WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
ORGANISATION MONDIALE DE LA SANTE ORGANISATION POUR L'ALIMENTATION
DATA SHEETS ON PESTICIDES No. 71
It must be noted that the issue of a Data Sheet for a
particular pesticide does not imply endorsement of the pesticide by
WHO or FAO for any particular use, or exclude its use for other
purposes not stated. While the information provided is believed to
be accurate according to data available at the time when the sheet
was compiled, neither WHO nor FAO are responsible for any errors or
omissions, or any consequences therefrom.
The issue of this document does Ce document ne constitue pas une
not constitute formal publication. Il ne doit faire
publication. It should not be l'objet d'aucun compte rendu ou
reviewed, abstracted or quoted résumé ni d'aucune citation sans
without the agreement of the l'autorisation de l'Organisation
Food and Agriculture des Nations Unies pour
Organization of the United l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture
Nations or of the World Health ou de l'Organisation Mondiale de
Organization. la Santé.
Primary use: Fungicide
Secondary use: Repellent and bacteriocide
Chemical group: Dithiocarbamate
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1 COMMON NAME
Thiram (ISO, BSI; exception USSR (TMTD) and JMAF (thiuram))
IUPAC: Tetramethylthiuram disulfide
CAS: Tetramethylthioperoxydicarbonic diamide
CAS Reg. No.: 137-26-8
Molecular formula: C6H12N2S4
Molecular weight: 240.4
Accelorator thiuramR; Aceto TETDR; ArasanR; CyuramR;
ENT 987; EkagomR; FaltitramR; FernacolR; FernasanR;
FernideR; HermalR; Hermat TMTR; HerylR; KregasanR;
MercuramR; Methyl thiuram; Methyl tuads; NobecutanR;
NomersanR; NormersanR; PanoramR; Polyram ultraR;
PomarsolR; PomasolR; PuralinR; RezifilmR; Royal TMTDR;
SadoplonR; SpotreteR; SQ1489R; TersanR; ThillateR;
ThiosanR; ThiotexR; ThiramidR; ThirameR; ThirasanR;
ThiuradR; Thiuram; ThiuramylR; ThylateR; ThirampaR; Tiuram;
TiuramylR; TMTD; TrametanR; TripomolR; TTDR; TuadsR;
TulisanR; USAF B-30; USAF EK-2089; USAF P-5; VancideR; VuagtR;
VulcaforR; Vulkacit MTICR.
Thiram is a dithiocarbamate; a fungicide with good avian and
mammalian repellent properties; and a metabolic poison of low acute
toxicity to mammals and a skin irritant. It also causes alcohol
intolerance. It is also used as a promoter of vulcanization in the
rubber industry, an activator in plastics manufacturing and as a
chemosterilant in plastic film dry wound dressing. It is not
phytotoxic when used as directed.
1.3 SELECTED PROPERTIES
1.3.1 Physical characteristics
Thiram is a colourless, odourless crystalline compound which
melts at 155-156°C. It has a density (d20) of 1.29. It is non-
In water, 30 mg/l at room temperature. It is slightly soluble
in ethanol and diethyl ether and soluble in acetone, chloroform,
benzene and carbon disulfide.
Thiram readily decomposes under acidic and alkaline conditions
and under prolonged exposure to air, heat or moisture. It supports
combustion if ignited but is non-explosive.
1.3.4 Vapour pressure
Negligible at room temperature.
1.4 AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE AND FORESTRY
1.4.1 Common formulations
These include a wettable powder, 30-900 g a.i./kg; a colloidal
suspension, 500 g/l; a dust seed treatment, 600 g a.i./kg; foliar
dusts, 10-700 g a.i./kg; granule preparations, 22.5-50 g/kg; and a
10 g a.i./l paint-on preparation. It is also available in
combination with phenylmercury dimethyldithiocarbamate, malachite
green, phenylmercury acetate, gamma BHC, thiophanate and zineb a
various concentrations. Mercury-containing formulations are no
longer cleared for use in many countries.
