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    BENOMYL            JMPR 1975

    Explanation

         Benomyl was considered by the Joint Meeting in 1973 (FAO/WHO,
    1974), but tolerances could not be established owing to lack of
    toxicological information. However, as a considerable amount of
    information on use patterns, mode of action, actual residue levels,
    etc. was available, a number of guideline levels reflecting good
    application practices were recommended. Further, some requests were
    made for desirable additional information.

    EVALUATION FOR ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE

    BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS

    Absorption, distribution and excretion

         A male rat was fed a basal diet supplemented with 2500 ppm
    benomyl for 12 days and then given a single dose of 2C14 benomyl by
    gastric intubation. After 24 hours, 78.9% of the radioactivity was
    detected in the urine and 8.7% in the faeces. A total of 91.8% of the
    calculated C14 dose was accounted for, of which 99.5% was found in
    the urine and faeces by the end of the 72-hour test period. The major
    metabolite was methyl-5 hydroxy 2-benzimidazolecarbamate (5 HBC) which
    was present in the urine as the glucuronide and/or sulfate. Very
    little of the parent compound or methyl 2 benzimidazolecarbamate (MBC)
    was present in the urine (<5%) (Gardiner et al,, 1974),

         A male dog was fed a diet containing 2500 ppm benomyl. After
    seven weeks he received a single dose of C14 benomyl by gelatin
    capsule. Again, the bulk of the radioactivity (>99%) was eliminated
    from the animal in 72 hours. The major route of excretion, in this
    case, was by way of the faeces where benomyl and/or MBC and 5-HBC were
    detected (Gardiner et al., 1974).

         Groups of two dairy cows were fed 0, 2, 10 and 50 ppm benomyl for
    32 days. Total amounts of benomyl ingested were 0.88, 4.36 and 21.8 g.
    One cow at each level was killed at 32 days, the other after a
    one-week withdrawal period. No apparent adverse effects on the animals
    or on milk production were observed. No residues of benomyl and/or MBC
    were found in milk, urine or faeces. 5 HBC and
    methyl-4-hydroxy-2-benzimidazole carbamate (4 HBC) were not detected
    in milk at dietary levels of 2 ppm. At higher dietary levels constant
    levels of metabolites were present in milk within 24 hours. No
    residues in milk (less than 0.01 ppm) were detected 48 hours after
    benomyl was removed from the diet. No residues were found in the
    animal tissues (liver, kidney, subcutaneous fat, lean muscle).
    Detectable amounts of 5 HBC and 4 HBC in urine and of 5 HBC in faeces
    were observed (Gardiner et al., 1974).

         Groups of eight chickens were fed 0, 5 and 25 ppm benomyl for
    four weeks. Composite samples of eggs were taken the last two days of
    each week. At four weeks composite samples of faeces were obtained and
    half the birds in each group sacrificed. Liver, fat and muscle samples
    were taken. Remaining birds were placed on a control diet for one week
    prior to sacrifice. No adverse effects on body weight gain, feed
    consumption or egg production were noted. No residues of benomyl or
    its degradation products were detected in the tissue samples. Only 5
    NBC (0.03-0.06 ppm) was found in the high level egg samples. Residue
    was not detectable (<0.02 ppm) in eggs one week after hens were
    placed on untreated diet (Gardiner et al., 1974).

         2-C14 benomyl was administered by gastric intubation to a male
    rat at a dosage level of 900 mg/kg. After one hour blood was taken and
    analysed for benomyl and MBC by thin-layer chromatography and C14
    radioscanning. The radioactivity in the blood consisted of 68% 2-C14
    MBC and less than 15% intact benomyl (Sherman et al., 1975).

