WHO/FOOD ADD./69.35



    Issued jointly by FAO and WHO

    The content of this document is the result of the deliberations of the
    Joint Meeting of the FAO Working Party of Experts and the WHO Expert
    Committee on Pesticide Residues, which met in Geneva, 9-16 December,



    Geneva, 1969


    Since the previous evaluation (FAO/WHO, 1968) additional data have
    become available and are summarized and discussed in the following
    monograph addendum.



    During the Third Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues,
    five problems in connection with this compound were referred back to
    the 1968 Joint Meeting, as follows:

    1.   Clarification of the term "vegetables and small fruits" contained
         in the 1967 Joint Meeting report,

    2.   Reconsideration of the residue limit in raw cereals,

    3.   Reconsideration of practical residue limit in meat,

    4.   Consideration of the necessity of a practical residue limit in
         egg yolk,

    5.   Consideration of the establishment of tolerances in cocoa beans
         and derived products.

    Use pattern

    Pre-harvest treatments

    In New Zealand about 2.52 kg/ha may be used for soil treatment (New
    Zealand, 1968).

    Post-harvest treatments

    Lindane is widely used in storage and shipping of cereals. Direct
    admixtures may be in the range of 2.2 ppm (United Kingdom, 1968).

    Residues resulting from supervised trials

    After pre-harvest treatment, residues on total cocoa-beans range
    between 0.05 and 0.5 ppm, but available residue data are not
    sufficient for recommending a tolerance.

    In New Zealand the following residues were found in fat of sheep,
    grazing on a treated area (Collett and Harrison, 1968):

                                   Residues (ppm)
    Weeks after application    Range            Mean
         16 - 22             0.7 - 1.2          0.9
         26 - 30             0.4 - 2.1          1.1
         52 - 58             0.4 - 0.8          0.5

    Evidence of residues in food in commerce or at consumption

    The following table shows residues found in Japan:

              Food        Maximum           Average
         Apples           0.088             0.012
         Grapes           0.030             0.001
         Cucumbers        0.240             0.01
         Tomatoes         0.176             0.01
    (Motohashi, private communication).

    On arrival in Great Britain, grain samples contained less than 0.1
    ppm lindane, the exceptions being the following (United Kingdom,

                                 Residue     Origin of
                   Sample        (ppm)       shipment

         Wheat                   0.2 - 0.3   Argentina

         Dust from surface
         of wheat                0.8         France

         Screenings of
         wheat                   0.6         Romania

         Wheat from the
         girders of ship         0.25

    Many poultry feeds contain lindane residues up to 0.2 ppm (Australia,
    1968) thus accounting for the presence of lindane residues of from 0
    to 0.2 ppm in egg yolk (only 2 per cent contained more than 0.2 ppm)
    (Australia, 1968). In the United States of America, 6 per cent of
    domestic and 9.5 per cent of imported shell eggs contained residues
    of lindane.



    In respect to the request for clarification of temporary tolerances of
    small fruit the meeting recommends that this recommendation be
    re-worded as follows: 3 ppm in vegetables, strawberries, cherries,
    plums, grapes and cranberries.

    In respect to the residue limit in raw cereals, the meeting felt that
    0.5 ppm should be retained as a temporary tolerance to cover the
    residues resulting from the use of this compound in accordance with
    good agricultural practice.

    In respect to the necessity for raising the practical residue limit
    for lindane in meat from 0.7 ppm to 2 ppm, data are available which
    show that lindane in fat of sheep ranges from 0.2 to 2.1 ppm, thus
    justifying raising this limit to 2 ppm.

    In respect to the establishment of a practical residue limit in egg
    yolk, data were furnished indicating that unintentional residues
    sometimes slightly exceeding 0.2 ppm were sometimes encountered thus
    justifying the establishment of a practical residue limit in egg yolk
    at 0.2 ppm.

    In respect to the request for the establishment of tolerances for
    residues in cocoa beans and derived products, the meeting agreed that
    information was insufficient to provide a basis for a recommendation.


    Temporary tolerances

    The previously recommended temporary tolerances, to be in effect until
    1970, are to apply to the following commodities:

         Raw cereals                         0.5 ppm

         Vegetables                          3.0 ppm

         Cranberries, cherries, grapes,
         plums and strawberries              3.0 ppm

    Practical residue limits

    In addition to the previously recommended practical residue limits, to
    be in effect until 1970:

         Whole milk                          0.004 ppm

         Milk products (on a fat basis)      0.1 ppm

    The meeting also recommends the following practical residue limits to
    be in effect until 1970:

         Eggs (yolk)                         0.2 ppm

         Meat (on a fat basis)               2.0 ppm

    In the case of fruit and vegetables the tolerances should be applied
    as soon as practicable after harvest and in any event prior to actual
    retail to the public. In the case of commodities entering
    international trade, the tolerances should be applied by the importing
    country at the point of entry or as soon as practicable thereafter.

    Further work or information

    Required before 30 June 1970

    1.   Further information on the nature of terminal residues in plants,
         animals and their products.

    2.   Further data on the required rates and frequencies of
         application, pre-harvest intervals and the resultant residues.

    3.   Further data on residues occurring in cocoa and cocoa products.

    4.   Further data on residues resulting from supervised trials of bin,
         ship-hold and other storage or conveyance treatments.


    Collett J. N. and Harrison, D. L. (1968) Lindane residues on pasture
    and in the fat of sheep grazing pasture treated with lindane prills.
    N.Z.J. Agric. Res., 11: 589-600

    FAO/WHO. (1968) 1967 Evaluations of some pesticide residues in food
    (FAO, PL:1967/M/11/1; WHO/Food Add./68.30)

    New Zealand. (1968) Submission of the CCPR delegation of New Zealand
    to FAO.

    United Kingdom. (1968) Submission of the CCPR delegation of the United
    Kingdom to FAO.

    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Lindane (EHC 124, 1991)
       Lindane (HSG 54, 1991)
       Lindane (ICSC)
       Lindane (PIM 859)
       Lindane (FAO Meeting Report PL/1965/10/1)
       Lindane (FAO/PL:1967/M/11/1)
       Lindane (JMPR Evaluations 2002 Part II Toxicological)
       Lindane (FAO/PL:1969/M/17/1)
       Lindane (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 3)
       Lindane (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 4)
       Lindane (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 5)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1977 evaluations)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1978 evaluations)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1979 evaluations)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1989 evaluations Part II Toxicology)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1997 evaluations Part II Toxicological & Environmental)