1.4.2 Pests controlled
May be used as a repellent against rabbits, mice, deer, birds,
chipmunks, moles and squirrels and as a fungicide in the control of
several plant diseases.
1.4.3 Use pattern
As an animal repellent it may be applied undiluted with a brush
to the lower trunks of trees and ornamentals; diluted as a spray on
forest nursery stock and ornamentals; and diluted as a dip for
bundles of forest, fruit and ornamental planting stock. When used as
a dip, root contact must be avoided. Hang bundles to dry topside
down. Dry thoroughly before planting. Do not use on those parts of
the plant that are to be used as food when used as a repellent
As a fungicide, it may be used as a dust or a slurry for
treatment of seeds of a large variety of food crops, apply after the
seeds have cured (for peanuts apply immediately after shelling); as
a foliar-spray treatment of apple, banana and peach trees and on
(celery, tomato, strawberry and turf plants. For foliar treatment a
spreader-sticker additive is recommended and it may be applied to
bulbs and tubers of several ornamental and food plants.
Thiram is compatible with common insecticides and fungicides.
1.4.4 Unintended effects
Thiram is not phytotoxic.
1.5 PUBLIC HEALTH USE
Thiram is a chemosterilant used in the manufacture of plastic
dry-wound dressings and vulcanized rubber and plastic medical
devices. It was also used as an ingredient in antiseptic sprays,
1.6 HOUSEHOLD USE
Thiram is one of a broad spectrum of fungicides available for
home-garden use and as an animal repellent.
2. TOXICOLOGY AND RISKS
2.1 TOXICOLOGY - MAMMAL
2.1.1 Absorption route
Thiram is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract,
through the intact skin, and by inhalation of spray mist and dust.
2.1.2 Mode of action
Thiram and other dithiocarbamates are metabolic poisons. Their
acute toxic effects are largely similar to those of carbon
disulfide, supporting the conclusion that the common metabolite of
these compounds is responsible for their toxicity. This conclusion
is supported by the findings that most dithiocarbamates of very low
toxicity are poorly absorbed and that a large portion of an oral
dose is excreted in the faeces unchanged. The exact mode of action
is unclear; it involves intracellular action of metabolites of
carbon disulfide, causing microsome injury and cytochrome P-450
injury accompanied by increased heme-oxygenase activity. A wide
variety of factors including monoamine-oxidase inhibition, abnormal
vitamin B6 and tryptophan metabolisms, and cellular deprivation of
zinc and copper have been cited as causes of the subcellular
In contrast to carbon disulfide, thiram also causes thyroid
dysfunctions in vertebrates. This effect is thought to be a result
of metabolic release of atomic sulfur in the follicular cells,
causing inhibition of tyrosine iodination and ultimately hormone
synthesis. A single dose of thiram causes a transient dysfunction;
repeated doses can cause goitres. Other cellular enzymes may be
Thiram induces an alcohol intolerance similar to that of
Antabuse (disulfiram) either by inhibiting acetaldehyde
dehydrogenase or through the formation of a quaternary compound with
2.1.3 Excretion products
The metabolism and excretion of thiram has not been extensively
studied; insight can be gained from pooled information of other
dithiocarbamate studies, especially disulfiram. The initial
degradation probably occurs in the gastrointestinal tract where the
parent compound is reduced to dimethyldithiocarbamic acid which is
rapidly absorbed and further metabolized by hepatic enzymes. A
portion of the acid will be excreted unchanged as a glucuronide.
Further metabolism may also yield dimethylamine and carbon disulfide
residues. Only a small portion of the peroral dose has been found
as carbon disulfide in the blood of rats (0.003%). Clearly a hig
portion of the parent compound may be metabolized to carbon
disulfide, whereas the small portion recovered in the blood
represents only that portion of the dose not lost through the
pulmonary route nor involved in tissue reactions.
