International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Summaries & Evaluations
VOL.: 31 (1983) (p. 239)
CAS No.: 22571-95-5
Chem. Abstr. Name: 2-Butenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 7-[[2,3-dihydroxy-
pyrrolizin-1-yl ester,[1R-[1a(E), 7(2S*,3S*),7ab]]-
5. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation
5.1 Experimental data
Symphytine was tested for carcinogenicity in male rats by
intraperitoneal administration; a non-significant increase in the
incidence of liver tumours was observed. When leaves and roots of
Symphytum officinale L. were tested in rats by administration in the
diet, the incidence of liver tumours was increased.
Symphytine was mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium and in
mammalian cells in vitro. The data were inadequate to evaluate the
activity of symphytine in short-term tests.
No data were available to evaluate the teratogenicity of this
compound to experimental animals.
5.2 Human data
Symphytine is found in several plant species which are used as
foods and as herbal remedies, resulting in wide human exposure.
No data were available to evaluate the teratogenicity or
chromosomal effects of this compound in humans.
No case report or epidemiological study of the carcinogenicity of
symphytine was available to the Working Group.
No evaluation of the carcinogenicity of symphytine to
experimental animals could be made. Results of experiments in rats
provide limited evidence that the leaves and roots of Symphytum
officinale L. are carcinogenic to experimental animals. In the
absence of epidemiological data, no evaluation of the carcinogenicity
of symphytine to humans could be made.
For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.
Subsequent evaluation: Suppl. 7 (1987) (p. 72: Group 3)
- 7-Tiglylretronecine viridiflorate
Last updated: 16 April 1998