Health and Safety Guide No. 86

                               METHYL BROMIDE


                             HEALTH AND SAFETY


                       This is a companion volume to
      Environmental Health Criteria 166: Methyl Bromide (Bromomethane)

      Published by the World Health Organization for the International
   Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
   Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, 
                     and the World Health Organization) 


    This report contains the collective views of an international group of 
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated 
    policy ofthe United Nations Environment Programme, the International 
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization 

    WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data 

    Methyl bromide (bromomethane) : health and safety guide. (Health and 
    safety guide ; no. 86) 

    1.Hydrocarbons, Brominated - standards  2.Environmental exposure  

    ISBN 92 4 151086 2            (NLM Classification: WA 240)
    ISSN 0259-7268

    The World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to 
    reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. 
    Applications and enquiries should be addressed to the Office of 
    Publications, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, which 
    will be glad to provide the latest information on an; changes made to 
    the text, plans for new editions, and reprints and translations already 

                       World Health Organization 1994

    Publications ofthe World Health Organization enjoy copyright protection 
    in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the Universal 
    Copyright Convention.  All rights reserved. 

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this 
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on 
    the part ofthe Secretariat of the World Health Organization concerning 
    the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its 
    authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or 

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products 
    does not iniply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World 
    Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that 
    are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of 
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. 

     The Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and
       Nuclear Safety (Fed. Rep. Germany) provided financial support 
           for, and undertook the printing of, this publication. 

          Computer typesetting, by HEADS, Oxford OX8 8NY, England
  Printed by Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH D-70009 Stuttgart 10 


    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES...........................            
      1.1 Identity.........................................            

      1.2 Physical and chemical properties.................

          1.2.1 Chemical properties........................

      1.3 Analytical methods...............................
      1.4 Production and uses..............................

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION..............................

      2.1 Human exposure to methyl bromide.................

      2.2 Uptake, metabolism, and excretion................       

      2.3 Effects on organisms in the environment..........

      2.4 Effects on experimental animals and
           in vitro test systems............................

      2.5 Effects on humans................................
    3. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.....................              
       AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION....................              
      4.1 Human health hazards, prevention and              
          protection, first aid............................              
          4.1.1 Information for physicians.................              
     Symptoms of poisoning................                
     Emergency and first aid procedures...              
     Poisons information..................              
          4.1.2 Health surveillance advice.................              
          4.1.3 Protection.................................              
     Protection of workers and fumigators.               
     Protection of the general public.....               
      4.2 Explosion and fire hazards.......................              
          4.2.1 Explosion hazards..........................              
          4.2.2 Fire-fighting procedures...................              
      4.3 Storage..........................................      
          4.3.1 Cylinder specifications....................              
          4.3.2 Reactivity.................................
          4.3.3 Precautions for handling and storage.......              
      4.4 Transport........................................              
      4.5 Spillage.........................................       
      4.6 Disposal.........................................              
    6. SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION..............              
      7.1 Previous evaluations by intemational bodies......              
      7.2 Exposure limits..................................              
      7.3 Specific restrictions............................              
          7.3.1 Type of crop, method of fumigation, dosage              
                restrictions, covering and leaching........               
          7.3.2 Restrictions on personnel..................              
      7.4 Labelling, packaging, and transport..............              
          7.4.1 Labelling..................................              
          7.4.2 Packaging..................................              
          7.4.3 Transport..................................              


    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) monographs produced by the 
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of the 
    effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a 
    chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological agents.  
    They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits. 

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the 
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety programmes.  
    The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide highlight the 
    relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC.  Section 4 
    includes advice on preventive and protective measures and emergency 
    action; health workers should be thoroughly familiar with the medical 
    information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an emergency.  
    Within the Guide is a Summary of Chemical Safety Information which 
    should be readily available, and should be clearly explained, to all 
    who could come into contact with the chemical.  The section on 
    regulatory information has been extracted from the legal file of the 
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) and from 
    other United Nations sources. 

    The target readership includes occupational health services, those in 
    ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are 
    involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of 
    environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on 
    this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms that will be 
    familiar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2 inevitably 
    contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been included for 
    readers who require further background information. 

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due 
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology.  
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be 
    very helpful and should be addressed to: 

                                The Director
                 International Programme on Chemical Safety
                         World Health Organization
                               1211 Geneva 27


                       THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE 
                         SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A 
                       HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME 


                        1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1 Identity

       Common name:         methyl bromide

       Chemical formula:    CH3Br

       Chemical structure:
Figure 1;;;grph86_1.bmp

    Relative molecular
    mass:                   94.94

    CAS name:               bromomethane

    CAS registry No.:       74-83-9

    EEC No.                 602-002-00-2

    EINECS No.              200-813-2

    Synonyms:               monobromomethane

    Methyl bromide is typically available as a liquefied gas.  It is 
    marketed under a variety of trade names with formulations containing 
    between 30 and 100 % of the compound.  Formulations include mixtures 
    with other fumigants, mostly with chloropicrin or ethylene dibromide, 
    or hydrocarbons, as inert diluents.  Chloropicrin (2 %) or amyl acetate 
    (0.3 %) is often added to serve as a sensory warning agent.  
    Chloropicrin is itself a toxic chemical with a noxious odour and 
    irritating effects at low temperatures.  Only 100 % methyl bromide can 
    be used for commodity fumigation. 

    1.2 Physical and Chemical Properties

    Methyl bromide is a colourless gas at room temperature and pressure.  
    It is odourless, except in relatively high concentrations when it has a 
    chloroform-like smell.  The gas is heavier than air and has the ability 
    to penetrate many substances, including usually impermeable materials, 
    such as concrete, leather, and rubber.  Methyl bromide is able to 
    diffuse through certain plastics; permeation through low density 
    polyethylene (LDPE) is 8 times higher than through high density 
    polyethylene (HDPE).  However, methyl bromide does not permeate through 
    PVC.  Metal piping is also impervious. 