Dimethyldithiocarbamate may also be degraded to
dimethylthiocarbamate, sulfate ion and formaldehyde following
methylation and oxidation reactions in body tissues in general.
Dimethylthiocarbamic acid is excreted as a glucuronide.
2.1.4 Toxicity, single dose;
Rat (M, F) 560 mg/kg bw
Rat (M, F) 630 mg/kg bw (as a 20% suspension in propylene
Mouse 1350 mg/kg bw
Rabbit 210 mg/kg bw
Sheep 225 mg/kg bw
Animals killed with a single oral dose showed hyperaemia and
focal ulcerations of the gastrointestinal tract; focal necrosis of
the liver and the renal tubules; patchy demyelination and ascending
flaccid paralysis. Poisoning is characterized by eosinopenia,
depression, adynamia and convulsions of the clonic type.
Dermal; Single applications of 1000-2000 mg/kg bw to rats and
500-1000 mg/kg bw to rabbits did not produce skin irritation or
other toxic effects. In guinea-pigs thiram was found to be a primary
skin irritant. See section 2.1.7 "Sensitization".
Mouse 2.50 mg/kg bw
The most susceptible species is probably the rabbit.
2.1.5 Toxicity, repeated dose;
Oral: See sections 2.1.6 (Dietary studies) and 2.1.7
Dermal: Repeated dermal application, 50 mg/kg bw, to rabbits
did not prove irritating
Cumulation of compound: Thiram has significant cumulation
properties. At 0.1-0.005 x LD50 the cumulation coefficient is 2.1-
2.1.6 Dietary studies
Short-term: In an 80-day feeding study in rats 5.0 mg/kg bw
per day in males and 6.0 mg/kg bw in females were found to be the
no-effect levels. Patchy alopecia was observed in some males and
females at dosage levels of 20 mg/kg bw per day and over. Paralysis
and atrophy of the hind legs of females was observed at 67 mg/kg bw
per day. In a 13-week dietary study male rats were fed thiram at
dosage levels of 30, 58 and 132 mg/kg bw per day. Dose-dependent
reductions in body weight and food consumption were observed. At the
highest dose there was an increase in BUN, SGOT and SGPT values,
evidence of testicular damage and atypical spermiogenesis were
observed; five of the 20 animals in this dose group died within 13
weeks. At 58 mg/kg bw per day only BUN increases were observed.
In an 80-week study male rats were found to consume 5, 20 and
52 mg of thiram/kg bw per day, and females 6, 26 or 67 mg/kg bw per
day. Dose-dependent decreases in body weight and food consumption
were observed in males starting at 5 mg/kg bw and in females
starting at 26 mg/kg bw.
There were no treatment-related mortalities and moderate to
severe clinical signs of toxicity were observed only among the
females in the highest dosage group. There were no other adverse
effects. In a one-year diet study in dogs the no-effect level was
found to be 4.0 mg/kg bw per day.
Long-term: In a two-year dietary study in rats the no-effect
level was found to be approximately 4.9 mg/kg bw per day. At 2500
ppm there: was 100% mortality within 17 weeks. General weakness,
ataxia and occasional paralysis were observed at 300 and 1000 ppm
but there was no treatment-related mortality, Thiram caused an
increase in squamous epithelial metaplasia in the thyroid and fatty
infiltration in males. There was a reduction in incidences of
spontaneous nephritis in both sexes.
2.1.7 Supplementary studies of toxicity
Carcinogenicity: Thiram is classified as an equivocal
tumorigen with no known carcinogenic effect. It did not alter the
incidence or latent period of spontaneous rumours also seen in the
control rats in the several dietary studies described above. Also,
no clear carcinogenic effect was demonstrated in several studies of
mice (C57 BL) given the highest tolerated doses in a 77-week
intubation-dietary study, a five-week intubation study and after a
single subcutaneous injection (4.6 mg/kg bw)
N-nitrosodimethylamine, a known carcinogen (in mice, rats,
rabbits, hamsters and guinea-pigs), was produced from thiram under
simulated stomach conditions in the presence of nitrite. The
possibility of this transformation of carcinogenic potential
occurring in vivo under normal dietary conditions is unknown.