         A male ChR-CD rat was fed a diet containing 2500 ppm MBC for 14
    days. The animal was then given 2-C14 MBC by intragastric intubation.
    Urine and faeces were collected. Animal was sacrificed after 72 hours.
    Bulk of the C14 activity was eliminated in the first 24-hour interval
    (83.5% in urine, 9.6% in faeces). One major and two minor C14
    labelled compounds were detected in the urine. After enzymatic
    hydrolysis and thin-layer chromatography, 85% of the activity was
    found in a single spot corresponding to 5 HBC. No residual C14 MBC
    was detected (<5%) (Gardiner et al., 1974).

         Groups of male mice, rabbits and sheep were dosed orally with 0.1
    g benomyl/kg body weight. Urine and faeces were collected for 96 hours
    at intervals of 24 hours. The metabolism of benomyl was also studied
    in vitro using various tissue homogenates as well as blood and sheep
    rumen fluid as enzyme sources. All three species showed similar
    patterns of metabolites both in vivo and in vitro.  Detoxification
    proceeded primarily through two major routes, hydroxylation and
    hydrolysis. Two metabolites were formed by hydroxylation. and two by
    ester hydrolysis. Approximately 20% of the administered dose was
    excreted as the sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of hydroxylated
    metabolites. No unchanged benomyl was found in either urine or faeces.
    Urine contained 41-71% and faeces 21-46% of the excreted metabolites.
    The liver was found to be the major site of hydroxylation, other
    tissues forming only small amounts of hydroxylated metabolites (Douch,
    1973).

    TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES

    Special studies on mutagenicity

         Microorganisms

         Mutants of Neurospora crassa resistant to benomyl were isolated
    following ultra violet irradiation of conidia. Genetic analysis of 15
    of the mutant strains revealed that the resistance was due to a single
    allele. Tests of heterokaryons containing both resistant and sensitive
    alleles indicated that the resistance was dominant. The mutants did
    not possess the same degree of resistance to the fungicide (Borck et
    al., 1974).

         Forward mutations were induced in Fusarium oxysporm f.sp. melonis
    when incubated with a culture medium containing benomyl (5 g/ml).
    This effect was shown only with growing cells. In another study roots
    of young Allium cepa which were dipped in benomyl (0, 50 and 100
    g/ml) and incubated for up to 12 hours, did not reveal any
    chromosomal aberrations (Dassenay et al., 1973).

         Rat

         In a dominant lethal study four groups of 10 male ChR-CD rats
    received diets containing 0, 250, 1250 and 2500 ppm benomyl for seven
    days. Each male was then mated with three ChR-CD females. After seven
    days, males were removed and mated with three additional females. This
    procedure was followed for six weeks. In the control animals the
    mating index was significantly lower and the pre-implantation losses
    and early resorptions consistently higher than in the test groups. Due
    to these effects the calculation of the dominant lethal mutation rates
    for benomyl based on either post implantation loss or on pre- and
    post-implantation losses were negative (Sherman et al., 1975).

    Special studies on reproduction

         Rat

         In a three generation reproduction study, four groups of rats (6
    male and 6 females/group - 1st generation; 12 male and 12 females -
    2nd generation; 20 male and 20 females - 3rd generation) were fed 0,
    100, 500 and 2500 ppm benomyl in their diet. Two litters were produced
    in each of the 1st and 2nd generations with three litters being
    produced in 3rd generation. When pups of the F3B generation were
    weaned, two males and two females were selected from each of five
    litters from each group and subjected to gross pathological
    evaluation. Tissues from the control and 2500 ppm, group were
    evaluated histopathologically. At weaning, animals of the F3C
    generation were kept on their respective diets for nine weeks and then
    placed on the control diet for an additional six weeks. Reproductive
    performance in all groups was satisfactory. No significant effects
    were observed in the number of pups born alive, fertility, gestation
    or lactation indices. No compound related gross or microscopic

    pathologic changes were observed. Slightly lower weanling weights in
    F2B, F3A, F3B and F3C litters at 500 and 2500 ppm were noted.
    However, the absence of a change in the growth curves when the F3C
    test animals were placed on the control diet. demonstrated that the
    lower weanling body weights were not compound related (Sherman et al.,
    1975).

    Special studies on teratogenicity

         Rat

         Pregnant ChR-CD rats were given 0, 100, 500, 2500 and 5000 ppm
    benomyl in their diet from day 6 through day 15 of gestation. Animals
    were killed on day 20 of gestation and foetuses removed by caesarean
    section. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in any of the
    pregnant females. No significant effects were observed in the number
    of implantation sites per pregnant female, number of resorption sites,
    number of live foetuses, mean foetus weight, sex ratio or crown-rump
    length. Incidence of skeletal and visceral abnormalities in the
    treated groups was comparable to those of the control group. The
    number and type of anomalies were also found to be comparable with
    standard values established for this strain of rat (Sherman et al.,
    1975).

         When benomyl was administered by gavage to rats from day 1 to day
    20 of gestation, 100% post-implantation deaths were observed at 500
    mg/kg bw. In a similar study, carbendazim was shown to be
    approximately half as embryotoxic as benomyl (Stenberg et al., 1975).

    COMMENTS

         In mammals, benomyl is rapidly absorbed, metabolized primarily in
    the liver and excreted. Metabolism apparently proceeds through two
    major routes, by hydroxylation and hydrolysis. The metabolites are
    excreted in the urine and faeces and do not appear to be stored in
    body tissues. In the rat a large proportion of orally administered
    benomyl is rapidly metabolized to methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate
    (MBC). The elimination pattern and the identity of the major
    metabolite in the urine is identical after the administration of
    either benomyl or MBC. This indicates the rat metabolizes the two
    compounds in a similar manner. Thus, animals in toxicological studies
    exposed to benomyl are also exposed to MBC.

         A three generation reproduction study in the rat with dietary
    levels up to 2500 ppm did not indicate significant effects. Benomyl
    was not embryotoxic. Indications of a mutagenic action were found in a
    fungal system. A dominant lethal study in the rat with dietary levels
    up to 2500 ppm was negative. Benomyl showed no evidence of
    teratogenesis when fed to rats at 5000 ppm (250 mg/kg body weight) in
    the diet. However, a recent report from the USSR observed embryotoxic
    effects (100% post-implantation deaths of the embryo) when a high dose
    of benomyl (500 mg/kg/body weight) was administered to rats by gavage.

         No information is available on long-term studies in any species
    of animal. This precludes an estimation of an acceptable daily intake
    for man.

    TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION

         No acceptable daily intake allocated.

    RESIDUES IN FOOD AND THEIR EVALUATION

    USE PATTERN

         Benomyl is a systemic fungicide with many indications of a
    widespread and still increasing use in the control of several species
    of fungi. Simultaneously, however, critical studies have been
    published of toxic effects in earthworms (Stringer and Lyons, 1974;
    Krupka, 1974)   residues resulting from supervised trials and of
    adverse phytotoxic effects (Butt et al., 1973) in the form of
    increased fruit russet and reduction of crop and fruit size in certain
    apple species after foliar treatment in the early growing season.

    RESIDUES RESULTING FROM SUPERVISED TRIALS

         A substantial amount of new information on residues from
    supervised trials and experimental work has been published or brought
    to the attention of the Meeting since 1973 from the manufacturers as
    well as from various governments. The majority of this, however, has
    confirmed the ranges of residues and general patterns which were
    described in the earlier monograph (FAO/WHO, 1974). The following is
    therefore quoted with special emphasis on its supplementary nature.

    In vegetables

         Several trials on benomyl applications to greenhouse cultures,
    especially lettuce, have been reported to the Meeting from some
    European countries. The results with lettuce (Tables 1 and 2) indicate
    that considerable amounts may be deposited on leaves or taken up
    through the roots of this leafy plant.

         In the winter season from four to six weeks may be required after
    early foliar application to achieve residues below 5 mg/kg (calculated
    as carbendazim) while for levels of 1-2 mg/kg more than two months
    will be needed, in both cases requiring a further careful trimming of
    outer leaves. The summer experiments indicate shorter periods of the
    order of two to three weeks. Comparatively, soil treatment or early
    watering around the plants seems to give rise to lower residues,
    although the continued uptake results in residues which will require
    practically the same preharvest intervals.

    TABLE 1. Benomyl trials on greenhouse lettuce, Belgium1

                                                                      

                                               Residues, mg/kg,2
                                               resulting from
                               Time after      (No. of applications)
                 Dosage        last                                   
    Treatment    rate          application     1        2        3
                                                                      

    Spraying     1.5 kg/ha     0 days           -         -       106

                               2 weeks          -        36.2      33.1

                               3 weeks          -         -        21.0

                               4 weeks          6.2      10.5      11.6

                               5 weeks          -         7.3       7.3

                               6 weeks          1.6       4.7       4.7

                               8 weeks          0.9       1.5       2.5

    Spraying     3.0 kg/ha     0 day            -         -       190

                               2 weeks          -        45.5      65

                               3 weeks          -         -        37.4

                               4 weeks         11.8      17.6      23.6

                               5 weeks          -        13.9      14.8

                               6 weeks          5.5      11.6      12.8

                               8 weeks          1.6       3.8       5.1
                                                                      

    1 From Henriet et al. (1975).
    2 All results calculated and expressed as carbendazim.

        TABLE 2. Benomyl trials on greenhouse lettuce, Denmark1 and Netherlands2

                                                                                            

                                                        Residues (mg/kg)3 mean and range
                Dosage        Time after last                                               
    Treatment   rate          application, days       May-June              November-March
                                                                                            

    Spraying1   1.5 kg/ha             2            50   (47-53)              32    (26-38)

                                      9            17   (16-19)              24    (23-25)

                                      16            6.6 (5.2-8.0)            22    (22-22)

                                      23            0.8 (0.6-1.0)            21    (20-21)

    Watering1   3.75 kg/ha            2            16   (15-18)              16    (13-19)

                                      9             6.3 (5.2-7.4)            15    (12-18)

                                      16            2.3 (1.5-3.1)            12    (10-15)

                                      23            0.5 (nd.-O.9)             8.9  (7.0-11)

    Soil
    treatment1  3.75 kg/ha            11                                     45    (39-56)

                                      19                                     20    (14-28)

                                      28                                     10    ( 8-11)

                                      32/33                                   7.7  (3.8-18)

                                      41                                      8.8  (4.6-12)

                                      53                                      3.0  (1.8-4.0)
                                                                                            

    1 Green-Lauridsem et al. (1975).
    2 The Netherlands (1975).
    3 All results calculated and expressed as benomyl (in mg/kg).
        In cereals

         Information on benomyl residues in cereal grains (wheat, barley,
    oats and rice) has been collected from several countries and submitted
    by Kirk (1974) as shown in Table 3. This supplements that which was

    available earlier to the Meeting. It confirms the earlier recommended
    guideline level of 0.5 mg/kg in raw cereals,* covering the four
    mentioned species, and gives grounds for amending the guideline level
    of 2 mg/kg for barley straw to include also straw from rice and wheat.

              

    * The guideline level for raw cereals recommended by the 1973 Joint
    Meeting was correctly recorded as 0.5 mg/kg in the Evaluations
    (FAO/WHO, 1974b)  but erroneously printed as 0.1 mg/kg in the Report
    (FAO/WHO, 1974a).

    FATE OF RESIDUES

    In animals

         Previously reviewed studies an the fate of benomyl in animals
    have  been extended and published by Gardiner et al. (1974). These
    confirm that single, oral doses of benomyl (C14-labelled) are
    eliminated via the urine and faeces within 72 hours from both rat and
    dog. From 83.4 to 88.0% of the ingested amount was recovered from the
    urine and 11.3-16.2% from the faeces. The major metabolite was methyl
    5-hydroxy-2-benzimidazolecarbamate (5-HBC) found as glucuronide and/or
    sulfate conjugates in the urine. The studies showed that, on the
    evidence of residue analyses, cows and chickens show the same route of
    metabolism and elimination. Other possible degradation products in
    animal systems include methyl 4-hydroxy-2-benzimidazolecarbamate
    (4-HBC) and methyl 2-bensimidazolecarbamate (MBC). The residue data
    from these studies, which include two-year chronic feeding tests with
    dogs and rats (Table 4), demonstrate that benomyl and its metabolites
    do not accumulate in animal tissues. Milk from dairy cows (FAO/WHO,
    1974) and eggs from chickens (Table 5) contain detectable residues
    (0.1 mg/kg or less) only at such high dietary levels of benomyl as
    25-50 mg/kg.

    In soil

         In an earlier quoted series of field trials on metabolism and
    disappearance rates in different soils (Baude et al., 1974) it was
    indicated that the leaching of benomyl and its degradation products
    MBC and 2-amino benzimidazole (2-AB) from soils was negligible.
    Additional studies by Rhodes and Long (1974) support this conclusion
    through direct experiments under greenhouse and laboratory conditions.
    Their experiments elucidate both run-off and leaching characteristics
    of the compounds and show that benomyl, MBC and 2-AB are all immobile
    in soil and do not leach or move significantly from the site of
    application.


    
    TABLE 3. Benomyl residues in cereals

                                                                                                                           

                                                                        Pre-harvest
                                                      Number of         interval            Residues
    Crop             Treatment       Dosage           treatments        (days)              (mg/kg)             Country
                                                                                                                           

    Wheat, barley,   Seed
    and oat          treatment     200 g/100 kg                           133-398           <0.4             Finland
                                   100-600
                                   g/100 kg                               94-303            <0.1             United States
                                                                                                             of America

                     Foliar
                     treatment     1 kg/ha                                64-77             <0.1             Netherlands

                                   600 g/ha              3               12-75             0.1-0.5          France

                                   240 g/ha                               105               0.0-0.2          West Germany

                                   400 g/ha              4               30-32             <0.03            Belgium

    Wheat straw                    1 kg/ha                                64-77             0.15-0.93        Netherlands

    Rice             Foliar
                     treatment     0.25-1 kg/ha          1-2             -                 0.49             United States
                                                                                            (<0.05-2.8)      of America

    Rice
    straw                          0.25-1 kg/ha          1-2             -                 3.52             United States
                                                                                            (<0.05-9.0)      of America
                                                                                                                           
    

    TABLE 4.  Residue data from benomyl chronic feeding studies in rat
              and dog (Gardiner et al., 1974)

                                                                     

                                Residue1, mg/kg (male and female)
                Dietary                                              
                  level     Benomyl+
    Tissue      (mg/kg)     carbendazim        5-HBC           4-HBC
                                                                     

    Rat

    Muscle            0     <0.05            <0.05           <0.1
                   2500     <0.05-0.06       0.51-0.52       <0.1

    Fat               0     <0.05            <0.05           <0.1
                   2500     <0.05            <0.05-0.08      <0.1

    Liver             0     <0.05            <0.05           <0.1
                   2500     0.20-0.61        1.7-2.5         <0.1

    Kidney            0     <0.05            <0.05           <0.1
                   2500     0.20-1.4         2.8-22          <0.1-0.45

    Dog

    Muscle            0     <0.05            <0.05           <0.1
                   2500     <0.05            <0.05           <0.1

    Fat               0     <0.05            <0.052          <0.1
                   2500     <0.05-0.15       <0.05-0.14      <0.1

    Liver             0     <0.05            <0.05           <0.1
                   2500     <0.05            <0.05           <0.1

    Kidney            0     <0.05            <0.05           <0.1
                   2500     <0.05            <0.05-0.12      <0.1
                                                                     

    1 All results corrected for average recoveries (benomyl+MBC: 79%;
      5-HBC: 65%; 4-HBC: 55%).

    2 An apparent contamination corresponding to 1.2 mg/kg noted in
      one male dog.

    EVIDENCE OF RESIDUES IN COMMERCE

         Market sample surveys carried out in the Netherlands in 1973 on
    (mainly domestically grown) fruit and vegetables showed that residues
    from benzimidazole fungicides, among which benomyl would be included,
    were regularly present in some crops (Table 6), In strawberries about
    20% of the samples were positive, while in leafy vegetables, apples
    and tomatoes taken together about 4-5% were positive. At the time of
    the survey, the tolerances were 2 mg/kg for fruits and vegetables and
    0.05 mg/kg for potatoes, expressed and calculated as carbendazim.

         Similarly, Belgian surveys on strawberries carried out in 1972
    and 1974 showed 26% of the samples to be positive (Dejonckheere et
    al., 1975). A total of 188 market samples were analysed and none
    contained residues exceeding 5 mg/kg (expressed as carbendazim).

    METHODS OF RESIDUES ANALYSIS

         Since the Joint Meeting in 1973, the greatest interest in the
    analytical methodology of benomyl and other benzimidazoles has been
    directed to two problems, namely the extraction efficiency from crops
    and soils and the selective determination of benzimidazole compounds,
    especially by means of high speed liquid chromatography (HSLC).

         Austin and co-workers (1975) in a recent review deal with these
    questions and offer a convenient extraction solvent for aged
    carbendazim residues from soils consisting of 1 M NH4Cl-solution
    (aqueous) mixed with an equal volume of acetone or methanol. Further,
    they conclude that HSLC using UV-absorption detectors still shows
    promise (FAO/WHO, 1974), but is not yet at a suitable stage of
    development for routine purposes owing to some lack of selectivity and
    sensitivity.

         The need for further work on the separate determination of
    carbendazim and its precursors, which include benomyl, is still
    emphasized.

    APPRAISAL

         Extensive new data on use patterns, mode of action, residue
    levels etc. of benomyl have been published or otherwise come forward
    since 1973. Much of this provides support for previously considered
    information and confirms recommendations for already established
    guideline levels.

         There are however additional data on residues in greenhouse grown
    lettuce which permit a recommendation to be made for a guideline level
    for this crop. Further information on cereals confirms the earlier
    recommendation for a guideline level of 0.5 mg/kg in raw cereals.

    TABLE 5.  Residues in chickens' eggs after benomyl feeding at 5 and 25
              mg/kg level (Gardiner et al., 1974)
                                                                 

                              5-hydroxy-MBC found, mg/kg
      Sample                                                     
    description         Control      5mg/kg level   25 mg/kg level
                                                                 
    Eggs

      7 days            <0.02        <0.02              0.03

      14 days           <0.02        <0.02              0.06

      28 days           <0.02        <0.02              0.03

    Breast, 28 days     <0.02        <0.02              <0.02

    Fat, 28 days        <0.02        <0.02              <0.02

    Liver, 28 days      <0.1         <0.1               <0.1

    Faeces, 28 days     0.161        1.6                7.5
                                                                 


    TABLE 6.  Residues of methylbenzimidazole (including benomyl) in
              marketed samples, Netherlands
                                                                             

                                 Number of samples containing ... mg/kg1
                                                                             
    Crop                      <0.1        0.1-1.0        1.0-2.0         >2.0
                                                                             
    Potatoes                  10                    2                    -

    Endive                    29                    -                    12

    Lettuce                   57                    2                    -

    Spinach                   28                    -                    -

    Tomatoes                  10                    2                    -

    Apples (imported)         5                                          13

    Strawberries              129           20              8            4
                                                                             

    1 Expressed as carbendazim.
    2 Contained 4 mg/kg.
    3 Contained 15 mg/kg. Imported.

         Further studies have been presented on residues in animal
    products. They demonstrate that neither benomyl nor its metabolites
    accumulate in animal tissues and that residues of the hydroxylated MBC
    metabolites are present in barely detectable amounts in milk and eggs
    only after feeding high dietary levels of benomyl.

         In response to the request from an earlier Meeting, information
    on market sample surveys made in the Netherlands and in Belgium has
    been presented to the Meeting. The data show that residues of
    benzimidazole fungicides, presumably including benomyl, may be present
    in up to 20-26% of a number of fruits, vegetables and berries.
    Residues in positive samples are generally low and only in occasional
    individual samples approach or exceed earlier established guideline
    levels.

    RECOMMENDATIONS

         The recommendations for guideline levels made in 1973 (FAO/WHO,
    1974) are amended as follows. They refer to total residues of benomyl
    carbendazim and 2-aminobenzimidazole, expressed as carbendazim.

    GUIDELINE LEVELS

                                                                        

    Commodity                                              Limits
    mg/kg
                                                                        

    Lettuce                                                5

    Rice straw, wheat straw                                2

    Raw cereals (wheat, barley, rye, rice)                 0.5*

    Meat or poultry, eggs                                  0.1**
                                                                        

    *   Attention is drawn to the footnote on p. [text missing] of this monograph
        addendum.

    **  At or about limit of determination.

    FURTHER WORK OR INFORMATION

    REQUIRED (before an acceptable daily intake can be allocated)

         1.   Long-term studies in at least one mammalian species.

         2.   Short-term studies in several animal species including a
              non-rodent mammalian species.

         3.   Acute oral studies in several animal species.

    DESIRED

         1.   A supplementary carcinogenic study.

         2.   Observations in man.

         3.   Further development of analytical methods for the separate
              determination of benomyl and carbendazim.

         4.   Further information on residues in food in commerce.

    REFERENCES

    Austin, D. J., Briggs, G. G. and Lord, K. A. (1975) Problems in the
    assay of residues of carbendazim and its precursors. Proc. 8th Brit.
    Insec. Fund. Conf. Brighton. November

    Baude, F. J., Pease, H. L. and Holt, R. F. (1974) Fate of benomyl on
    field soil and turf. J. Agric. Food Chem., 22 (3), 413-418

    Borck, K. and Braymer, H. D. (1974) The genetic analysis of resistance
    to benomyl in Neurospora crassa. Journal of General Microbiology,
    85, 51

    Butt, D. J., Kirby, A. H. M. and Williamson, C. J. (1973) Fungitoxic
    and phytotoxic effects of fungicides controlling powdery mildew on
    apple. Ann. appl. Biol., 75, 217-228

    Dassenay, B. and Meyer, J. A. (1973) Mutagenic effect of benomyl on
    Fusarium oxysporum. Mutation Research, 21, 119

    Dejonckheere, W., Steurbaut, W. and Kips, R. H. (1975) Report received
    from Rijksnoviversiteit Gent, Laboratorium voor Fytofarmacie, Gent. 11
    September

    Douch, P. G. C. (1973) The metabolism of benomyl fungicide in mammals.
    Xenobiotica, 3, 367-380

    Gardiner, J. A., Kirkland, J. J., Klopping, H. L. and Sherman, H.
    (1974) Fate of benomyl in animals. Journal Agriculture Food Chemistry,
    22, 419-427

    Green-Lauridsen, M. (1975) Prepublication data submitted from National
    Food Institute, Soborg, Denmark, November

    Henriet, J., Meens, P., Baelus, F. and Valange, B. (1975)
    Beschouwingen over het gebruik van benomyl in glassla en aanbevelingen
    voor slakwekers. Technische Nota 9/18 from Rijksstation voor
    Phytopharmacie, Gembloux, Belgium

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    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Benomyl (EHC 148, 1993)
       Benomyl (HSG 81, 1993)
       Benomyl (ICSC)
       Benomyl (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 3)
       Benomyl (Pesticide residues in food: 1983 evaluations)
       Benomyl (JMPR Evaluation 1995 Part II Toxicological and environmental)