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    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION             FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
                                          ORGANIZATION
    ORGANISATION MONDIALE DE LA SANTE     ORGANISATION POUR L'ALIMENTATION
                                          ET L'AGRICULTURE

                                          VBC/DS/84..50
                                          ORIGINAL:   ENGLISH


    DATA SHEET ON PESTICIDES No.  50

    DELTAMETHRIN


    CLASSIFICATION:
    Primary use:   Insecticide
    Secondary use:
    Chemical group:   Pyrethroid



         It must be noted that the issue of a Data Sheet for a
    particular pesticide does not imply endorsement of the pesticide by
    WHO or FAO for any particular use, or exclude its use for other
    purposes not stated. While the information provided is believed to
    be accurate according to data available at the time when the sheet
    was compiled, neither WHO nor FAO are responsible for any errors or
    omissions, or any consequences therefrom.

    The issue of this document does    Ce document ne constitue pas une
    not constitute formal              publication. Il ne doit faire
    publication. It should not be      l'objet d'aucun compte rendu ou
    reviewed, abstracted or quoted     résumé ni d'aucune citation sans
    without the agreement of the       l'autorisation de l'Organisation
    Food and Agriculture               des Nations Unies pour
    Organization of the United         l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture
    Nations or of the World Health     ou de l'Organisation Mondiale de
    Organization.                      la Santé.

    1.   GENERAL INFORMATION

    1.1  COMMON NAME: Deltamethrin (ISO, BSI), formerly Decamethrin

    1.1.1 Identity:

          IUPAC: (S)- -cyano-3-pehoxybenzyl(1R)-cis-3-(2,2-
          dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate

          CAS No. 1: (lR  (S*),3 )-cyano(3-phenoxybenzyl) methyl 3-
          (2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate

          CAS Reg. No.: 52918-63-5

         Molecular formula:   C22H19Br2NO3

         Molecular weight:   505.2

         Structural  formula:

                           Chemical Structure

    1.1.2 Synonyms: Decamethrin; Decis (R); K-othrin(R); NRDC 161;
          OMS 1998; RU-22974

    1.2  SYNOPSIS: Deltamethrin is a non-composite synthetic pyrethroid;
         a broad spectrum, non-cumulative insecticide; a fast-acting
         neurotoxic agent with good contact and stomach action and no
         fumigant action.  Its biological activity is very stable in the
         envirorment since it has good residual activity on many insects
         and most surfaces.  Deltamethrin is non-systemic in plants.  It
         is of moderately high toxicity in mammals, and is readily
         metabolized with rapid loss of toxicity.  It has a repellent
         effect for some insects.

    1.3  SELECTED PROPERTIES

    1.3.1 Physical characteristics - The technical material is a
          colourless, crystalline powder with a melting point at 98-101°C;
          it is odourless and non-corrosive; its optical rotation1
          (  )20 is +58° ± 1°(4% in toluene).

    1.3.2 Solubility - At 20°C, 2 µg/l in water.  Deltamethrin is soluble
          in most aromatic solvents, acetone, ethanol and dioxane.

    1.3.3 Stability - Deltamethrin is a very stable compound; it does not
          degrade at 40°C for two years;1 it is resistant to air and
          photo-oxidation.

    1.3.4 Vapour pressure - at 25°C, 1.9996 x 10-9 kPa (1.5 x 10-8 mmHg).

    1.4   AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE AND FORESTRY

    1.4.1 Common formulations - Emulsifiable concentrates (25 g a.i./l);
          ULV concentrates (4, 5 and 10 g/l); wettable powder (25 and 50
          g/kg); dusts (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg); granules (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg);
          and flowable (25 g a.i./l).

    1.4.2 Susceptible pests - Deltamethrin is effective as larvicide,
          ovicide and adulticide against a number of plant parasitic pests
          (Lepidoptera, Homoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and Acarides).  It
          is also effective against a number of biting, disease vector and
          nuisance insects of man and animals.