Mutagenicity: Thiram was mutagenically active on base-
substitution sensitive S. typhimurium strains TA1535 and TA100,
the effect was abolished in the presence of rat liver microsomes,
L-cysteine and glutathion; in TA1535 and TA98 strains following
metabolic activation only; in mitotic recombination assays with B.
subtilis; and in mice given 100 mg/kg bw p.o. causing an increase
in chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells.
Teratogenicity; Thiram p.o. was shown to be teratogenic, at
high doses causing adult injury, in rats (400 mg/kg bw on days 6-15
of gestation); in mice (250 mg/kg bw on days 6-15 of gestation); and
in hamsters at 250 mg/kg bw on days 7 or 8 of gestation. The pattern
of foetal defects was not well defined; many changes are suspected
to result from retardation of growth. In hamsters the combined
effects of thiram and the solvent DMSO were possibly synergistic. In
mice simultaneous administration of L-cysteine and thiram tended to
abolish the teratogenic effect of thiram.
Reproduction: Thiram was found to have adverse effects on
reproduction and to be embryotoxic in mice, rats and hamsters at
high dosage levels toxic to the adults. In a three-generation
dietary study in rats 100 mg/kg bw per day had no adverse effects on
reproduction or foetal development. In a single generation study in
rats, 50 mg/kg bw per day, from gestation day 16 to post-partum day
21, caused reduced pup growth and survival. These effects were
prevented when the pups were transferred to untreated lactating
dams. In an inhalation study in rats 3.8 mg/m3 of air for 6 hours
per day, 5 days per week for 4.5 months, caused reproductive
malfunction: prolonged oestrus cycles, decreased conception rates,
decreased fertility and reduced foetal weights. In mice 132 mg/kg bw
p.o. per day for 13 weeks caused male infertility; 96 mg/kg bw for
14 days delayed oestrous cycles. These adverse effects were reversed
when treatment ceased.
Neurotoxicity: Animals killed by single oral doses of thiram
showed patchy demyelination in the central nervous system, initially
in the cerebellum and medulla. Rats fed 300 mg/kg bw per day had
clonicotonic convulsions and showed calcification in the cerebellum,
hypothalamus and medulla oblongata. In another study eight out of 24
female rats fed 67 mg/kg bw per day for 80 weeks developed severe
signs of neurotoxicity including ataxia and ascending paralysis;
degeneration of axis cylinders and presence of macrophages in the
bundle of the sciatic nerve were observed
Metabolism: Thiram has been shown to be an inhibitor of many
enzymes. It induces accumulation of acetaldehyde in the bloodstream
following ethanol or paraldehyde treatment. In inhibits the in
vitro conversion of dopamine to noradrenalin in cardiac and
adrenal medulla preparations. It depresses some hepatic microsomal
demethylation reactions, microsomal cytochrome P-450 content and the
synthesis of phospholipids. Thiram has also been shown to have
moderate inhibiting action on decarboxylases and, in fish, muscle
Sensitization: Thiram was found to be a primary skin irritant
with a threshold limit value of 5% in a 24-hour occluded patch test
in guinea-pigs and it was also shown to have moderate contact
hypersensitivity potency in a guinea-pig maximization test.
2.1.8 Modification of toxicity
In mammals the teratogenic and embryotoxic effects of thiram
are at least partly overcome by simultaneous treatment with
L-cysteine or glutathion. Potentiation of the teratogenic effect
occurs with the solvent DMSO.
2.2 TOXICOLOGY - MAN
Thiram can be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, through
the skin and by inhalation of dust and fine spray mist.
2.2.2 Dangerous doses
There is no information on doses leading to illness.
