe and
    prolonged exposure to vapour mixtures of 1-butanol and isobutanol has
    been reported. From this study, it is not possible to attribute the
    vertigo to a single cause. Symptoms are reversible when exposure
    ceases.

    The small amount of information available suggests that occupational
    human exposure to air concentrations below 307.8 mg/m3 (100 ppm) is
    not associated with any adverse symptoms. However, studies on human
    volunteers have indicated that the light-sensitivity of dark-adapted
    eyes and electrical activity of the brain may be influenced by air
    concentrations as low as 0.092 mg/m3 (0.03 ppm).

    3  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    1. The Task Group was unable to make an assessment of the health risks
    of 1-butanol for the general population, on the basis of available
    data. However, it was considered unlikely to pose a serious hazard
    under normal exposure conditions.

    2. The Task Group was of the opinion that sufficient data were not
    available to establish guidelines for setting occupational exposure
    limits. There are reports of adverse effects resulting from
    occupational over-exposure to levels exceeding 307.8 mg/m3 (100 ppm).
    Therefore, in line with good manufacturing practice, exposure to
    1-butanol should be minimized.

    3. The ecotoxicological data available indicate that the impact of
    background concentrations of 1-butanol on the aquatic environment can
    be expected to be minimal.

    From: Environmental Health Criteria 65: Butanols - Four Isomers:
    1-Butanol, 2-Butanol,  tert-Butanol, Isobutanol

    4  HEALTH HAZARDS FOR MAN, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION

    4.1  Main Hazards for Man, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    The human health hazards associated with certain types of exposure to
    1-butanol, together with preventive and protective measures and first
    aid recommendations are listed in the following table.

    1-Butanol vapour and liquid may irritate the eyes and may result in
    vesiculation of the cornea. Both the liquid and vapour may cause
    dermatitis. In addition, the vapour may irritate the respiratory
    system. Narcosis may follow the ingestion of liquid 1-butanol or
    inhalation of the vapour.

    GOLDEN RULES

     1. Do not smoke drink, or eat in the work-place.

     2. In case of overexposure, the victim should leave, or be removed
     from, the contaminated area to fresh air as rapidly as possible.

     3. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes and wash with plenty of
     water and soap.

     4. Flush affected eye(s) with water for at least 15 minutes.

    4.2  Advice to Physicians

    Treat by observation and supportive measures, as indicated by the
    patient's condition. Diagnostic tests should include the
    identification of the alcohol in blood.

    Because of the toxicity of 1-butanol, emptying of the stomach should
    be considered. However, if this is not performed within 4 h, it is
    unlikely to be of benefit.

    4.3  Health Surveillance Advice

    In view of the severe eye-irritating properties of 1-butanol, regular
    medical surveillance may be advisable, at the descretion of a medical
    adviser, after taking into account the likely extent of exposure.

    4.4  Explosion and Fire Hazards

    4.4.1  Explosion hazards

    Above 29C, explosive vapour-air mixtures may be formed.


        ROUTE                HEALTH HAZARDS                         PREVENTION AND PROTECTION          FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                         

    SINGLE EXPOSURE

    SKIN                 Moderately irritating as liquid        Wear protective clothing           Remove contaminated clothing
                         and vapour                                                                and wash immediately and
                                                                                                   thoroughly with water; seek
                                                                                                   medical attention
                                                                                                                                         

    EYES                 Severely irritating as liquid and      Wear goggles or face shield; do    Flush eyes immediately with
                         vapour                                 not wear contact lenses            water for at least 15 min; seek
                                                                                                   medical attention
                                                                                                                                         

    INHALATION           Irritating at high concentrations,     Minimize exposure by ensuring      Fresh air; if breathing has
                         symptoms of alcohol intoxication       adequate ventilation or using      stopped, apply artificial
                         and narcosis may occur                 suitable respiratory protection    respiration; seek medical
                                                                                                   attention immediately
                                                                                                                                         

    INGESTION            Unlikely occupational hazard; it       Apply normal hygienic              Do not induce vomiting; seek
                         may be absorbed and cause              practices                          medical attention immediately
                         systemic effects such as alcohol
                         poisoning and narcosis
                                                                                                                                                

    REPEATED EXPOSURE

    INHALATION
                         As for single exposure; no             Apply normal hygienic
                         long-term adverse health effects       practices
    INGESTION            have been reported in man
                                                                                                                                         
        4.4.2  Fire hazards

    1-Butanol is flammable. It reacts with strong oxidizing agents and
    alkali metals to form a combustible gas (hydrogen).

    For extinguishing a small fire, use carbon dioxide, dry chemical
    powder, alcohol-resistant foam, water fog, sand, or earth.

    For a large fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus. Use
    alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Do not use a jet of water.

     Special precautions: keep stored drums cool by spraying with water.

    4.5  Storage

    Store away from direct sunlight and other sources of heat, and store
    separatedly from oxidizing agents and alkali metals.

    4.6  Transport

    Treat as for flammable liquids; otherwise no special measures
    indicated.