    1.4.3 Use pattern - Used alone, Deltamethrin is effective against most
          plant pests except cotton mites and cotton boll weevils.  It may

          be applied to food and field crops, market gardens, orchards and
          vineyards by air or ground spray equipment, at rates of up to 11
          g/ha or as recommended by the manufacturer.  It may also be
          sprayed on greenhouse plants, on buildings and other inert
          surfaces, and on animals.  Special formulations for oral or
          dipping applications have also proved effective against cattle
          ectoparasites.

    1.4.4 Unintended effects - Deltamethrin is not phytotoxic when used as
          recommended.  Its insect repellent action is not likely to be
          detrimental to pollination when used as directed on flowering
          crops.

    1.5  PUBLIC HEALTH USE - Deltamethrin has had some experimental use
         against disease vector insects with limited success. Its repellent
         action may limit its effectiveness in some eradication programmes.

    1.6  HOUSEHOLD USE - Deltamethrin is primarily an agricultural
         insecticide and has no recommended household use.

    2.   TOXICOLOGY AND RISKS

    2.1  TOXICOLOGY - MAMMALS

    2.1.1 Absorption route - Deltamethrin is primarily absorbed from the
          gastrointestinal tract.  It is also readily absorbed by
          inhalation of spray mist.  Dermal absorption has not been
          demonstrated in preliminary trials with labelled deltamethrin in
          rats.1

          1 Data provided by the manufacturer.


    2.1.2 Mode of action - The parent compound is the active toxin;
          deltamethrin is a neurotoxin acting primarily on the basal
          ganglia of the central nervous system.  It causes
          repetitive nerve action through prolongation of sodium
          permeability during the recovery phase of the action potential
          in neurons.

    2.1.3 Excretion - Deltamethrin metabolism and excretion have been
          extensively studied in rats, mice, and cows. The pattern does not
          vary significantly among these species.  Deltamethrin is
          metabolized by liver microsomal esterases and oxidases.
          Hydrolysis initially cleaves the parent compound into two
          fragments - cyclopropanecarboxylic acid and 3-phenoxybenzyl
          alcohol.  The latter is then oxidised to 3-phenoxybenzoic acid
          which is the major excretion compound of this moiety.
          Hydroxylation of a significant portion of this moiety, primarily
          at the carbon 4' site but also to some extent at sites 5 and 2,

          can occur either before or after hydrolysis.  Deltamethrin is
          completely eliminated from the body within six to eight days of
          oral administration.  The hydrolysis products are primarily
          excreted in the urine, from 7 to 15% of the oral dose is found in
          the faeces as the parent compound and its hydroxylates, and a
          smaller portion is found in the integument as a thiocyanate. The
          half-life of the alcohol moiety is approximately 0.3 days; it is
          primarily excreted as a free acid and to some extent as
          conjugates of glucuronic and amino-acids. The half-life of the
          acid moiety is about 0.3 days; it too is excreted as a free acid
          and as a glycine conjugate.  A small amount of the cyano group is
          rapidly excreted as in iminotriazolidine derivative.  However,
          the major portion is thiocyanate which has a half-life of 2.4
          days.

    2.1.4 Toxicity, single dose - The toxicity of deltamethrin varies with
          the type of vehicle used, vegetable oil solutions being less
          toxic than propylene glycol 200 (PEG 200) solutions.  The results
          shown below are for vegetable oil solutions, with the results
          obtained with PEG solutions shown in parentheses.

          Oral LD50:

          Rat   (F)          139  (86)  mg/kg b.w.
          Rat   (M)          128  (67)  mg/kg b.w.
          Rat   (M, F)           +5000  mg/kg b.w. (aqueous suspension)1
          Mouse   (F)         34  (19)  mg/kg b.w.
          Mouse   (M)         33  (21)  mg/kg b.w.
          Beagle dog (M, F)      +300   mg/kg b.w.

          Dermal LD50:

          Rat  (M,   F)      (+2940)    mg/kg b.w.
          Rabbit (M, F)      (+2000)    mg/kg b.w.