Single: Thiram has been given a toxicity rating of 4
(Gosselin), the probable oral lethal dose for humans is 50-500 mg/kg
bw. Alcohol, regardless of the route of absorption of thiram,
increases thiram toxicity and is probably the cause of most systemic
poisonings involving thiram.
Repeated: No information is available. Since thiram is
cumulative the repeated dangerous dose is likely to be much smaller
than the single dose.
2.2.3 Observations on occupationally exposed workers
Numerous studies of industrial and agricultural workers have
been published. There have been very few cases of thiram systemic
poisoning leading to death without known alcohol involvement.
Increased skin sensitivity unrelated to alcohol use, once thought to
be uncommon, is becoming increasingly more common, especially in
tropical countries, in association with thiram use
In one industrial study of men and women between 20 and 50
years of age, who had been exposed to TMTD for several years, ocular
manifestations were common. The initial symptoms, lachrymation and
photophobia, were temporary and were followed by chronic
conjunctivitis in 14% of those examined, enlargement of retinal
blood vessels (in 34%), reduced visual acuity, delayed dark
adaptation and reduced corneal sensitivity.
In another study, in addition to ocular manifestations,
tachycardia, thoracic pain and coughing, epistaxis, dermal lesions,
myocardial dystrophy, liver dysfunction, astenia and goitre have
been found. A single case of thyroidal adenocarcinoma in a person
exposed to thiram has been reported. Many cases of poisoning have
involved alcohol interaction with thiram, especially in agricultural
workers and formulators. The symptoms of this poisoning include
gastric pain, nausea, vomiting, hypertension and hyper-irritability,
fine tremors, fever and moderate lymphopenia.
2.2.4 Observations on exposure of the general population
The use of thiram in the manufacture of many rubber and plastic
products (e.g., shoes) and as a fungicide in recreational areas
(e.g., golf courses and bowling greens) presents considerable
opportunity for exposure of sensitive individuals to the compound.
Thiram is considered to be a borderline allergen requiring several
exposures to produce sensitization. For further details see section
2.2.5 Observations of volunteers
Thiram has been used in several medicinal products and soaps.
Systemic poisonings and contact dermatitis have not been commonly
seen in these studies (see section 4.1.5 for more details). Oral
doses of 0.5-1.5 g per person per day for several weeks have been
tolerated without ill-effect provided alcohol was avoided.
2.2.6 Reported mishaps
There is no published information available on intentional
poisoning involving thiram. Most accidental systemic poisonings due
to thiram have also included alcohol consumption. In most cases,
though the symptoms were severe enough to warrant hospitalization,
the recovery was uneventful and complete in three to four days. In
one incident, a fatality occurred following the mixing of seed and
thiram with a spade. The worker, who was exposed for approximately
10 hours, fell ill and though treated in hospital he died four days
2.3 TOXICITY TO NON-MAMMALIAN SPECIES
No information available.
Thiram is moderately toxic to most birds; the acute and chronic
toxic effects are similar to those found in mammals. It has been
shown to be teratogenic and to interfere in normal reproductive
physiology and behaviour in domestic fowl. The effect in the young
birds appears to be more severe than in older birds.
Mallards 2800 mg/kg bw
Pheasants 673 mg/kg bw
Red wing blackbird 300 mg/kg bw
Domestic sparrow 100 mg/kg bw
Common grackle 100 mg/kg bw
2.3.3 Other species
No information available.
3. FOR REGULATORY AUTHORITIES - RECOMMENDATIONS ON REGULATION OF
3.1 RECOMMENDED RESTRICTIONS ON AVAILABILITY
(For definition of categories, see the Introduction to Data Sheets)
All liquid formulations over 28%, Category 3.
All other liquid formulations, Category 4.
All solid formulations over 11%, Category 4.
All other solid formulations, Category 5.