    As a liquid, methyl bromide has a solvent action on many plastics and 
    organic materials.  Natural rubber is attacked and acquires a strong, 
    unpleasant smell. 

    The physical properties of methyl bromide are summarized in section 6. 

    1.2.1  Chemical properties

    Methyl bromide hydrolyses slowly to form methanol and hydrobromic acid 
    in aqueous solution but more rapidly in dilute alkali.  It is an 
    effective methylating agent reacting with amines, particularly the more 
    basic ones, to form methylammonium bromide derivatives.  Methyl bromide 
    also reacts with sulfur compounds under alkaline conditions to give 
    mercaptans, thioethers, and disulfides.  Most structural metals, other 
    than aluminium, are inert towards pure, dry methyl bromide, but surface 
    reactions take place on zinc, tin, and magnesium in the presence of 
    impurities, such as alcohol or moisture.  Explosions with aluminium and 
    with dimethyl sulfoxide have been reported. 

    Methyl bromide is not considered to be flammable.  However, it will 
    burn in air in the presence of a high energy source of ignition, within 
    a narrow flammability concentration range (9-20%).  Methyl bromide has 
    no flash point.  Thermal decomposition begins above 400 C.  The 
    products include hydrogen bromide, bromine, carbon oxybromide, carbon 
    dioxide, and carbon monoxide. 

    1.3 Analytical Methods

    Methyl bromide can be analysed using gas chromatography with electron-
    capture detection, and mass spectrophotometry for confirmation 
    purposes. Purge and trap techniques or headspace sampling methods are 

    Bromide ion formed from methyl bromide during fumigation can be 
    detected using X-ray spectroscopy, potientiometry, thiosulfate 
    titration and gas/liquid chromatography. 

    1.4 Production and Uses

    The world consumption of methyl bromide was over 67 million kg in 1990. 

    The distribution of principal uses is:

      soil (pre-planting) fumigation           77 %
      quarantine and commodity fumigation      12 %
      structural fumigation                     5 %
      chemical intermediates                    6 %

    Since 1960, the major use of methyl bromide has been as a fumigant, 
    either pre-planting in glasshouses or in the open as a soil fumigant 
    for the control of nematodes, fungi, insects, weeds, weed seeds, and 
    soil-borne diseases.  It is also used as a post-harvest fumigant to 
    eradicate pests in mills and warehouses.  A wide range of stored 
    foodstuffs and other products, such as tobacco and to a more limited 
    extent fresh fruit and vegetables, are fumigated with methyl bromide to 
    meet quarantine requirements.  In some countries, the use of methyl 
    bromide for quarantine is obligatory. 

    The use of methyl bromide as a soil fumigant is restricted in some 

    Methyl bromide is also used to fumigate buildings, furniture, books, 
    and archival material. 

    In the chemical industry, methyl bromide is used primarily as a 
    methylating agent. 

                         2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1 Human Exposure to Methyl Bromide

    Human exposure to methyl bromide (through inhalation and skin contact) 
    is predominantly occupational, particularly during soil or bulk 
    fumigation, but also during manufacture.  However, methyl bromide is a 
    regulated chemical and there are strict regulations concerning its use 
    as a fumigant. 

    Individuals in the vicinity of fumigated fields or buildings may also 
    be exposed to methyl bromide as well as those who, unaware of the 
    hazard, enter premises being fumigated.  Methyl bromide is odourless at 
    concentrations usually used.  Some formulations contain 2 % 
    chloropicrin (lacrimation) or 0.3 % amyl acetate (smell) as a warning 
    agent, but this does not always provide sufficient warning. 

    Methyl bromide is used extensively for the post-harvest fumigation of 
    foods, such as cereals, spices, dried fruits, nuts, fresh fruits, and 
    vegetables.  Levels in the food commodities usually decrease rapidly 
    after aeration, but may be detected for some weeks after the treatment. 
    Fumigation with methyl bromide or the growing of crops on methyl 
    bromide-treated soil increases the inorganic bromide content of food 
    commodities.  Adherence to methyl bromide application dosage standards 
    ensures that the bromide levels do not exceed recommended limits. 

    Exposure to methyl bromide is also possible through drinking water from 
    wells contaminated with leaching water. 

    2.2 Uptake, Metabolism, and Excretion

    The results of inhalation studies on rats, beagles, and humans have 
    shown that methyl bromide is rapidly absorbed through the lungs.  It is 
    also rapidly absorbed in rats following oral administration. 

    After absorption, methyl bromide or its metabolites are rapidly 
    distributed to many tissues including the lungs, adrenal glands, 
    kidneys, liver, nasal turbinates, brain, testes, and adipose tissue.  
    In a rat inhalation study, the methyl bromide concentration in tissues 
    reached a maximum 1 h after exposure, but then decreased rapidly with 
    no traces 48 h later.  The metabolism of methyl bromide has not been 
    elucidated, though glutathione may play a role. 

    Methylation of proteins and lipids has been observed in tissues from
    several species, including humans, exposed via inhalation.  Methylated
    DNA adducts have also been detected following  in vivo and  in vitro
    exposure of rodents or rodent cells.

    In inhalation studies using [14C]-labelled methyl bromide, exhalation 
    of 14C02 was the major route of elimination of 14C. A lesser amount of 
    14C was excreted in the urine.  Following oral administration of methyl
    bromide, urinary excretion was the major route of elimination of 14C.

    The central nervous system is an important target for methyl bromide. 
    Changes in monoamine, amino acid contents and possibly catecholamine 
    contents may be factors involved in methyl bromide-induced 

    2.3 Effects on Organisms in the Environment

    Methyl bromide is used as a fungicide, partial bactericide, nematocide, 
    insecticide, herbicide, and rodenticide. 

    In soil, about 50% of methyl bromide is degraded by hydrolysis and
    microbial activity.  The remainder eventually dissipates into the 
    atmosphere.  The principal degradation product is inorganic bromide, 
    which remains as a residue in soil.  Some bromide may be leached out 
    into water or taken up by plants. 