          I.P. LD50:

          Rat (F)            186 (25)   mg/kg b.w.
          Rat (M)            209 (24)   mg/kg b.w.
          Mouse (F)          166 (12)   mg/kg b.w.
          Mouse (M)          171 (18)   mg/kg b.w.

          I.V. LD50:

          Rat (M, F)              (3)   mg/kg b.w.
          Mouse (M, F)            (4)   mg/kg b.w.

          Inhalation LC50:

          Rats (6-hour exposure)   +0.72 g a.i./m3 of air

          1 Data provided by the manufacturer.


          In general pyrethroid poisoning is characterized by hyperactivity
          and hypersensitivity (somatosensory).  Deltamethrin in particular
          is included among a group of pyrethroids producing the CS-
          syndrome, in sequence: pawing and burrowing behaviour,
          salivation, coarse tremors progressing to choreoathetosis and
          occasionally, terminal clonic seizures.  In rats,
          inhalation-induced lesions were dose-dependent and included
          massive haemorrhages and oedema of the lungs.  In acute
          toxicity studies the most susceptible species is the mouse.

    2.1.5 Toxicity, repeated doses:

          Oral: Male and female rats were gavaged for 13 weeks with 0, 1.0,
          2.5 or 10.0 (mg/kg b.w.)/day in PEG 200.  Behaviourial,
          morphological and biochemical changes in the treatment groups
          were transitory in the early stage of treatment at the 1.0 mg
          dose level and over.  There were no consistent treatment-related
          clinical signs of toxicity, behaviour changes, or changes in
          gross and microscopic anatomy at 13 weeks of treatment.
          Autopsies performed on males after a four-week recovery period
          revealed treatment-related increased thyroid weights which were
          not dose-dependent.  The marginal no effect level was 1.0
          mg/kg/day.

          Male and female beagle dogs were daily dosed with deltamethrin
          (in PEG 200) in gelatin capsules at doses of 0.1, 1.0, 2.5 or 10
          mg/kg/b.w. for 13 weeks; two dogs were observed for an additional
          two-week observation period.  All treated animals showed some
          treatment-related ill-effects which were not dose-dependent
          (pupil dilation, changes in EEG, reduced food and water
          consumption, reduced weight gain, body tremors and uncoordinated
          motor functions).  Vomiting and diarrhoea were dose-related.  A
          clear no-adverse-effect level was not established.

          Dermal: Male and female albino guinea-pigs were dermally dosed at
          0.5 g/animal three times a week for 24 days.  The treatment
          interval was 48 hours with an occlusive patch.  There was no
          evidence of sensitization when the animals were challenged at day
          36.

          Cumulation of compound: The slow clearance rate of thiocyanate
          suggests a potential for bioaccumulation; however, the signs of
          poisoning in repeated doses are not respiratory.  Adipose tissue
          shows a marginal tendency toward bioaccumulation of the
          cisisomer.


          Cumulation of effect: No information available.

    2.1.6 Dietary studies

          Short-term: No information available.

          Long-term: No clear compound-related ill-effects were observed in
          a two-year study of rats fed deltamethrin at dosage levels of 0,
          2, 20 or 50 mg/kg (diet).  The level causing no toxicological
          effect was determined to be 50 mg/kg (diet) or (2.1 mg/kg
          b. w.)/day. (See also the neurotoxicity section under 2.1.7.)

          Male and female Charles River CD-1 mice were fed deltamethrin at
          dosage levels 0, 1, 5, 25 or 100 mg/kg diet.  There were no
          consistent treatment-related ill-effects observed at any dosage
          level.  The no-adverse-effect level was determined to be 100
          mg/kg (diet) or (12 mg/kg b.w.)/day.

          Deltamethrin in corn oil was administered to dogs of both sexes
          at dosage levels of 1, 10 or 40 mg/kg (diet) for two years.  No
          compound-related ill-effects were observed at the highest dose
          level used.  The level causing no toxicological effect was
          concluded to be 40 mg/kg (diet), the equivalent of (1.0 mg,/kg
          b.w.)/day.1  (See also the neurotoxicity section under 2.1.7.)