3.2 TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE
Formulations in categories 3 and 4 - Should be transported or
stored in clearly labelled rigid and leakproof containers and away
from containers of food and drink. Storage should be under lock and
key and secure from access by unauthorized persons and children.
Formulations in Category 5 - Should be transported or stored
in clearly labelled leakproof containers out of reach of children
and away from food and drink.
Formulations in categories 3 and 4 - Protective clothing (see
part 4) should be provided for those handling concentrates. Adequate
washing facilities should be available close at hand. Eating,
drinking and smoking should be prohibited during handling and before
washing after handling. Adequate ventilation must be maintained.
Formulations in Category 5 - No special facilities other than
those for handling of any chemical need be required. Adequate
ventilation must be maintained.
3.4 DISPOSAL AND/OR DECONTAMINATION OF CONTAINER
If not decontaminated container must either be burned or
crushed and buried below topsoil. Care must be taken to avoid
subsequent contamination of water sources. Container may be
decontaminated (for method see paragraph 4.3 and part 4).
Decontaminated containers should not be used for any other purpose.
3.5 SELECTION, TRAINING AND MEDICAL SUPERVISION OF WORKERS
Formulations in categories 3 and 4 - Pre-employment medical
examination for workers desirable. Workers suffering from activ
hepatic or renal disease should be excluded from contact. Pre-
employment and periodic cholinesterase tests for workers desirable.
Training of workers in techniques to avoid contact and the need for
strict abstention from alcohol use prior to and after thiram use are
Formulations in Category 5 - Warning of workers to minimize
contact and about the dangers of alcohol use prior to and after
thiram use is essential.
3.6 ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS RECOMMENDED IF DISTRIBUTED BY AIRCRAFT
All formulations - Pilot and loaders should have special
training in application methods and early symptoms of poisoning.
Flagmen, if used, should wear a broad brimmed hat, a facial mask and
coveralls, and be located well away from the dropping zone.
Formulations in categories 3 and 4 - Minimum cautionary
"WARNING - POISON" (skull and cross-bones insignia). Thiram is
a dithiocarbamate; a metabolic poison of slight acute toxicity and
has potential long-term toxic effects. A primary irritant, avoid
contact with skin and eyes. Inhalation of dust or spray, or
swallowing may be fatal. Wear protective gloves, clean protective
clothing, and a particle respirator (3 micron capability) type when
handling this material. Bathe immediately after work. Ensure that
containers are closed and stored under lock and key. Empty
containers must be disposed of in such a way as to prevent all
possibility of accidental contact with them. Keep the material out
of reach of children and well away from foodstuffs, animal feed and
Maintain adequate ventilation during use. In case of contact
immediately remove contaminated clothing and wash the skin
thoroughly with soap and water; for eyes, flush with water for 15
minutes. If poisoning occurs, call a physician. Avoid alcohol use
for at least 10 days. There is no specific antidote, treatment must
Formulations in Category 5 - Minimum cautionary statement -
This formulation contains thiram, it is poisonous if swallowed. Keep
the material out of reach of children and well away from foodstuffs,
animal feed and food containers. Maintain adequate ventilation
during use. Avoid alcohol use prior to and after thiram use
3.8 RESIDUES IN FOOD
Maximum residue levels - Maximum residue levels have been
recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues.
4. PREVENTION OF POISONING IN MAN AND EMERGENCY AID
4.1 PRECAUTIONS IN USE
Thiram is a dithiocarbamate of slight acute toxicity and
potential long-term toxic effects. In addition to its inherent
toxicity it induces an alcohol intolerance similar to that of
Antabuse (disulfiram), a related dithiocarbamate. It may be absorbed
from the gastrointestinal tract; by inhalation of spray mist or
dust; and through the intact skin. A primary irritant, avoid contact
to skin and eyes; spills must be washed immediately from the skin
and eyes. Adequate ventilation is essential.