    Soil fumigation using methyl bromide (with 2% chloropicrin) affects 
    both target and non-target organisms: various soil microflora and fauna 
    are adversely affected, at least temporarily, by fumigation.  High 
    mortality of non-target insects bas been noticed following fumigation 
    under plastic covers.  Methyl bromide was detected in different soil 
    types up to 3 weeks after fumillation, the highest levels being found 
    in the upper layers (0-40 cm) of the soil. 

    Although methyl bromide is highly toxic for aquatic organisms, it is 
    generally of no risk to the aquatic environment.  The lowest median 
    effect concentration (EC50) or median lethal concentration (LC50) 
    values reported are 2.8 mg/litre for algae, 1.7 mg/litre for daphnids, 
    and 0.3 mg/litre for fish.  No-observed-effect concentrations (NOEC) in 
    long-term studies were low (0.06 mg/litre) for daphnids and fish.  
    Toxic concentrations are not expected to be reached under normal 
    circumstances, because most of the niethyl bromide applied on soil is 
    degraded or lost through evaporation before it reaches surface water 
    via run-off.  In very special situations (intensive leaching of green- 
    house soils fumigated with methyl bromide to reduce the organic bromide 
    content), levels of methly bromide in the mg/litre range can occur in 
    water; concentrations of up to 9.3 mg methly bromide/litre have been 
    found in drainage water. 

    However, relatively high levels of bromide (up to 72 mg/litre) can be 
    found in the drainage water from greenhouses and could adversely affect 
    aquatic organisms.  An EC50 value of 27 mg bromide/litre for daphnia 
    and a lowest NOEC for different fish species of 25 mg bromide/litre 
    were determined with long-term exposure to bromide ion. 

    Methyl bromide is often used in preference to other insecticides 
    because of its ability to penetrate quickly and deeply into bulk 
    materials and soils.  Dosages for methyl bromide, as a storage 
    fumigant, range mostly from 16 to 100 g/m3 for 2-3 days, depending on 
    temperature.  A higher dosage is required to kill eggs and pupae than 
    adult insects.  There is a variation in tolerance between different 
    species and stages of insect and between different strains of the same 

    There are no data on the direct effects of methyl bromide on birds and 
    wild mammals. 

    2.4 Effects on Experimental Animals and in vitro Test Systems

    Methyl bromide is very toxic for all animal species by all routes of 
    administration.  Deaths from exposure follow a steep dose-response 
    curve.  LC50 (1-h) values for mice and rats are 4680 and 7300 mg/m3, 

    Deaths and neurotoxicity occur within hours or days after single 
    inhalation exposure to high concentrations.  The results of studies on 
    mice show that more prolonged exposure at low concentrations (6 h/day; 
    389 mg/m3) may also produce neurotoxicity or deaths appearing after a 
    delay of several months. 

    The principal toxic effects associated with death occur in the brain 
    and kidney.  Histopathology of the brain shows necrosis of granular 
    cells of the cerebellum in mice and rats and neuronal necrosis in the 
    cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus in rats.  The lowest doses 
    at which these lesions were observed were 250 mg/m3 for 6 h/day, over 2 
    years, in mice, and, 622 mg/m3 for 6 h/day, over 5 weeks, in rats.  In 
    the kidney, necrosis of the convoluted tubule epithelium occurred at 
    doses of 599 mg/m3 for 6 h/day, over 2 weeks, in mice, and 1712 mg/m3 
    for 6 h/day, over 2 weeks, in rats.  Other effects are observed in the 
    heart (degeneration and focal necrosis), nose (necrosis of olfactory 
    epithelium), testis (degeneration of seminiferous tubules), and other 

    In non-lethal exposure, nasal irritation and neurotoxicity (including 
    histopathological lesions) are the major toxic effects. 

    No teratogenic effects have been observed in rats or rabbits.  Embryo-
    toxicity occurred in rats and rabbits only at doses that were 
    maternally toxic.  In a rat multigeneration study, there were 
    reductions in the fertility index in the second generation when the 
    animals were exposed to 117 or 350 mg/m3 for 6 h/day (5 days/week, for
    about 8 months), but the effects were not observed following exposure 
    to 12 mg/m3 for 6 h/day. 

    Methyl bromide was mutagenic in several  in vivo and  in vitro assays. 

    The results of long-term inhalation studies on rats and mice did not 
    demonstrate any evidence of carcinogenicity.  Lesions originally 
    interpreted as carcinomas of the forestomach in rats following gavage 
    administration were shown to regress after termination of treatment. 

    2.5 Effects on Humans

    Methyl bromide is well absorbed (50%) by humans via inhalation.  It 
    damages the nervous system, lung, nasal mucosa, kidney, eye, and skin. 
    Central nervous system effects include blurred vision, mental 
    confusion, numbness, tremor, speech defects.  Topical exposure can 
    cause skin irritation and burns, and eye injury. 

    Fatal poisoning results from exposure to relatively high concentrations 
    of methyl bromide vapour.  Non-fatal poisoning has resulted from 
    exposure to concentrations as low as 389 mg/m3 (100 ppm). 

    Exposure to high concentrations of methyl bromide causes pulmonary 
    oedema.  Central nervous system depression with respiratory paralysis 
    and/or circulatory failure are often the immediate cause of death, 
    which is preceded by convulsions and coma. 

    Various neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms have been observed during 
    acute and long-term methyl bromide poisoning.  Low-level, short-term 
    exposure to the vapour has produced a syndrome of polyneuropathy 
    without overt central nervous system manifestations. 

    Late sequelae include bronchopneumonia after severe pulmonary lesions, 
    renal failure with anuria, and severe muscular weakness, sometimes with 
    paralysis.  Generally, these tend to subside over a period varying 
    between a few weeks and several months, but there have been cases where 
    sensory disturbances, muscular weakness, disturbances of gait, and 
    blurred vision have persisted. 

    Exposure to methyl bromide is accompanied by an increase in the bromide 
    level in the blood. 

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that 
    there was inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of methyl bromide 
    for humans. 