          1   Data provided by the manufacturer.

    2.1.7 Supplementary studies of toxicity

          Carcinogenicity: There was no evidence in the rat, mouse or dog
          long-term diet studies that deltamethrin caused an increased
          tumour incidence.  This finding, supported by microbial,
          mammalian cell and in vivo mammalian mutagenicity studies
          suggests that deltamethrin has no carcinogenic potential.

          Teratogenicity: No evidence of teratogenic activity was observed
          in mice, rats or rabbits even at doses sufficient to produce
          clinical signs of toxicity in the pregnant dams.  A significant
          dose-related increase in supernumerary rib occurrence in foetal
          mice was attributed to maternal stress rather than to compound
          induction.

          Reproduction: Deltamethrin was slightly embryotoxic in a three
          generation rat study but did not adversely affect reproduction.
          It did induce significant maternal and perinatal pup weight
          losses which were reversed upon cessation of treatment and
          weaning, respectively.

          Mutagenicity: Deltamethrin was not genetically active in
          microbial growth inhibition assays with E. coli, in an Ames test

          with S. typhimurium, or in a DNA recombinant assay with S. 
          cerevisiae.  In a mammalian cell test, using hamster ovary
          cells, activated deltamethrin did not induce an increased
          incidence of chromosomal or chromatid aberrations.  In gavaged
          male and female rats deltamethrin did not increase the incidence
          of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells or micronuclei of
          polychromic erythrocytes.

          Neurotoxicity: Sublethal doses of deltamethrin-induced reversible
          sequelae - see section 2.1.4. These effects were partially
          antagonized by atropine and mephenesin but not by diazepam and
          related compounds, confirming the CNS as the site of action and
          discounting any single neurotransmitter involvement.

          Metabolism: A progressive increase in blood glucose and an
          increased utilization of glucose by the cerebellum, colliculi and
          hypothalamus follows deltamethrin administration.  Increased
          cerebellum glucose utilization reflects an increased neuronal
          activity which is correlated with deltamethrin-induced increases
          in cyclic GMP.

          Cardiovascular: Deltamethrin administered intravenously first
          induced a reversible and rapid fall in blood pressure, and severe
          bradycardia in anaesthetized dogs.  These effects were rapidly
          reversed by a delayed adrenergic response which elevated the
          arterial pulse pressure.  Bivagotomy and atropine pretreatment
          abolished the cholinergic effects and exacerbated the adrenergic
          hypertensive effects.  At 3 mg/kg b.w. (i.v.), deltamethrin
          induced changes in the ECG which suggested a tendency to provoke
          an atrioventricular block, and caused a deviation in the cardiac
          electrical axis toward the left side.

          Primary irritation and sensitization: There was no evidence of
          primary skin irritation in rabbits at 0.5 g/animal nor skin
          sensitization in guinea-pigs at 0.5 g/animal.  Transitory, mild
          ocular irritation was produced in rabbits given 0.1 g/animal,
          with and without immediate rinsing.

    2.1.8 Modification of toxicity: Substances which suppress or inhibit
          liver microsomal oxidase and esterase enzyme systems will
          increase the toxicity of deltamethrin, especially in mammals.
          After repeated daily doses rats became more tolerant to
          deltamethrin.

    2.2   TOXICOLOGY - MAN

    2.2.1  Absorption - Deltamethrin is primarily absorbed from the
           gastrointestinal tract.  It is also readily absorbed by
           inhalation and to a lesser extent through the intact skin.


    2.2.2 Dangerous doses

          Single:   No information available.

          Repeated:  No information available.

    2.2.3 Observations on occupationally exposed workers - In a WHO Stage
          V deltamethrin (w.d.p.) trial of two days duration the
          personnel did not complain of adverse effects and clinical
          examinations of the workers did not reveal any signs of
          toxicity.  in extended Stage V trials of several weeks duration
          the workers complained of itching or burning sensations about
          the face, eyes and upper torso lasting for several hours after
          the cessation of spraying.   After exposure studies had
          been carried out, this was considered to be a local effect.