    4.7  Spillage and Disposal

    4.7.1  Spillage

    Extinguish naked flames, avoid sparks. Avoid contact with the skin,
    eyes, and clothing. Wear rubber gloves, goggles or face shield, and
    boots. Avoid breathing the vapour. If necessary, wear a respirator
    containing a canister, such as BSI Type CC or DIN Type A, or
    self-contained breathing apparatus.

    4.7.1.1  Small spillage

    Absorb the liquid with sand, earth, sawdust, or other suitable
    absorbant material. Sweep up and remove all material to a safe place
    for subsequent disposal by burning or burying. Flush the contaminated
    area with plenty of water.

    5  INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

     This card should be easily available to all health workers concerned
     with, and users of, 1-butanol. It should be displayed at, or near,
     entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to 1-butanol, and
     on processing equipment and containers. The card should be translated
     in the appropriate language(s).

     All persons potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the
     instructions on the chemical safety card clearly explained.


        SAMPLE INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD
                                                                                                                                                

    1-BUTANOL
    ( n-butanol, butyl alcohol) (C4H9OH)
                                                                                                                                                

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                                  OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                                

    Boiling point (C)                                 118                               Colourless liquid with
    Melting point (C)                                 -89                               characteristic odour; reacts with
    Flash point (C)                                   29                                strong oxidants and with alkali
    Autoignition temperature (C)                      340                               metals liberating flammable gas
    Relative density (water = 1)                       0.8                               (hydrogen); attacks many plastics
    Relative vapour density (air = 1)                  2.6
    Vapour pressure in mbar (20C)                     7
    Solubility in water (g/100 ml at 20C)             8
    Explosive limits (vol. % in air)                   1.4-11.3
    Relative molecular mass                            74.1

                                                                                                                                                

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                         PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                   FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                                

    INHALATION: Sore throat,                 Minimize exposure by use of                 Fresh air; rest in half upright position;
    coughing, shortness of breath,           ventilation, local exhaust, or              seek medical advice, if necessary
    dullness                                 breathing protection

    SKIN: May be absorbed; redness           Wear protective gloves                      Remove contaminated clothing; rinse skin
                                                                                         with plenty of water or shower
                                                                                                                                                

    SAMPLE INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD
                                                                                                                                                

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                         PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                   FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                                

    EYES: Redness, pain, blurred vision      Wear safety goggles                         First rinse with plenty of water; then seek
                                                                                         medical advice

    INGESTION: Abdominal pain,               Rinse mouth; give plenty of water to
    vomiting, diarrhoea                      drink; seek medical advice or transport
                                             to hospital
    GENERAL: Alcoholic beverages
    may enhance toxic effects
                                                                                                                                                

    SPILLAGE                                 STORAGE                                     FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                                

    Collect leaking liquid in sealable       Fireproof; keep separate                    Flammable; above 29C, explosive
    containers, absorb spilled liquid in     from oxidizing agents and                   vapour-air mixtures may be formed; no
    sand or inert absorbent and              from alkali metals                          open flames, no sparks, and no smoking;
    remove to safe place (extra                                                          use closed systems, ventilation, and
    personal protection: self contained                                                  explosion-proof electrical equipment; in
    breathing apparatus)                                                                 case of fire, keep tanks or drums cool by
                                                                                         spraying with water; extinguish fire with
                                                                                         powder, AFFF, foam, halons, or carbon
                                                                                         dioxide
                                                                                                                                                

    SAMPLE INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD
                                                                                                                                                

    WASTE DISPOSAL
                                                                                                                                                

                                             National Occupational Exposure Limit:       Un 1120
                                             National Poison Control Centre:

    FIGURE 1
                                                                                                                                                
    Adapted from:  Handling Chemicals Safely (1980). Published by the Dutch Association of Safety Experts, Dutch Chemical Industry Association
    and the Dutch Safety Institute, The Hague.
                                                                                                                                                
        6  HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    Minimize contamination of water. Avoid gross contamination of soil.
    Spilled material should be contained and removed as far as possible.
    Final traces can be dispersed with water.

    1-Butanol should be managed in the environment as a slightly toxic
    compound posing an indirect hazard for the aquatic environment, since
    ready biodegradation may lead to oxygen depletion.

    Thus, in the case of spillage into surface water, consider dilution or
    (artificial) reaeration.

    Disposal should be acceptable within the requirements of operative
    legislation. In the absence of such legislation, and if deemed
    necessary, consult local authorities.

    7  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this paragraph has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file.

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
    taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the legislation of that country. A full reference to the
    original national document from which the information was extracted
    can be obtained from the IRPTC. When no effective date appears in the
    IRPTC legal file, the year of the reference from which the data are
    taken is shown, indicated by (r).

    7.1  Exposure Limit Values

    For some exposure limit values, see the following table.

    7.2  Specific Restrictions

    1-Butanol can be used in the USA as a component of adhesives in
    articles intended for use in the packaging, transporting, or holding
    of food.