    Human exposure to methyl bromide is predominantly occupational, during 
    manufacture (this is in enclosed processes so the risk of exposure is 
    small), and its use in soil or bulk fumigation where significant 
    exposure is possible; members of the general population in the vicinity 
    of fumigated fields or buildings may also be exposed.  The major health 
    concern is poisoning, sometimes fatal, resulting from acute exposure. 
    Delayed onset of symptoms may occur. 

    In most countries, methyl bromide is strictly regulated for application
    as a soil, commodities, and structural fumigant.  Adherence to good 
    practices and guidelines should ensure that there are no adverse 
    effects on persons exposed occupationally.  Care should be taken by 
    manufacturers in the production of methyl bromide, by the suppliers in 
    its transfer, and by fumigators and other workers in its use.  In 
    fumigation, all necessary precautions must be taken to avoid any 
    hazards to the general public.  Fumigated areas and premises must be 
    clearly marked and must not be entered until there has been a positive 
    check for safety. 

    Methyl bromide residues may be present in food and drinking-water, but, 
    because of the normally rapid breakdown of methyl bromide, there is no 
    evidence of any health effects. 

    Methyl bromide occurs naturally and the oceans are believed to be a 
    major source.  It is manufactured in quantity, primarily as a fumigant, 
    and enters the environment from its uses in fumigation and to a lesser 
    extent from the exhaust emissions of motor vehicles using leaded petrol 
    containing organic bromine additives as lead scavengers.  About 50% of 
    manufactured methyl bromide eventually enters the atmosphere, during or 
    after use.  Some of this methyl bromide is broken down in the lower 
    atmosphere (troposphere), and some diffuses upwards to the stratosphere 
    where it decomposes (photolysis) and produces active bromine species 
    that react with ozone and are partly responsible for the depletion of 
    the ozone layer.  Accordingly, methyl bromide is one of the chemicals 
    covered by the Montreal Protocol for the protection of the ozone layer. 

    To protect the environment, emissions of methyl bromide during 
    manufacture and soil, commodity, and structural fumigation should be 
    reduced, for example, by improving injection methods for soil 
    fumigation, better barrier films, or better measurement of the efficacy 
    of methyl bromide, with the goal of lower dosage rates where possible.  
    In commodity and structural fumigation, techniques should be developed 
    to seal fumigation chambers more tightly and to capture and recycle 
    fumigation gas. 


    4.1 Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Methyl bromide gas can be fatal if inhaled, and harmful if the liquid 
    is either swallowed or absorbed through the skin. 

    It is neurotoxic and a severe irritant to the eyes and upper and lower 
    respiratory tract. 

    4.1.1  Information for physicians Symptoms of poisoning

     Effects of overexposure

     Acute effects: Acute poisoning from methyl bromide is characterized by 
    marked irritation of the respiratory tract, which, in severe cases, may 
    lead to pulmonary oedema.  High concentrations may damage the liver, 
    kidneys, and central nervous system. 
      Eye contact:          Severe irritant.  Contact of liquid or high 
                            concentrations of gas with the eyes may cause 
                            severe, but usually reversible, injury with 
                            temporary blindness. 

      Skin contact:         Liquid in contact with the skin for more than a 
                            few seconds causes irritation and blisters.  
                            Liquid splashed on clothing or leather and/or 
                            high gas concentrations held in contact with 
                            skin, may cause skin burns with large blisters 
                            appearing after several hours.  Less severe 
                            exposure may result in an itching skin rash 
                            appearing after several days.  Persistent 
                            dermal effects include hyperpigmentation. 

      Skin absorption:      Methyl bromide may be absorbed through the skin 
                            in sufficient quantities to cause systemic 
                            toxicity with signs and symptoms similar to 
                            those following inhalation and can be fatal. 
      Inhalation:           Signs and symptoms of acute poisoning include 
                            headache, dizziness, somnolence, vertigo, 
                            blurred vision, slurred speech, nausea and 
                            vomiting, and possibly convulsions and coma.  
                            The onset of toxic manifestations may be 
                            delayed from 30 min up to two days.  Dyspnoea 
                            and pulmonary oedema may also occur, with a 
                            late-onset chemical pneumonitis. 

      Ingestion:            Although ingestion is unlikely, methyl bromide 
                            is highly irritant to mucous membranes and 
                            extremely poisonous if ingested. 

     Long-term effects: Long-term exposure to low concentrations of methyl 
    bromide may produce central nervous system effects.  Signs include 
    mental confusion, lethargy, inability to focus the eyes, 
    incoordination, and muscle weakness. 

    Repeated skin exposure may cause contact dermatitis.  There is no 
    evidence that methyl bromide induces skin sensitization. 

 Emergency and first aid procedures

    Because of the possibility of delayed onset of poisoning, a 24-h 
    medical surveillance period should be mandatory in all cases where 
    there is any likelihood of overexposure to methyl bromide. 

      Eye                   Holding the eyelids apart, flush eyes at once 
      contamination:        with copious flowing water for at least 15 min.  
                            Get medical attention immediately. 

      Skin contact:         Remove contaminated clothing and shoes and 
                            place in closed containers.  Wash skin 
                            thoroughly with mild soap and plenty of water 
                            for at least 15 min.  Get medical attention 
                            immediately.  All leather items should be 
                            discarded; other contaminated clothing must 
                            preferably be discarded or else thoroughly 
                            ventilated and washed before re-use. 
      Inhalation:           Remove the victim to fresh air.  Keep the 
                            victim quiet and warm.  Apply artificial 
                            respiration if necessary.  Do not give mouth-
                            to-mouth resuscitation.  Get medical attention 

      Ingestion:            If methyl bromide is swallowed, wash mouth 
                            thoroughly with plenty of water and give water 
                            or milk to drink.  Get medical attention 
                            immediately.  If the victim is unconscious, do 
                            not give liquids by mouth and place the patient 
                            in the recovery position. Poisons information

    Advice on the diagnosis and treatment of poisoning can be obtained from 
    Poison Information Centres. 