4.1.2 Manufacture and formulation - TLV 5 mg/m3, ACGIH.
Formulation should not be attempted without advice from the
manufacturer. Although volatility is low vapour and dusts should be
controlled preferably by mechanical means. Protective equipment for
the skin and self-contained respiratory protection is essential.
Adequate ventilation is also essential.
4.1.3 Mixers and applicators
When opening the container and when mixing, care should be
taken to avoid contact with the mouth and eyes. Maintain adequate
ventilation during handling; a self-contained breathing apparatus,
coveralls and gloves should be worn. Mixing, if not mechanical,
should always be carried out with a paddle of appropriate length.
The applicator should avoid working in spray mists and avoid
contact: with the mouth. Splashes must be washed immediately from
the skin or eyes with large quantities of water. Before eating,
drinking or smoking, hands and other exposed skin should be washed.
4.1.4 Other associated workers (including flagmen in aerial
Persons exposed to thiram and associated with its application
should observe the precautions described in section 4.1.3 under
"Mixers and applicators".
4.1.5 Other populations likely to be affected
With correct application and appropriate warnings of use the
general public should not be exposed to hazardous amounts of thiram.
Warnings of use are essential; there are reports of contact
poisoning in sensitive persons following exposure after correct
horticultural applications and after continuous use of vulcanized
rubber or plastic products contaminated with thiram during their
4.2 ENTRY OF PERSONS INTO TREATED AREAS
Unprotected persons should be kept out of treated areas until
the spray solution is dry.
4.3 DECONTAMINATION OF SPILLAGE AND CONTAINERS
Residues in containers should be dissolved in a combustible
solvent (alcohol, benzene, etc.) and burned in a furnace. The empty
containers may be decontaminated by rinsing two or three times with
a combustible solvent, the rinse burned. An additional rinse should
be carried out with 15% calcium hypochlorite solution which should
remain in the container overnight; neutralize and dispose of the
rinse in a deep pit or into a sewer with abundant water. Impermeable
gauntlets should be worn during this work and a soakage pit should
be provided for the rinsings. Decontaminated containers should not
be used for any other purpose. Spillage of thiram and its
formulations should be removed by washing with 15% calcium
hypochlorite solution and then rinsing. with large quantities of
water. Neutralize the rinse fluid and drain into a deep pit or sewer
with abundant water.
4.4 EMERGENCY AID
4.4.1 Early symptoms of poisoning
Early symptoms may include dizziness, confusion, drowsiness,
lethargy, ataxia, headaches, or coma; nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea
and stomach pains; muscle weakness and paralysis (ascending);
respiratory paralysis; and skin rash and eye irritation.
4.4.2 Treatment before person is seen by a physician, if these
symptoms appear following exposure
The person should stop work immediately, remove all
contaminated clothing, and wash the affected skin or hair with soap
and water. Flush contaminated eyes with fresh water for 10-15
minutes. If the compound was ingested and if the victim is alert,
induce vomiting if it has not already occurred. Provide artificial
respiration if required and preferably by mechanical means. Prevent
consumption or other contact with alcohol. Contact a doctor
immediately, give supportive care and remove the victim to hospital
as quickly as possible.
5. FOR MEDICAL AND LABORATORY PERSONNEL
5.1 MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT IN CASES OF POISONING
5.1.1 General information
Thiram is a dithiocarbamate pesticide of slight acute toxicity
and some potential long-term effects (e.g., mutagenicity,
teratogenicity and tumorigenicity). It is used as an industrial
water antifouling agent and in several manufacturing processes. It
is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; by inhalation of dust
or spray mist; and through the intact skin. Thiram induces alcohol
intolerance similar to that of Antabuse (disulfiram).
5.1.2 Symptoms and signs
Symptoms of poisoning include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain,
diarrhoea, anorexia and weight loss; headaches, lethargy, dizziness,
ataxia, confusion, drowsiness and coma; suppression of tendon
reflexes; initial hypotonia progressing to flaccid paralysis
(Landry's syndrome); respiratory paralysis; and severe dermatitis
and eye inflammation.
Due to rapid metabolism and excretion, detection of thiram in
the blood is generally not possible. Detection of thiram metabolites
and xanthurenic acid in the urine may confirm absorption but will
not necessarily reflect the degree of poisoning. Skin testing may be
useful in identifying sensitization to the compound. Treatment
should not be deferred pending laboratory results.
There is no specific antidote; provide symptomatic and
supportive treatment. For contact poisoning remove all contaminated
clothing and wash the affected skin and hair with soap and water;
flush contaminated eyes with fresh water for 10-15 minutes. If
thiram has been ingested, if the patient is alert and if vomiting
has not already occurred, induce vomiting preferably with Syrup of
Ipecac. Continue to observe patient for signs of depression of
consciousness level and/or respiration. If these signs occur,
gastric intubation, aspiration and lavage should be performed
immediately. Lavage with isotonic saline or sodium bicarbonate
solution should be followed by activated charcoal by intubation to
limit absorption of any residual thiram in the gastrointestinal
tract. If the irritant properties of thiram have not already induced
a bowel movement, give a mild cathartic (e.g., magnesium sulfate).
Intravenous administration of glucose and ascorbic acid (0.2 g/min
up to one gram total) may be useful to accelerate the excretion of
unreacted, absorbed thiram. Provide artificial respiration i
necessary, preferably by mechanical means. In extreme cases, if the
patient is unconscious or in respiratory distress, oxygen should be
provided. The patient should avoid fats, oils and lipid solvents
which might enhance absorption and prohibit all forms of ethanol
consumption for at least three weeks.
If the acute toxic effect is survived the chances of complete
recovery are very good.
5.1.6 References to previously reported cases
Benzugli, U. P. et al. (1976) Vrach Delo, 3, 142-145
Gunther, W. W. (1970) Med. J. Aust., 1, 1177
Hamada, T. & Horiguchi, S. (1977) Sangyo Igaku, 19(3),
Krupa, A. et al. (1971) Med. Wiejsk, 6, 29-31
Marcinkowski, T. & Manikowski, W. (1973) Med. Pracy, 24,
Olefir, A. I. (1976) Vrach Delo, 2, 105-109
Reinl, W. (1966) Arch. Toxikol., 22, 12-15
Shelly, W. B. (1964) J.A.M.A., 188, 89-92
Telintum, J. & Nater, J. P. (1974) Dermatologic (Basel),
Tanaka, S. et al. Toxicol. Res. Directory, 5(8), 1980
Verkagen, A. (1974) Trans St. John's Hosp. Dermatol. Soc.,
Verzhanski, P.S. (1976) Gumoral'n Regul. Rodovoi Deyat. Lech.
Ee Narushenii, pp. 88-91
5.2 SURVEILLANCE TESTS
There are no readily available techniques to determine the
degree of exposure prior to the appearance of symptoms
5.3 LABORATORY METHODS
5.3.1 Detection and assay of compound
CIPAC Handbook (1970) Vol. 1, 672 pp.
Butler, L. C. & Staiff, D.C. (1978) J. Agric. Food Chem.,
26(11), 295-296 Guslafssen, K. H. & Thompson, R. A. (1981)
J. Agric. Food Chem., 29(4), 729-732
Muzhanovsky, Y. E. et al. (1979) Farm. Zh. (Kiev), (2), 54-57
Smith, R. M. et al. (1981) Analyst (London), 106-1254;
5.3.2 Other tests in cases of poisoning
Sedokur, L. K. & Luk'yanchuck, D. (1976) Xanthurenic aciduria
as a specific test for dithiocarbamate intoxication, Gig.
Tr. Prof. Zabol., 2, 55-56
Kashevich, L. M. (1975) Rheohepatography in the diagnosis of
toxicochemical lesions of the liver in persons dealing with
TMTD, Gig. Tr. Prof. Zabol., 6, 16-19