    7.3  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    1-Butanol is classified as a flammable liquid (Hazard Class 3) by the
    United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous
    Goods, as "a toxic waste" in USA, and as a flammable liquid by the
    International Maritime Organization (Hazard Class 3.2). The following
    symbol should be used:

    FIGURE 2

    The European Community legislation requires labelling as dangerous
    substance using the symbol:

    FIGURE 3

    The label must read: flammable -- harmful by inhalation; keep away
    from sources of ignition -- no smoking.

    The European Community legislation on labelling of solvant
    preparations classifies 1-butanol in Class  II d for the purpose of
    determining the label for preparations containing 1-butanol and other
    active ingredients (1980).


        SOME EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES
                                                                                                                                                

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                       Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                              date
                                                                                                                                                

    AIR         Occupational        Argentina           Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                               1979
                                                        -- Time-weighted average                         150 mg/m3a
                                                        -- Short-term exposure limit (STEL)

                                    Australia           Threshold limit value (TLV)                                           1983 (r)
                                                        -- Ceiling value                                 150 mg/m3

                                    Belgium             Threshold limit value (TLV)                      150 mg/m3a

                                    Czechoslovakia      Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                                 1985
                                                        -- Time weighted average                         100 mg/m3
                                                        -- Ceiling value                                 200 mg/m3

                                    Finland             Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                               1982 (r)
                                                        -- Time-weighted average                         300 mg/m3

                                    German              Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                                 1983 (r)

                                    Democratic          -- Time-weighted average                         200 mg/m3
                                    Republic            -- Short-term exposure limit (STEL)              400 mg/m3

                                    Germany,            Maximum work-site concentration (MAK)                                 1985 (r)
                                    Federal             -- 8-h time-weighted average                     300 mg/m3
                                    Republic of         -- Short-term exposure limit (STEL)              600 mg/m3
                                                        (30 min, 4  per shift) (average value)
                                                                                                                                                

    SOME EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES (cont'd).
                                                                                                                                                

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                       Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                              date
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Hungary             Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                               1978 (r)
                                                        -- Time-weighted average                         100 mg/m3
                                                        -- Short-term exposure limit (STEL)              200 mg/m3
                                                        (30 min)

                                    Italy               Threshold limit value (TLV)                      150 mg/m3a

                                    Japan               Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                                 1985 (r)
                                                        -- Time-weighted average                         150 mg/m3

                                    Netherlands         Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                               1985 (r)
                                                        -- Ceiling value                                 150 mg/m3a

                                    Poland              Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                               1982 (r)
                                                        -- Ceiling value                                 200 mg/m3

                                    Romania             Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                               1975 (r)
                                                        -- Time-weighted average                         200 mg/m3
                                                        -- Ceiling value                                 300 mg/m3

                                    Sweden              Hygienic limit value (HLV)                                            1985
                                                        (8-h time weighted average)
                                                        -- One-day time-weighted average                 80 mg/m3a
                                                        -- Ceiling value                                 150 mg/m3

                                    Switzerland         Maximum work-site concentration (MAK)                                 1984 (r)
                                                        -- Ceiling value                                 150 mg/m3a
                                                                                                                                                

    SOME EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES (cont'd).
                                                                                                                                                

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                       Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                              date
                                                                                                                                                

                                    United              Recommended limit                                                     1985 (r)
                                    Kingdom             -- 8-h time-weighted average                     150 mg/m3a
                                                        -- Short-term exposure limit (STEL)              150 mg/m3
                                                        (10 min time-weighted average)

                                    USA                 Threshold limit value (TLV)                                           1984 (r)
                                    (ACGIH)             -- Ceiling value                                 150 mg/m3a

                                    USA (OSHA)          Permissible exposure limit (PEL)                                      1981 (r)
                                                        -- Time-weighted average                         300 mg/m3

                                    USSR                Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                                 1977
                                                        -- Ceiling value for vapour                      10 mg/m3

                                    Yugoslavia          Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                                 1971 (r)
                                                        -- Time-weighted average                         200 mg/m3

    AIR         Ambient             USSR                Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                                 1984
                                                        -- One time per day                              0.1 mg/m3
                                                        -- Average per day                               0.1 mg/m3

    FOOD        Plant               USA                 Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                               1981 (r)
                                                        -- In food additive modified hop extract         50 mg/kg

    FOOD        Plant               USA                 Exempted from tolerance requirements                                  1981 (r)
                                                        in plant products when used according
                                                        to good agricultural practice as inert
                                                        ingredient of pesticides for some specified
                                                        purposes
                                                                                                                                                

    SOME EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES (cont'd).
                                                                                                                                                

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                       Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                              date
                                                                                                                                                

    FOOD        Animal              USA                 Exempted from tolerance requirements                                  1981 (r)
                                                        in animal products when used according
                                                        to good agricultural practice as inert
                                                        ingredient of pesticides for some specified
                                                        purposes

    WATER       Surface             USSR                Maximum allowable concentration                                       1983 (r)
                                                        (MAC)                                            0.1 mg/litre

    WATER       Fishing             USSR                Maximum allowable concentration                  0.03                 1978 (r)
                                                        (MAC)                                            mg/litre
                                                                                                                                                

    a   Absorption through the skin is indicated as a potentially hazardous route in the regulatory documents of Argentina, Belgium,
        Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the USA (ACGIH).
        


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations