International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Summaries & Evaluations


VOL.: 30 (1983) (p. 271)

CAS No.: 1836-75-5
Chem. Abstr. Name: Benzene, 2,4-dichloro-1-(4-nitrophenoxy)-

5. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation

5.1 Experimental data

Nitrofen (technical grade) was tested for carcinogenicity in one strain of mice and in two strains of rats by administration in the diet. In two studies in mice, it significantly increased the incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas. In one study, haemangiosarcomas at various anatomical sites occurred in a significantly higher incidence among male mice given a higher dose. In rats of one strain, adenocarcinomas of the pancreas were produced in females.

Nitrofen was teratogenic to mice and rats when given at very high doses. It decreased neonatal and postnatal viability in three-generation reproduction studies in rats.

Nitrofen was mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium. In two studies, there was no evidence for chromosomal damage in mammals. The data are insufficient to evaluate the mutagenicity of nitrofen in mammals.

5.2 Human data

Nitrofen was introduced in about 1964. Its production, formulation and use as a herbicide in agricultural applications are potential sources of exposure, both of workers and of the general population.

No data were available to evaluate the teratogenic or chromosomal effects of nitrofen in humans.

No case report or epidemiological study of the carcinogenicity of nitrofen alone was available to the Working Group; however, it should be noted that the period since introduction of this compound may be too short for a carcinogenic effect to be detected in humans. (See also the section 'Cancer Epidemiology of Pesticide Manufacturers, Formulators and Users', in this volume.)

5.3 Evaluation

No data on humans were available.

There is sufficient evidence that technical-grade nitrofen is carcinogenic to experimental animals.

For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.

Subsequent evaluation: Suppl. 7 (1987) (p. 67: Group 2B)


Last updated: 16 April 1998

    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Nitrofen (ICSC)
       Nitrofen (Pesticide residues in food: 1983 evaluations)