For definition of Groups, see Preamble Evaluation.
VOL.: 54 (1992) (p. 41)
Strong inorganic acids may be present in the work environment as mists, vapours or gases. The most prevalent acids are sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric and phosphoric acids, which may be present in a wide variety of industries, including the extraction, fabrication and finishing of metal, fertilizer production, battery manufacture and various segments of the petroleum, chemical and petrochemical industries. Millions of workers worldwide are estimated to be potentially exposed to these acids.
Sulfuric acid is the most widely used of the strong inorganic acids. Average exposures to sulfuric acid mists in pickling, electroplating and other acid treatment of metals are frequently above 0.5 mg/m3, while lower levels are usually found in the manufacture of lead-acid batteries and in phosphate fertilizer production. Exposure to sulfuric acid also occurs during its manufacture and during the production of isopropanol, synthetic ethanol and detergents. Hydrochloric acid is used in industries that involve acid treatment of metals, where occupational exposure levels to hydrochloric acid mists and gas are frequently above 1 mg/m3. Exposures to hydrochloric acid may also occur during its synthesis and use in various industrial processes. Pickling and other acid treatments of metal may entail occupational exposures to nitric and phosphoric acids, but these occur less frequently than exposures to sulfuric and hydrochloric acids. Exposure to nitric acid also occurs during its manufacture and exposure to phosphoric acid in phosphate fertilizer production.
An early study of isopropanol manufacture in the USA using the strong-acid process demonstrated an excess of nasal sinus cancer. Studies of one US cohort of workers in pickling operations within the steel industry showed excesses of laryngeal and lung cancer after smoking and other potentialconfounding variables had been controlled for. A Swedish study of a cohort of workers in steel pickling also showed an excess risk for laryngeal cancer. A nested case-control study of workers in a US petrochemical plant showed an elevated risk for laryngeal cancer among workers exposed to sulfuric acid. Of two population-based case-control studies in Canada, one of laryngeal cancer showed an increased risk for exposure to sulfuric acid, and one of lung cancer suggested an excess risk; the latter also suggested a risk associated with exposure to mixed inorganic acids. In all these studies, sulfuric acid mists were the commonest exposure, and positive exposure-response relationships were seen in two of the studies.
Additional supporting evidence was provided by one cohort study in the soap manufacturing industry in Italy, which showed an increased risk for laryngeal cancer. Studies of three US cohorts and one Swedish cohort in the phosphate fertilizer manufacturing industry showed excess lung cancer, but there was potential confounding from exposure to radon decay products in some cohorts.
No data were available to the Working Group.
Acid mists containing particles with a diameter of up to a few micrometers will be deposited in both the upper and lower airways. They are irritating to mucous epithelia, they cause dental erosion, and they produce acute effects in the lungs (symptoms and changes in pulmonary function). Asthmatics appear to be at particular risk for pulmonary effects.
Significant increases in the incidences of sister chromatid exchange, micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes were observed in a single study of workers engaged in the manufacture of sulfuric acid.
The studies reviewed examined the effects of pH values < 7 specifically. In cultured mammalian cells at pH 6.7 or below, cell transformation, gene mutation and chromosomal aberrations were induced. Mitotic abnormalities were induced in sea urchins and clastogenic effects in plants. Gene conversion was induced in yeast cells. No point mutation was observed in fungi, yeast or bacteria. Acid pH caused depurination of isolated DNA.
There is sufficient evidence that occupational exposure to strong-inorganic-acid mists containing sulfuric acid is carcinogenic.
Occupational exposure to strong-inorganic-acid mists containing sulfuric acid is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1).
Last updated: 21 November 1997
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Trifluralin (ICSC) Trifluralin (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 53, 1991)