    4.1.2  Health surveillance advice

    Before employment, a complete history and physical examination should 
    be carried out, in order to detect pre-employment conditions that might 
    place an employee at risk, and to establish a base-line for future 
    health monitoring.  A careful history and examination of the nervous 
    and respiratory systems are important.  The skin should be examined for 
    evidence of chronic disorders. 
    Medical examination should be repeated on an annual basis.

    4.1.3  Protection Protection of workers and fumigators

    Ventilation requirements: In production, and formulation, workplace 
    ventilation must be sufficient to maintain methyl bromide levels below 
    the prescribed occupational exposure limit.  Local exhaust ventilation 
    at source or vapour extraction may be used. 

     Protective equipment

      Eyes:                 Splash-proof safety goggles.  Contact lenses 
                            should not be worn when working with methyl 
                            bromide because of the danger of it being 
                            trapped behind the contact lens and damaging 
                            the eye. 

      Gloves:               Gloves or rubber boots should not be used as 
                            the liquid or concentrated vapour may be 
                            trapped inside them. 

      Respirator:           Where respiratory protection is required, a 
                            self-contained breathing apparatus (compressed 
                            air) or a full face-piece canister respirator 
                            should be used. 

     Detection/Monitoring: Use an appropriate monitoring instrument for
    methyl bromide in any area where it is being stored or handled: (a) 
    portable electronic leak detectors are very sensitive and give 
    continous audible warning, but are non-specific for methyl bromide; (b) 
    graduated gas detector tubes are more precise, and, when a known amount 
    of methyl bromide is drawn through a tube, the stain-length is the 
    indication of the gas concentration in that area. 

     Other protective equipment: Specially designed protective clothing for
    methyl bromide is not available.  Do not use rubberized materials; use
    cotton overalls.  Finger rings or adhesive bandages on hands should not
    be worn when handling methyl bromide. Protection of the general public

    Areas or buildings being fumigated with methyl bromide must be clearly 
    identified with warning signs on all entrances showing, at least, the 
    signal word DANGER and the "Skull and Crossbones" and the words "Area 
    under fumigation, do not enter until completely aerated", the date and 
    time of fumigation, the name of the formulation being used, an 
    emergency telephone number for conlict, and the name and address of the 
    responsible fumigator.  Warning signs should not be removed until the 
    fumigated area or building is safe for entry, confirmed by a suitable 
    detector.  The safety instructions provided by the producer must be 
    followed.  There may be national specifications for the wording. 

    4.2 Explosion and Fire Hazards

    4.2.1  Explosion hazards

      Flash point:          None

      Flammable             Lower flammable limit 8.6 %
      (explosive) limits:   Upper flammable limit 20 %.

    At concentrations used in normal fumigation practices, explosive 
    levels are not very likely to be reached. 

    4.2.2  Fire-fighting procedures

    Special fire-fighting procedures: If possible, stop methyl bromide flow 
    immediately.  Do not extinguish burning gas, unless flow can be shut 
    off immediately.  Use water spray, fog nozzle or CO2 to keep cylinder 
    cool. If there is no risk, move cylinder away from fire.  Use self-
    contained breathing apparatus with a full face-piece, operating in 
    positive pressure mode, and appropriate protective clothing. 
    Note: this clothing may trap methyl bromide. 

    4.3 Storage

    4.3.1  Cylinder specifications

    Cylinders for methyl bromide must meet specifications laid down by the 
    authorities in the specific country of use and in particular: 

    -     the thickness of the steel specified must be sufficient to 
          withstand dropping (the liquid has a high density), and the steel 
          must be corrosion resistant; 

    -     the cylinders must undergo the required periodic tests;

    -     the materials of valve components must be compatible and 
          resistant to corrosion and expansion as a result of exposure to 
          methyl bromide (joints, packings, membranes); 

    -     valve outlets must be protected by blind nuts and the valves
          themselves by caps, during, the storage and transpormation of 

    4.3.2  Reactivity

      Stability:            Stable in sealed containers and under normal

      Conditions to         Ignition sources, water contamination and  
      avoid:                heating above 400 C. 

      Incompatibility:.     Strong oxidizers, aluminium, zinc, and 
                            magnesium metals and their alloys, natural 
                            rubber and certain types of plastics. 

      Hazardous             Hydrogen bromide and carbon monoxide.

    4.3.3  Precautions for handling and storage

    Move and/or transport containers with care; do not use hooks, ropes, or 
    slings to unload, instead use hand or fork trucks to cradle the 
    cylinders firmly; do not bump or drag them.  Do not dent cans.  Store 
    cylinders and cans upright, secured from tampering and incompatible 
    material, in cool, well-ventilated, dry areas, away from seeds, 
    food/animal feed, and human and animal habitations.  Test periodically 
    for leaks using a (hand-held) electronic leak detector.  Avoid bodily 

    4.4 Transport

    Comply with requirements regarding movement of hazardous goods.  Check 
    that containers are sound and the labels undamaged before despatch. 

    4.5 Spillage

     Steps to be taken in case material is released or spilled: Evacuate 
    area and keep personnel upwind.  Use self-contained breathing apparatus 
    in positive-pressure mode.  If practicable, stop flow of vapour.  Shut 
    off all sources of ignition.  Ventilate and/or allow to evaporate, 
    keeping people away from the area until safe re-entry levels are shown 
    by a (hand-held) electronic leak detector. 

    4.6 Disposal

    Incineration is the recommended waste disposal method for large 
    quantities.  If a suitable designated combustion chamber is not 
    available, return LABELLED containers to supplier.  Crush and bury 
    empty cans.  Incineration is hazardous for the non-specialist; 
    therefore, only small amounts should be released into the atmosphere, 
    in a well-ventilated outdoor location.  Methyl bromide is a toxic gas 
    and incineration may be difficult to arrange safely unless an efficient 
    method of feeding the gas into the incinerator can be arranged. 
    Incineration requires dilution with additional fuel. 

    Observe national or local regulations when disposing of methyl bromide. 
    Contact local and/or national environmental authorities to ensure proper

                     5. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND
                              THEIR PREVENTION

    Methyl bromide is present naturally in the atmosphere, and oceans are 
    believed to be a major source of methyl bromide.  Man-made emissions, 
    mostly from fumigation, but, to a lesser extent, from the exhaust 
    emissions of motor vehicles using fuel containing bromine compounds, 
    notably ethylene dibromide, add to the naturally occurring methyl 
    bromide.  Although methyl bromide reacts with the hydroxyl radical in 
    the troposphere, some is transported to the stratosphere by upward 
    diffusion.  Here, photolysis of methyl bromide becomes of increasing 
    importance, and is the most dominant loss mechanism in the lower 
    stratosphere.  Active bromine species react with ozone in the 
    stratosphere contributing to ozone layer depletion. 

    The solubility of methyl bromide is 16-18 g/litre, at 20 C; 1013 hPa. 

    In soil, methyl bromide is partly hydrolysed to bromide ions.  After 
    fumigation using methyl bromide, the soil is sometimes leached with 
    water to prevent the bromide ions being taken up by plants subsequently 
    planted on the sterilized soil.  This increase in aquatic bromide 
    levels can be problematical, if surface water is used for leaching.  
    Methyl bromide can diffuse through plastic drinking-water pipes, if the 
    surrounding soil has been fumigated with methyl bromide. 

    In the soil, methyl bromide can diffuse down to a depth of 2 m 
    depending on the type, conditions, and length of fumigation, the 
    highest concentration of methyl bromide remaining in the upper soil.  
    The amount of methyl bromide converted to bromide depends on the 
    organic matter content of the soil.  The bromide produced is largely 
    water soluble and can be taken up by plants or removed to lower soil 
    levels by leaching with water. 

    Methyl bromide is degraded in soil by hydrolysis and microbial 
    degradation.  The rate constant for hydrolysis varies with temperature 
    and is enhanced by light. 

    The octanol/water partition coefficient (log Pow) of methyl bromide is
    1.19; thus it should not bioaccumulate.

    The amount of bromide accumulated in plants depends on various factors,
    such as the physical and chenlical properties of the soil, the climatic
    trend (temperature and rainfall), the plant species, and on the type of 
    plant tissue.  Leafy vegetables, such as lettuce and spinach, can take 
    up relatively large amounts of bromide ion without phytotoxic symptoms.  
    In contrast, other crops, such as carnations, citrus seedlings, cotton, 
    celery, pepper, and onions, are particularly sensitive to methyl 
    bromide fumigation. 

    Methyl bromide is used as a fungicide, bactericide, nematocide, 
    insecticide, and rodenticide.  As a soil fumigant, it eradicates both 
    target and non-target organisms, destroying most of the soil flora. 

                       6. SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL SAFETY
     This summary should be easily available to all health workers concerned
     with, and users of, methyl bromide.  It should be displayed at, or 
     near, entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to methyl 
     bromide, and on processing equipment and containers.  The summary 
     should be translated into the appropriate language(s).  All persons 
     potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions 
     in the summary clearly explained. 
     Space is available for insertion of the National Occupational Exposure  
     Limit, the address and telephone number of the National Poison Control 
     Centre, and local trade names. 



    CAS chemical name: bromomethane;  Common name: methyl bromide;  CAS registry number: 74-83-9;
RTECS number: PA 4900000;  UN number: 1062;  Molecular formula: CH3Br;  Relative molecular mass: 94.95

                                       PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                OTHER CHARACTERISTICS

Appearance                             colourless, odourless gas          Methyl bromide is heavier than air;
                                                                          it decomposes on heating and
Boiling point                          4 C                               burning producing highly toxic and 
Melting point                          -94 C                             irritating fumes (bromides, carbon 
Relative density (water = 1)           1.7                                oxybromide, carbon dioxide and 
                                                                          monoxide); it reacts withoxidants and 
Solubility in water,                                                      strong bases and also with oxygen causing 
(g/litre at 25 C)                     16-18                              a fire hazard; it attacks many metals in the 
Solubility in other solvents           freely soluble in alcohol          presence of water and attacks aluminium 
                                       chloroform, ether, carbon          with the formation of aluminium alkyls 
                                       disulfide, carbon tetra-           causing a fire and explosion hazard
                                       chloride, and benzene
Vapour pressure (kPa at 20 C)         189
Relative vapour density
(air = 1)                              3.3
Autoignition temperature               537 C
Explosive limits, vol% in air          9-20
Octanol/water partition
coefficient an log Pow                 1.19


GENERAL: A highly toxic gas or         Strictly hygiene                   In all cases, consult a doctor and seek medical
vapour; can be absorbed into the                                          advice
body by inhalation and through
the skin


SKIN: Tingling, itching; redness,      Do not wear gloves; wear           Where there is frostbite, do not remove clothes;
burning sensation, blisters            protective clothing;               rinse with plently of cool water; rinse skin or 
(see inhalation); contact with the     remember that methly bromide       shower whole body; seek medical attention
may produce frostbite                  readily permeates many materials
                                                                          Where there is no frostbite, remove clothes
                                                                          and shoes and place them in a ventilated 
                                                                          container; rinse skin well, washing with 
                                                                          mild soap and running water for 15 min

EYES: Redness, pain blurred            Use safety goggles, face shield,   Irrigate with plenty of running water for at
vision, temporary or permanent         or eye protection in combination   least 15 min; if present, remove contact
                                       with breathing protection          lenses immediately; refer case for medical

INHALATION: Abdominal pain,            Use ventilation, local exhaust     Remove to fresh air; if patient conscious, place
dizziness, headache, convulsions,      or breathing protection            in half-upright position; if unconscious, place
apathy, loss of speech,                                                   in the "Recovery" position; where breathing is 
incoordination, vomiting                                                  laboured, or patient dyspnoeic, use artificial
                                                                          ventilation; seek medical attention immediately;
                                                                          if hallucinating, reassure patient and place in 
                                                                          a quiet, but well-ventilated area; if severe, 
                                                                          consider a sedative (e.g., [iv] diazepam) and
                                                                          seek medical attention immediately; where 
                                                                          patient is convulsing, seek urgent medical care; 
                                                                          meanwhile, check for, and remove, dentures,
                                                                          restrain patient

INGESTION: Unlikely occupational       Do not eat, drink, or smoke 
hazard                                 during work; wash hands before
                                       eating, drinking, or smoking

INHALATION RISK: A harmful concentration of this gas in the air will be reached very quickly on loss of containment

EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE: The substance irritates the eyes, the skin, and the respiratory tract; inhalation
of the substance may cause lung oedema; the substance may cause effects on the central nervous system, kidneys, and
lungs; exposure to high concentrations may result in death; the effects may be delayed

EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM OR REPEATED EXPOSURE: Repeated or prolonged contact with skin may cause dermatitis. or skin 
sensitization; the substance may have effects on the nervous system, kidneys, heart muscle, liver, nose, and lungs; 
may cause genetic damage; may impair male fertility

ENVIRONMENT: Toxic for aquatic and terrestrial life

HAZARD                                 PREVENTION                         FIRE FIGHTING

FIRE: Combustible under specific       Avoid contact with aluminum or     Shut off supply; if not possible 
conditions.                            pure oxygen; do not use in the     and there is no risk to
                                       vicinity of a fire or hot surface  surroundings, let the fire burn
                                       or during welding                  itself out; in other cases,
                                                                          extinguish with powder, carbon
                                                                          dioxide; in case of fire in 
                                                                          surrounding, all extinguishing
                                                                          agents can be used

SPILLAGE DISPOSAL                      STORAGE                            PACKING & LABELLING

Evaluate danger area, consult an       Fireproof if in building;          Unbreakable packing; put breakable
expert, never direct water jet         separate from strong oxidants,     packing into closed unbreakable
on liquid (extra personal protec-      bases, cylinders containing        container; special insulated cylinder
tion: self-contaminated breathing      oxygen and aluminium, cool         T symbol
apparatus)                             ventilation along the floor        R: 23-36/37/38
                                                                          S: 15-27-36/37/39-38-44

                                                                          UN Haz Class: 2
                                                                          UN Subsidiary Risks: 6.1

TRANSPORT                              NATIONAL INFORMATION                            

Transport Emergency Card:              National Occupational Exposure
TEC (R)-111                            Limit:

NFPA Code: H 3; F 0; R 0

                                       National Poison Control Centre:

                               AND STANDARDS                      

    7.1 Previous Evaluations by International Bodies

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluated methyl 
    bromide in 1986 and in 1987, and concluded that there is limited 
    evidence for the carcinogenicity of methyl bromide for experimental 
    animals with inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of methyl 
    bromide for humans; the overall evaluation of carcinogenicity for 
    humans was that it was not classifiable (group 3). 

    The Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) evaluated methyl 
    bromide and bromide ion in 1965, 1966, 1967, and 1988.  The Acceptable 
    Daily Intake (ADI) is 0-1 mg/kg as bromide ion. 

    The United Nations Environment Programme has evaluated methyl bromide 
    as part of activities related to the Montreal Protocol and concluded 
    that production should be controlled, in order to protect the ozone 

    7.2 Exposure Limit

    Table 1 gives occupational exposure limits for a number of countries.

    Since national regulations and guidelines are subject to change, the 
    limits legally required should be confirmed. 

    7.3 Specific Restrictions

    7.3.1    Type of crop, method of fumigation, dosage restrictions, 
             covering and leaching regulations

    A number of countries have restrictions on the use of methyl bromide. 
    Information on possible national restrictions should be obtained.

    Table 1. Some national occupational exposure limits for methyl bromidea 

                          Concentration   Interpretation   Notation

    Australia             20              TWA              skin
    Belgium               19              TWA              skin
    Bulgaria              10              TWA
    Denmark               20              TWA              skin
    Finland               60              TWA              skin
                          97              STEL
    France                20              TWA
    Germany               20              TWA              skin[C3,ll,i]d
    Hungary               10              TWA              skin, irritant
                          20              STEL
    Italyc                60              TWA
    The Netheriandsce     1               TWA              skin
    Norwayc               60              TWA
    Poland                5
    Romaniac              50              TWA
                          80              ceiling
    Sweden                60              TWA              skin
                          80              STEL
    Switzerland           20              TWA              skin
                          40              STEL
    United Kingdom        20              TWA              skin
                          60              STEL
      ACGIH               19              TWA              skin
      NIOSH/OSHA          20              TWA              skin
    USSR                  1               STEL

    a From ILO (1991), unless otherwise statedc 
    b TWA = time-weighted average; STEL, short-term exposure limit 
    d C3 = suspected of having a carcinogenic potenbal ll, i = systematic 
      effects (onseth) 
    e = proposed.

    7.3.2  Restictions on personnel

    Generally, the use of methyl bromide is restricted to registered
    fumigators who may, in some countries, have to undergo a "Fumigation
    Operators Examination".

    7.4 Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    The regulations regarding labelling, packaging, and transport depend on 
    the formulation of the methyl bromide fumigation mixture.  Formulations 
    containing only 2 % chloropicrin are classed under the same regulations 
    as 100% methyl bromide.  Formulations containing 67% methyl bromide and 
    33 % chloropicrin, as well as formulations with ethylene dibromide, 
    have a different UN Number. 

    7.4.1  Labelling

    The label must indicate the name and address of the producer, supplier, 
    or distributor, as well as product name, chemical hazard symbols, 
    authorization numbers, and emergency measures to be taken in the event 
    of an accident. 