    2.2.4 Observations of the general population - Inhabitants of the
          locations of the WHO Stage V trials did not complain of any
          symptoms.

    2.2.5 Observations of volunteers - No information available.

    2.2.6 Mishaps - No information available.

    2.3  TOXICITY TO NON-MAMMALIAN SPECIES

    2.3.1 Fish - Deltamethrin was observed to be very toxic to fish under
          laboratory conditions. However, in static pond studies several
          species of fish have survived larvicidal levels and have
          reproduced well.

    2.3.2 Birds - Deltamethrin is of low toxicity to birds.

          Oral LD50:

          Chicken (F)           +2500 mg/kg b.w.
          Ducks                 +4000 mg/kg b.w.
          Grey partridge (M, F) +1800 mg/kg b.w.
          Red partridge (M, F)  +3000 mg/kg b.w.

    2.3.3 Beneficial insects - The moderately high toxicity is offset by
          low concentrations in spray formulations and the repellent
          effect on terrestrial and flying insects.

    2.3.4 Other organisms - Lobster and other aquatic macroinvertebrates
          are highly susceptible to the toxic effects of deltamethrin,
          especially if periodic flushing action does not occur.

    3.   FOR REGULATORY AUTHORITIES - RECOMMENDATIONS ON REGULATION OF
         COMPOUND

    3.1  RECOMMENDED RESTRICTIONS ON AVAILABILITY - (For definition of
         categories see introduction).  All current liquid formulations
         over 20%:  category 4.  All other formulations:  category 5.

    3.2  TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

          Formulations in category 4 - Should be transported in clearly
          labelled, rigid and leak-proof containers out of reach of
          children, away from food and drink.  Storage should be under
          lock and key and secure from access by children and other
          unauthorized persons.  Avoid contact with metals other than
          aluminium and tin.

          Formulations in category 5 - Should be transported and stored in
          clearly labelled, leak-proof containers out of reach of children,
          away from food and drink.  Avoid contact with metals other than
          aluminium and tin.

    3.3  HANDLING

         Fomulations in category 4 - Protective clothing should be used by
         all handling the compound.  Adequate washing facilities should be
         available at all times during handling and they should be close to
         the site of handling.  Eating, drinking and smoking should be
         prohibited during handling and before washing of hands and face
         after handling the compound.

         Formulations in category 5 - No facilities other than those needed
         for the handling of any chemical are required.

    3.4  DISPOSAL AND/OR DECONTAMINATION OF CONTAINERS

         All formulations - Containers may be decontaminated (for method
         see paragraph 4.3 of Part 4).  Decontaminated containers should
         not be used for food and drink.  Containers that are not
         decontaminated should be burned or should be crushed and buried
         below topsoil.  Care must be taken to avoid subsequent
         contamination of water sources.

    3.5  SELECTION, TRAINING AND MEDICAL SUPERVISION OF WORKERS

         Formulations in category 4 - Workers suffering from asthma,
         allergies and other respiratory disorders and cardiovascular
         disorders should be excluded from contact.  Persons under
         medication with neuroactive drugs should avoid contact.  Special
         account should be taken of the worker's ability to comprehend and
         follow instructions. Training of workers in techniques to avoid
         contact is essential.  Pre-employment and periodic medical
         examinations are not required.

         Formulations in category 5 - Warning of workers to minimize
         contact is essential.

    3.6  ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS RECOMMENDED IF DISTRIBUTED BY AIRCRAFT

         All formulations - Pilots and loaders should have special training
         to application methods and recognition of early warning symptoms
         of poisoning and they must wear a suitable respirator.  Flagmen
         should wear overalls and a broad brimmed hat and be well away from
         the dropping zone.

    3.7  LABELLING

         Formulations in category 4 - Minimum cautionary statement -
         "WARNING - POISON" (skull and cross-bones insignia).  Deltamethrin
         is a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, a neurotoxin, and it may be
         poisonous if swallowed or inhaled as a dust or mist.  It may be
         irritating to the skin and eyes.  Avoid skin contact, wear
         protective clothing and impermeable gloves and eye protection when
         handling the material.  Wash thoroughly with soap and water after
         using the product.  Keep the material out of reach of children and
         well away from foodstuffs, animal feed and food containers.  If
         poisoning occurs, call a physician.  There are no specific
         antidotes.  Artificial resuscitation may be required.

         Formulations in category 5 - Minimum cautionary statement - This
         formulation contains deltamethrin; it is poisonous if swallowed.
         Keep the material out of reach of children and well away from
         foodstuffs, animal feed and food containers.

    3.8  RESIDUES IN FOOD - Maximum residue limits for deltamethrin have
         been recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide
         Residues.

    4.   PREVENTION OF POISONING IN MAN AND EMERGENCY AID

    4.1  PRECAUTIONS IN USE

    4.1.1 General - Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid, a neurotoxic
          agent of moderate toxicity to mammals.  It is readily absorbed
          from the gastrointestinal tract and by inhalation of dust and
          spray mist.  Absorption through the intact skin has not been
          demonstrated in laboratory animals.  The health hazard is
          considerably diminished by the low concentrations of the active
          ingredient in all formulations.

    4.1.2 Manufacture and formulation

          T.L.V.: No information.  Closed systems and forced ventilation

          may be required to reduce, as much as possible, the exposure of
          workers to the chemical.

    4.1.3 Mixers and applicators - When opening a container and when
          mixing, protective impermeable boots, clean overalls, impermeable
          gloves, eye protection and a respirator should be worn. Mixing,
          if not mechanical, should always be carried out with a paddle of
          appropriate length.  Avoid contact with mouth and eyes.  Before
          eating, drinking or smoking, hands and other exposed skin should
          be thoroughly washed with alkaline soap.

    4.1.4 Other associated workers (including flagmen in aerial
          operations) - Persons exposed to deltamethrin and associated with
          its application should observe the precautions described above in
          section 4.1.3.

    4.1.5 Other populations likely to be affected - With good practice,
          subject to section 4.2 below, other populations should not be
          exposed to hazardous amounts of deltamethrin.

    4.2  ENTRY OF PERSONS INTO TREATED AREAS - Though deltamethrin is
         relatively persistent, low application rates ensure low residue
         levels.  Unprotected persons may enter treated areas immediately
         after spraying without being exposed to hazardous amounts of
         deltamethrin.

    4.3  SAFE DISPOSAL OF CONTAINERS AND SPILLAGES - Residues in containers
         should be emptied in a diluted form into a deep pit taking care to
         avoid ground waters.  The empty container may be decontaminated by
         rinsing two or three times with water and detergent and scrubbing
         the sides.  The hands should be protected during this work.
         Decontaminated containers should not be used for food and drink.

    4.4  EMERGENCY AID

    4.4.1 Early symptoms of poisoning - Based on animal studies, these may
          include excessive salivation, nausea and vomiting, shortness of
          breath and laboured breathing, coarse tremors, hypersensitivity
          to external stimuli and general weakness, a burning or itching
          sensation of the face and/or shoulders, hypotension and slow
          heart rate. These may be followed by hypertension, increased
          heart rate and convulsive muscle contractions.

    4.4.2 Treatment before person is seen by a physician, if these symptoms
          appear following exposure - The person should stop work
          immediately, remove contaminated clothing and clean the affected
          skin area.  First, soak up any liquid remaining on the skin with
          readily disposable material (e. g., talcum powder or absorbent
          cloth or paper), wash the affected area with warm water and
          alkaline soap.  For eye contamination, wash with copious amounts

          of 4% sodium bicarbonate or water.  Avoid exposing affected skin
          or eyes to bright light. If the material was swallowed and signs
          of toxicity are severe, induce vomiting if person is conscious
          and aspiration of vomit can be avoided.  In the event of
          collapse, apply artificial respiration.  Keep in mind that if
          mouth-to-mouth resuscitation is used, vomit may contain toxic
          amounts of deltamethrin.  Keep the person calm and comfortable
          and obtain medical assistance as soon as possible.

    5.   FOR MEDICAL AND LABORATORY PERSONNEL

    5.1  MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF POISONING

    5.1.1 General information - Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid, a
          neurotoxic agent of moderate toxicity to mammals.  It is readily
          absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and by inhalation of
          dust and spray mist.  Systemic poisoning and absorption through
          the intact skin have not been observed following dermal
          application of the compound.  It undergoes rapid detoxification
          by metabolism, and, except for thiocyanate, the metabolic
          products are rapidly excreted.

    5.1.2 Signs and symptoms - Little information is available on the acute
          toxic effects of deltamethrin in humans.  Based upon animal
          studies, high doses may be expected to cause repetitive activity
          in motor and sensory nerves. Early signs of poisoning may be
          salivation, irritability, tremors and ataxia.  Hypotension and
          bradycardia have been observed in dogs exposed to high doses of
          deltamethrin.  These effects were rapid in onset and of brief
          duration and frequently followed by adrenergic responses
          (increased pulse pressure and tachycardia). In man, facial
          paraesthesia is a useful indication of exposure.

    5.1.3 Laboratory - There are no established, practical methods for
          determining deltamethrin in body fluids.  Urinary levels of
          bromide, cyanide and 3-phenoxybenzyl degradation products may be
          a useful parameter in cases of severe intoxication.
          Electrophysiological monitoring of sensory nerve action
          potentials and central nervous and cardiac activities (EEG and
          ECG) may be useful in diagnosis and assessment of therapy.

    5.1.4 Treatment - There are no specific antidotes; treatment must be
          symptomatic.  Keep the patient warm and calm.  In cases of severe
          intoxication, therapy should include a sedative and
          anticonvulsant (e.g., barbiturates, diazepam, paraldehyde, etc.).
          The use of antispasmodic drugs is of limited value; mephenesin
          and atropine have been found to effectively alleviate the
          symptoms of deltamethrin poisoning in laboratory animals. If a
          large quantity of deltamethrin has been swallowed, unless the
          patient is unconscious or vomiting, gastric lavage should be

          performed using a 5% sodium bicarbonate solution, followed with
          powdered activated charcoal.  For skin contact, soak up any
          liquid remaining on skin with readily disposable absorbent
          material, then wash the affected area with warm water and
          alkaline soap. If skin irritation occurs treat with a soothing
          skin cream and avoid exposure to direct light.  For eye
          contamination, wash the eye with 4% sodium bicarbonate or any
          other non-irritating, alkaline aqueous solution.

    5.1.5 Prognosis - There have been no reports or overt symptoms
          resulting from poisoning of man by deltamethrin; the
          prognosis therefore is not known.  However, by analogy with
          laboratory animals, it may be assumed that if the acute toxic
          effect is survived the chances of complete recovery are good.

    5.1.6 References of previously reported cases - No published
          information.

    5.2   SURVEILLANCE TESTS - None.

    5.3   LABORATORY METHODS - References only are given.

    5.3.1 Detection and assay of compound and residues - Krasnykh, A. A. &
          Pavlova, L. G. (1980) Gig. Sanit., 45(5), 62-63; Mestres, R. et
          al. (1978) Trav. Soc. Pharm. Montpellier, 38(2) , 183-191;
          Mestres, R. et al. (1979) Trav. Soc. Pharm. Montpellier, 39(4),
          329-336; Mourot, D. et al. (1979) J. Chrom., 173, 412-414







    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Deltamethrin (EHC 97, 1990)
       Deltamethrin (HSG 30, 1989)
       Deltamethrin (ICSC)
       DELTAMETHRIN (JECFA Evaluation)
       Deltamethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1980 evaluations)
       Deltamethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1981 evaluations)
       Deltamethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1982 evaluations)
       Deltamethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)
       Deltamethrin (JMPR Evaluations 2000 Part II Toxicological)
       Deltamethrin (UKPID)
       Deltamethrin (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 53, 1991)