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous 
    Goods classifies methyl bromide as: 

                                      Class    Number
    (100 or 98 % methyl bromide)      2        1062

    Methyl bromide and                2        1581
    chloropicrin mixtures

    MIXTURES, LIQUID*                 6.1      1647

    Class 2 - Label: Toxic
    * Proper shipping name

    Non-refrigerated pressure (liquefiable) gases shipped in tank-

      max. allowable working pressure:      7 (bar)
      filling:                              1.51 (kg/litre)

    Tankshells should have a pressure-relief device approved by the 
    competent authority. 
    The European Community legislation requires methyl bromide to be 
    labelled as a toxic substance.  The following EEC standard phrases are 

      R   23:Toxic by inhalation
      R   36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
      S   15:Keep away from heat
      S   27:Take off immediately all contaminated clothing
      S   36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and
          eye/face protection
      S   38:In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable
          respiratory equipment
      S   44:If you fcel unwell, seek medical advice (show the label
          where possible)

    7.4.2  Packaging

    Methyl bromide is marketed as a compressed, liquefied gas in cylinders, 
    tanks, or cans. 

    7.4.3  Transport

                                100 or 98%              67% Methyl bromide/
                                Methyl bromide          33% chloropicrin

    UN No.:                     1062                    1581

       Class:                   2: Gases                2: Gases
       Label No.                2: POISON GAS +         2: POISON GAS
                                FLAMMABLE GAS

    IMDG CODE                   page 2158               page 2120
                                amdt. 25-89             amdt. 25-89

    Class and Item Nos.:        2,3 (a t)               2,4 (a t)
    Hazard/Substance Nos.:      6/1062                  26/1581
    Danger Label Model Nos,:    6.1 + 13 (RID)          6.1 + 13 (RID)
    CEC Regs:
                                For supply:

      Classification:           Toxic, symbol

      Phrases:                  R: 23-36/37/38          R: 23-36/37/38
                                S: 15-27-36/37/         S: 15-27-36/37/
                                39-38-44                39-3 8-44

                                                        R: 22-26-36/37/38
                                                        +  S: 36/37-38-45
                                For conveyance:

      Classification:           Toxic gas               Toxic gas
      Hazard warning sign:      TOXIC GAS               TOXIC GAS
    US DOT:

      Proper shipping name:     Methyl bromide          Methyl bromide, and
                                                        more than 2% chloro-
                                                        picrin mixture,

      Hazard class:             2                       2

      Division:                 2.3, Poisonous Gas      2.3 Poisonous Gas
      Identification No:        UN 1062                 UN 1581
      Label:                    POISON GAS (2) - INHALATION HAZARD


    BPCA (1989) British Pesticides Control Association Code of Practice for 
    methyl bromide suppliers.  London, British Pesticides Control 

    BROMINE COMPOUNDS LTD (1990) Material safety data sheet for methyl 
    bromide (67 %).  Beer-Sheva, Israel, Bromine Compounds Ltd. 

    BROMINE COMPOUNDS LTD (1990) Material safety data sheet for methyl 
    bromide (100 %).  Beer-Sheva, Israel, Bromine Compounds Ltd. 

    CEC (1992) Legislation on dangerous substances.  Classification and 
    labelling in the European Communities.  Consolidated text of council 
    directive 67/548/EEC, Vol. 2. Commission of the European Communities. 
    Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European 

    CLAYTON, G.D. & CLAYTON, F.E. ed. (1982) Patty's industrial hygiene and 
    toxicology. 3rd ed., New York, John Wiley and Sons. 

    EMBA (1988) European Methyl Bromide Association; Handling and 
    transportation of methyl bromide; Code of practice.  Brussels, European 
    Methyl Bromide Association. 

    FAO/WHO (1972) 1971 Evaluations of some pesticide residues in food. 
    AGP/1971/M/9/1; WHO Pesticide Residues Series, No. 1, Geneva, World 
    Health Organization. 

    FAO/WHO (1988) Pesticide residues in food 1988.  Report of the Joint 
    Meeting of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food and 
    the Environment and a WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues.  Rome, 
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO Plant 
    Production and Protection Paper 92). 

    FAO/WHO (1989) Pesticide residues in food 1988 evaluations.  Part II -
    Toxicology.  Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 
    Nations (FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 93/2). 

    GOSSELIN, R.E., SMITH, R.P., HODGE, H.C., & BPADDOCK, J.E. (1984) 
    Clinical toxicology of commercial products.  Baltimore, Williams & 
    HSE (1991) Fumigation using methyl bromide (bromomethane).  London, Her 
    Majesty's Stationery Office (Health and Safety Executive Guidance Note 
    (Chemical Safety) 12). 

    IARC (1987) Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC 
    monographs Volumes 1 to 42.  Lyon, Intemational Agency for Research on 
    Cancer (IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of 
    chemicals to humans, Supplement 7). 

    ILO (1991) Occupational exposure limits for airborne toxic substances,
    3rd ed. Geneva, International Labour Office (Occupational Safety and
    Health Series No. 37).

    IPCS/CEC (1990) International Chemical Safety Card No. 109: methyl 
    bromide.  Luxembourg, Commission of the European Communities. 

    IRPTC (1993) IRPTC legal and treatment and disposal methods for waste
    chemicals files.  Geneva, International Register of Potentially Toxic
    Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    NIOSH/OSHA (1981) Mackinson, FW, Stricoff, RS, Partridge, LJ, & Little, 
    AD, ed.  Occupational health guidelines for chemical hazards, Vol. 2. 
    Washington, DC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration (NIOSH Publication No. 

    SAX, N.I. (1984) Dangerous properties of industrial materials, 6th ed. 
    New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold. 

    United Nations (1986) Recommendations on the transport of dangerous
    goods, 4th rev. ed.  New York, United Nations.

    US EPA (1986) Guidance for the reregistration of pesticide products
    containing methyl bromide as the active ingredient.  Washington, DC, US
    Environmental Protection Agency.

    WELLER, D. (1982) Methyl bromide.  Toxicology and therapy. 
    Frankfurt/Main, Degesch GmbH, (in German). 

    WHO (In preparation) Environmental Health Criteria: Methyl bromide. 
    Geneva, World Health Organization.

    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations