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    WHO Pesticide Residues Series, No. 1

    1971 EVALUATIONS OF SOME PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOOD

    THE MONOGRAPHS

    The evaluations contained in these monographs were prepared by the
    Joint Meeting of the FAO Working Party of Experts on Pesticide
    Residues and the WHO Expert Committee on Pesticide Residues that met
    in Geneva from 22 to 29 November 1971.1

    World Health Organization

    Geneva

    1972

                     
    1 Pesticide Residues in Food: Report of the 1971 Joint Meeting of
    the FAO Working Party of Experts on Pesticide Residues and the WHO
    Expert Committee on Pesticide Residues, Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep.
    Ser., No. 502; FAO Agricultural Studies, 1972, No. 88.

    These monographs are also issued by the Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations, Rome, as document AGP-1971/M/9/1.

    FAO and WHO 1972


    ANNEX I

    
    INDEX TO DOCUMENTATION AND SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS CONCERNING ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKES, TOLERANCES, AND PRACTICAL RESIDUE LIMITS, AS OF
    NOVEMBER 1971*

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    acrylonitrile          1965c

    aldrin                 1967b,         0.0001                                                                      See also dieldrin.
                           1968b

    allethrin              1965b

    arsenic (as calcium    1969b
    or lead arsenate)

    azinphos-methyl        1969b          0.0025       Apricots, grapes......... 4a                                   Residues for "vegetables"
                                                       Other fruit.............. 1a                                   for review in 1972, not 1973
                                                       # Vegetables............. 0.5a                                 as in Annex 1 of Ref. 1971a.

    BHC (mixture of        1969b
    isomers)

    binapacryl             1970b          0.0025       Peaches, cherries........ 1
                                                       Apples, pears, grapes.... 0.5
                                                       Plums.................... 0.3
                                                       Nectarines............... 0.2

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    bromide (inorganic     1969b,         1            Raw cereals, wholemeal                                         Recommendations relate
    form, derived from     1970b,                      flour.................... 50                                   exclusively to inorganic
    bromine-containing                                                                                                bromide, not to bromine
    fumigants and other    1972a,b                                                                                    present as unchanged fumigant.
    sources)                                                                                                          # Other recommendations
                                                                                                                      from previous meetings held
                                                                                                                      in abeyance pending further
                                                                                                                      data on normal background
                                                                                                                      bromide levels and on
                                                                                                                      residues from supervised trials
                                                                                                                      (see report and
                                                                                                                      monographs).

    calcium arsenate       1969b

    captafol               1970b          0.05b        Peaches.................. 15b                                  Recommendations relate
                                                       Cherries (sour).......... 10b                                  only to parent substance.
                                                       Cherries (sweet)......... 2b                                   Referred to as "difolatan"
                                                       Tomatoes................. 5b                                   on p. 18 of Ref. 1969a.
                                                       Melons (whole)........... 2b
                                                       Cucumbers (whole)........ 1b
                                                       Apricots................. 0.5b
                                                       Plums.................... 0.2b

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    captan                 1970b          0.125b       Apples, cherries......... 40b
                                                       Pears.................... 30b
                                                       Apricots................. 20b
                                                       Citrus fruit, peaches, plums,
                                                       rhubarb, tomatoes........ 15b
                                                       Strawberries, raspberries,
                                                       cranberries, cucumbers,
                                                       lettuce, green beans,
                                                       peppers.................. 10b
                                                       Raisins.................. 5b

    Carbaryl               1967b          0.01b        Raspberries, blackberries,                                     Earlier tolerances reviewed
                           1968b,                      boysenberries, peaches,                                        at 1969 Meeting in light of
                           1969b,                      nectarines, asparagus,                                         Codex comments. Tolerance
                           1970b,                      okra, leafy vegetables                                         on whole milk temporarily
                           1971b                       (except brassica nuts                                          withdrawn (see monograph).
                                                       (whole), olives
                                                       (fresh).................. 10b
                                                       Citrus fruit, strawberries,
                                                       blueberries.............. 7b
                                                       Apples, bananas (pulp)
                                                       grapes, beans, peas
                                                       (including pod), brassica,
                                                       tomatoes, peppers, eggplant,
                                                       poultry skin)............ 5b
                                                       Poultry (total) (edible
                                                       portions)................ 0.5b
                                                       Cucurbits (including
                                                       melons................... 3b

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

                                                       Rice..................... 2.5b
                                                       Cottonseed (whole), sweet
                                                       corn (kernels), nuts
                                                       (shelled), olives
                                                       (processed), meat of cattle,
                                                       goats, and sheep......... 1b
                                                       Potatoes................. 0.2b

    carbon                 1965c,                      # Raw cereals............ 50e                                  Guideline levels (see
    disulfide              1968b,                      # Milled cereal products. 10f                                  footnote 3 and report
                           1970a,                      # Bread and other cooked                                       on 1971 meeting).
                           1972a,b                       cereal products........ 0.05g

    carbon                 1965c,                      # Raw cereals............ 50e                                  Guideline levels (see
    tetrachloride          1968b,                      # Milled cereal products. 10f                                  footnote 3 and report 
                           1970a,                      # Bread and other cooked cereal                                on 1971 meeting).
                           1972b                       products................. 0.05g

    chlorbenside           1965b          0.01

    chlordane              1968b,         0.001        Potatoes, sweet potatoes,           Milk and                   Expressed as the sum of the
                           1970b,                      rutabagas, turnips                  milk                       cis- and trans-isomers in
                           1971b                       parsnips sugar beet,                products                   plant products and as the
                                                       radishes................. 0.3       (fat basis)...... 0.05     sum of cis- and trans-isomers
                                                       Asparagus broccoli,                 Fat of meat                and oxychlordane in
                                                       Brussels sprouts, cabbage,          and poultry...... 0.05     animal products.

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

                                                       celery, cauliflower, mustard        Eggs (shell                Tolerances apply to residues
                                                       greens, spinach, Swiss              free)............ 0.02     resulting from soil or seed
                                                       chard, lettuce........... 0.2                                  treatments apart from that
                                                       Beans, peas, egg plant,                                        for cottonseed oil.
                                                       tomatoes, collards
                                                       (= coleworts)............ 0.02
                                                       Wheat, rye, oats, rice
                                                       (polished), maize, popcorn,
                                                       sorghum.................. 0.05
                                                       Cantaloupes, cucumbers,
                                                       pumpkins, squash,
                                                       watermelons.............. 0.1
                                                       Almonds, bananas, figs,
                                                       filberts, guavas, mangoes,
                                                       olives, passion fruit,
                                                       papayas, pecans,
                                                       pomegranates,
                                                       pineapples, strawberries
                                                       walnuts.................. 0.1
                                                       Citrus, pome, and stone
                                                       fruits................... 0.02
                                                       Crude soya bean and
                                                       linseed oils............. 0.5
                                                       Crude cottonseed oil..... 0.1
                                                       Edible cottonseed oil.... 0.02
                                                       Edible soya bean oil..... 0.02

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    chlordimeform          1972b,         0.01d        Pears, peaches, prunes... 5d                                   Tolerances expressed as the
                                                       Apples, grapes, plums,                                         sum of chlordimeform and
                                                       strawberries............. 3d                                   its metabolites determined
                                                       Cherries, citrus, brassica                                     as 4-chloro-o-toluidine and
                                                       cottonseed oil (crude and                                      expressed as chlordimeform
                                                       refined), cottonseed..... 2d
                                                       Beans.................... 0.5d
                                                       Fat, meat and meat products
                                                       of cattle................ 0.5d
                                                       Milk (whole)............. 0.05d
                                                       Milk products............ 0.5d

    chlorfenson            1965b          0.01

    chlorfenvinphos        1972b          0.002        Carrots, celery.......... 0.4                                  Expressed as the sum of the
                                                       Meat (fat basis)......... 0.2                                  alpha and beta isomers of
                                                       Milk and milk products (fat                                    chlorfenvinphos.
                                                       basis)................... 0.2
                                                       Cauliflower, radish,
                                                       horseradish, tomatoes.... 0.1
                                                       Brussels sprouts, cabbage,
                                                       broccoli, swedes, turnips,
                                                       potatoes, sweet potatoes,
                                                       onions, leeks, aubergines,
                                                       mushrooms, peanuts
                                                       (shelled), maize, wheat
                                                       (grain), cottonseed, rice
                                                       (raw and polished)....... 0.05

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    chlormequat            1971b                                                                                      Maximum residues (ppm)
                                                                                                                      following approved use
                                                                                                                      indicated as:
                                                                                                                      Raw grains (rye and
                                                                                                                      oats)............... 5
                                                                                                                      Raw grains (wheat).. 2
                                                                                                                      Grapes and dried vine
                                                                                                                      fruits.............. 1
                                                                                                                      In absence of ADI, no
                                                                                                                      tolerances established.

    chlorobenzilate        19691,         0.02         Apples, pears (whole
                                                       fruit)................... 5a
                                                       Citrus fruit (whole)..... 1a
                                                       Almonds, walnuts
                                                       (without shells)......... 0.2a
                                                       Melons, cantaloupes...... 1a
    chloropicrin           1965c

    chloropropylate        1969b          0.01a        Apples, pears, citrus fruit                                    ADI is temporary; this fact
                                          see          (whole).................. 3a                                   was erroneously omitted
                                          remarks)     Tomatoes, cantaloupes.... 1a                                   from Annex 2 of Ref. 1969a
                                                                                                                      and from Appendix 1 of Ref.
                                                                                                                      1970a. See monograph, Ref.
                                                                                                                      1959b, p. 62.

    chlorpropham           1956b

    chlorthion             1965b

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    coumaphos              1969b          0.0005a      Eggs (shell-free)........ 0.05a                                to be determined as
                                                       Meat (including poultry (on                                    coumaphos and oxygen 
                                                       fat basis)............... 0.5a                             analogue and expressed as
                                                                                                                      coumaphos.
    crufomate              1969b          0.1          Whole milk............... 0.05a
                                                       Meat (fat basis)......... 1a

    2, 4-D                 1971b,         0.3          # Barley, oats, rye,
                           1972b,                      wheat.................... 0.2

    DDT                    1967b,         0.005        Apples, pears, peaches              Whole milk....... 0.05     ADI is "conditional".
                           1968b,         (see         apricots, small fruit (except       Milk                       Tolerance on fish withdrawn
                           1969b,         remarks)     strawberries), vegetables           products                   at 1969 Meeting.
                           1970b                       (except root vegetables),           fat basis........ 1.25     Limits apply to DDT, DDD
                                                       meat and poultry (on fat                                       and DDE singly or in
                                                       basis)................... 7         Eggs (shell-free). 0.5     combination.
                                                       Nuts (shelled), strawberries,                                  Tolerances subject to
                                                       root vegetables.......... 1                                    regular review.
                                                       Cherries, plums, citrus and
                                                       tropical fruit........... 3.5

    demeton                1965b,         0.0025
                           1968b

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    diazinon               1965b,         0.002        Peaches, citrus fruit,                                         Residues to be determined
                           1967b,                      cherries................. 0.7                                  and expressed as the parent
                           1968b,                      Other fruits............. 0.5                                  compound. Residues decline
                           1969b,                      Leafy vegetables......... 0.7                                  rapidly during storage and
                           1971b                       Other vegetables......... 0.5                                  shipment; the tolerances are
                                                       Wheat, barley, rice                                            based on residues likely to
                                                       (polished)............... 0.1                                  be found at harvest or
                                                       Almonds, walnuts, filberts,                                    slaughter (see monograph).
                                                       pecans, peanuts
                                                       (shelled)................ 0.5
                                                       Cottonseed, safflower
                                                       seed sunflower seed...... 0.5
                                                       Sweet corn (kernels and
                                                       cob with husks removed).. 0.7
                                                       Olives and olive oil..... 2
                                                       Fat of meat of cattle,
                                                       sheep and hogs........... 0.7
    1,2-dibromoethane      1967b,                      # Raw cereals............ 20e                                  Analytical method must
                           1968b,                      # Milled cereal products. 5f                                   identify residue, because
                           1970a,                      # Bread and other cooked                                       guideline level refers to
                           1972                        cereal products.......... 0.1g                                 original fumigant. Previously
                                                                                                                      listed as ethylene dibromide.
    dichlofluanid          1970b

    1,2-dichloroethane     1965c                       # Raw cereals............ 50e                                  Previously listed as ethylene
                           1968b,                      # Milled cereal products. 10f                                  dichloride.
                           1970a,                      # Bread and other cooked
                           1972                        products................. 0.1g

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    dichlorvos             1967b,         0.004        Cocoa beans.............. 5                                    The tolerances are based on
                           1968b                       Raw grain (wheat, rice, rye,                                   residues likely to be found
                           1970b,                      oats, barley, maize,                                           at harvest or slaughter.
                           1971b                       sorghum, etc.)........... 2                                    Residues decline rapidly during
                                                       Milled products from raw                                       storage or shipment (see
                                                       grain.................... 0.5                                  monograph).
                                                       Coffee beans, soya beans,                                      The tolerance for
                                                       lentils, peanuts......... 2                                    "miscellaneous food items not
                                                       Mushrooms................ 0.5                                  otherwise specified", for
                                                       Fresh vegetables (except                                       example bread, cakes, cheese,
                                                       lettuce)................. 0.5                                  cooked meats, etc. is intended
                                                       Tomatoes................. 0.5                                  to cover residues resulting
                                                       Fresh fruit (apples, pears,                                    from usage of dichlorvos for
                                                       peaches, strawberries,                                         pest control purposes in
                                                       etc.).................... 0.1                                  storage in warehouses, shops,
                                                       Meat of cattle, sheep,                                         etc.
                                                       goats, pigs, and poultry. 0.05

    dicofol                1969b.         0.025        Fruit, hops, vegetables,                                       # "Tea" refers to dry
                           1971b                       tea...................... 5                                    manufactured tea

    dieldrin               1967b,         0.0001       Asparagus, broccoli,                Carrots,                   Practical residue limit for
                           1968b,                      Brussels sprouts, cabbage,          lettuce,                   shell-free eggs is equivalent
                           1969b,                      cauliflower, cucumber,              fat of meat...... 0.2      to 0.25 ppm in egg yolk.
                           1970b,                      eggplant, horseradish,              Milk and                   Limits apply to aldrin and
                           1971b                       onions, parsnips, peppers,          milk                       dieldrin singly or together
                                                       pimentoes, radishes,                products                   and expressed as dieldrin.
                                                       radish tops.............. 0.1       (fat basis)...... 0.15

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    dieldrin                                           Fruit (other than citrus) 0.1       Raw cereals
    (cont'd)                                           Citrus fruit............. 0.05      (other than
                                                       Rice (rough)............. 0.02      rice)............ 0.02
                                                       Potatoes................. 0.02      Eggs (shell-free. 0.1
    difolatan
    (see captafol)

    dimethoate             1968b,         0.02         Tree fruit (including                                          Residues to be determined
                           1971b                       citrus).................. 2                                    as dimethoate and its oxygen
                                                       Tomatoes and peppers..... 1                                    analogue and expressed as
                                                       Other vegetables......... 2                                    dimethoate.

    dimethrin              1965b

    dinocap                1970b

    dioxithion             1969b          0.0015       Pome fruit............... 5a                                   Residues of cis- and
                                                       Grapes................... 2a                                   trans-isomers of principal
                                                       Citrus fruit............. 3a                                   active ingredient to be
                                                       Meat, excluding poultry                                        determined and expressed
                                                       (fat basis).............. 1a                                   as sum of both.

    diphenyl               1967b,         0.125        Citrus fruit............. 110
                           1968b

    diphenylamine          1970b,         0.025        Apples................... 10

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    diquat (cation)        1971b,         0.002a       Rice (in husk)........... 5a                                   # To be reviewed in 1972, not
                                                       Rape seed, sorghum....... 2a                                   1973 as listed on p. 40 of
                                                       Peas, beans, sunflower                                         Ref. 1971a.
                                                       seed..................... 0.1c
                                                       Onions, potatoes, maize,
                                                       rice (polished).......... 0.1c
                                                       Edible oils (sesame seed,
                                                       sunflower seed, rape seed,
                                                       cottonseed).............. 0.1c

    dithiocarbamates,      1965b,         0.025b                                                                      ADI applies to parent
    dimethyl               1968b,                                                                                     compound or to sum of 
    (ferbam,               1971b                                                                                      residues of all compounds
    thiram, and ziram)                                                                                                present.
                                                                                                                      # To be reviewed in 1973, not
                                                                                                                      1972 as recorded in Annex I
                                                                                                                      of Ref. 1971a.

    dithiocarbamates,      1965b,         0.025b                                                                      ADI applies to parent
    ethylene bis           1968b,                                                                                     compound or to sum of residues
    (mancozeb, maneb,      1971b                                                                                       of all compounds present (see
    and zineb, including                                                                                              mancozeb).
    zineb derived from                                                                                                # To be reviewed in 1973, not
    nabam plus zinc                                                                                                   1972 as recorded in Annex I
    sulfate)                                                                                                          of Ref. 1971a.

    DNOC                   1965b

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    endosulfan             1968b,         0.0075       # Tea (dry, manufactured) 30                                   To be measured and reported
                           1969b,                      Fruit, vegetables........ 2                                    as total endosulfan A and
                           1972b                       # Cottonseed............. 0.5                                  B and endosulfan sulfate.
                                                       # Cottonseed oil (crude). 0.2
                                                       # Rice (unpolished)...... 0.1

    endrin                 1965b,         0.0002       Cottonseed, cottonseed oil          Milk and                   All recommendations are
                           1971b                       (crude).................. 0.1       milk                       total figures for endrin plus
                                                       Edible cottonseed and               products                   delta-keto-endrin.
                                                       maize oil................ 0.02      (fat basis)...... 0.02
                                                       Apples beat, barley,                Fat of
                                                       sorghum, rice (husked               Poultry.......... 1
                                                       and/or polished)......... 0.02      Eggs (shell-free) 0.02

    ethion                 1969b,         0.00125      Grapes................... 2a                                   The proviso "at slaughter"
                           1970b,                      Other fruit.............. 1a                                   made for meat at 1968 Meeting
                                                       Vegetables............... 0.5a                                 withdrawn. Distinction
                                                       Tea...................... 7a                                   between blended and straight
                                                       Meat (fat basis)......... 2.5a                                 tea withdrawn.

    ethoxyquin             1970b,         0.06         Apples, pears............ 3                                    ADI and tolerances erroneously
                                                                                                                      designated as temporary in
                                                                                                                      Appendix I of Ref. 1970a.

    ethylene dibromide                                                                                                See 1,2-dibromoethane.

    ethylene dichloride                                                                                               See 1,2-dichloroethane.

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    ethylene oxide         1965c,
                           1969b,
                           1970a,
                           1972

    fenchlorfos            1969b          0.01         Whole milk............... 0.04a                                Residues of fenchlorfos and
                                                       Egg yolk................. 0.05a                                oxygen analogues to be
                                                       Meat (fat basis)......... 7.5a                                 determined and expressed
                                                                                                                      as fenchlorfos.

    fenthion               1972b,         0.0005d      Apples, peaches, cherries,                                     Tolerances for fenthion and
                                                       lettuce, fat of meat..... 2d                                   its major metabolites,
                                                       Cabbage, cauliflower,                                          determined separately or
                                                       olives, olive oil........ 1d                                   together and expressed as
                                                       Grapes, oranges, peas,                                         fenthion.
                                                       meat..................... 0.5d
                                                       Squash................... 0.2d
                                                       Wheat, rice, milk products
                                                       (fat basis).............. 0.1d
                                                       Milk (whole)............. 0.05d

    fentin                 1971b          0.0005       Celery.......             1                                    Triphenyl tin considered in
                                                       Sugarbeet,    see                                              FAO/WHO 1965b. Tolerances on
                                                       carrots...... remarks     0.2                                  root crops expressed on
                                                       Potatoes,                                                      "soil-free basis". Tolerances
                                                       celeriac.....             0.1                                  to refer to the total amount
                                                       Peanuts (shelled)........ 0.05                                 of fentin compounds present,
                                                                                                                      expressed as fentin hydroxide.

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

                                                                                                                      (Inorganic tin is not included
                                                                                                                      in these tolerances.)
                                                                                                                      "Requirements" from 1970
                                                                                                                      Meeting Ref. 1971a) to be
                                                                                                                      reviewed in 1972.

    fenitrothion           1970b,         0.001c       Apples, cherries, grapes,           Milk                       Figures for milk products
                                                       lettuce.................. 0.5c      products                   erroneous in Ref. 1970a.
                                                       Red cabbage, tea (green at          (fat basis)...... 0.05c    # Date for review postponed
                                                       harvest)................. 0.3c      Meat or fat                to 1974 to provide longer
                                                       Tomatoes................. 0.2c       of meat.......... 0.03c    period for experiments.
                                                       Cocoa.................... 0.1c       Milk (whole)..... 0.002c

    ferbam                 1965b,         0.025b                                                                      See dithiocarbamates.
                           1968b

    folpet                 1970b,         0.16b        Currants (fresh)......... 30b                                  Recommendations apply
                                                       Grapes blueberries....... 25b                                  only to parent compound.
                                                       Cherries, raspberries.... 15b
                                                       Apples, citrus fruit..... 10b
                                                       Tomatoes,................ 5b
                                                       Cucumber, cantaloupe
                                                       (whole), water melon
                                                       (whole), onions.......... 2b

    formothion             1970b,                      Strawberries............. 0.3                                  Residues present as dimethoate
                                                       Black currants........... 2                                    to be covered by
                                                                                                                      recommendations for dimethoate.

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    heptachlor             1967b,         0.0005       Pineapple (edible                   Milk and                   Residues of heptachlor and
                           1968b,                      portions)................ 0.01      milk                       its epoxide to be determined
                           1969b,                                                          products                   separately and the sum to be
                           1970b,                                                          (fat basis)...... 0.15     expressed as heptachlor.
                           1971b                                                           Fat of meat                Certain of these practical
                                                                                           and poultry...... 0.2      residue limits may include
                                                                                           Raw cereals                residues resulting from
                                                                                           tomatoes,                  applications to soil or seed.
                                                                                           cottonseed,
                                                                                           soya beans,
                                                                                           edible soya
                                                                                           bean oil......... 0.02
                                                                                           Vegetables
                                                                                           (except where
                                                                                           otherwise
                                                                                           specified),
                                                                                           sugar beet,                # Sugar beet erroneously
                                                                                           eggs (shell-free) 0.05     omitted from Ref. 1971a.
                                                                                           Carrots.......... 0.2
                                                                                           Crude soya
                                                                                           bean oil......... 0.5
                                                                                           Citrus fruit..... 0.01

    hexachlorobenzene      1970b          see                                              Fat of cattle,             Tentative negligible daily
                                          remarks)                                         sheep,                     intake of 0.0006 mg/kg
                                                                                           goats, and                 established (To be reviewed
                                                                                           poultry.......... 1b       in 1973. See monograph.)
                                                                                           Eggs (shell-free) 1b

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

                                                                                           Milk products.... 0.3b
                                                                                           Raw wheat........ 0.05b
                                                                                           Cereal products
                                                                                           (from wheat),
                                                                                           milk (whole)..... 0.01b

    hydrogen cyanide       1965c,         0.05         Raw cereals.............. 75
                           1969b                       Flour.................... 6

    hydrogen               1967b,         Not          Flour and other milled                                         Hydrogen phosphide present
    phosphide              1968b,         necessary    cereal products, breakfast                                     as such or derived from any
                           1970b,         (see         cereals, dried vegetables,                                     phosphide present. Good
                           1972           remarks)     spices,                                                        usage practices should
                                                       # nuts, peanuts, dried                                         ensure that residues are not
                                                       fruit, cocoa beans, other                                      detectable at time of
                                                       dried foods.............. 0.01                                 consumption.
                                                       Raw cereals.............. 0.1

    lead                   1969b
    (as lead arsenate)

    Lindane                1967b,         0.0125       Vegetables............... 3         Eggs (yolk)...... 0.2      Referred to as "gamma"
                           1968b,                      Cranberries, cherries,              Milk and                   BHC prior to 1967.
                           1969b,                      grapes, plums, and                  milk
                           1971b                       strawberries............. 3         products
                                                       Fat of meat (cattle,                (fat basis)...... 0.1
                                                       pigs, sheep)............. 2         Poultry (fat
                                                       Beans (dried)............ 1         basis)........... 0.7
                                                       Raw cereals.............. 0.5

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    malathion              1967b,         0.02         Raw cereals nuts, dried                                        The tolerances are based on
                           1968b,                      fruits................... 8                                    residues likely to be found
                           1969b,                      Whole meal and flour from                                      at harvest. Residues decline
                           1971b                       rye and wheat............ 2                                    rapidly during storage or
                                                       Citrus fruit............. 4                                    monograph).
                                                       Blackberries, raspberries
                                                       lettuce, endive, cabbage,
                                                       spinach.................. 8
                                                       Cherries, peaches, plums. 6
                                                       Broccoli................. 5
                                                       Tomatoes, kale, turnips.. 3
                                                       Beans (green), apples.... 2
                                                       Strawberries, celery..... 1
                                                       Pears, blueberries, peas
                                                       (in pod), cauliflower,
                                                       peppers, eggplant,
                                                       kohlrabi, roots (except
                                                       turnips), Swiss
                                                       chard, collards.......... 0.5

    mancozeb               1968b          0.025b       Potatoes................. 1b                                   Temporary tolerance applies
                           1971b                                                                                      to parent compound or to
                                                                                                                      sum of all dithiocarbamates
                                                                                                                      present.

    maneb                  1965b,         0.025b                                                                      See dithiocarbamates.

    methoxychlor           1965b          0.1

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    methyl bromide         1967b,                      # Nuts, peanuts.......... 100e                                 Guideline figures relate only
                           1968b,                      # Raw cereals, cocoa                                           to unchanged fumigant.
                           1972                        beans.................... 50e                                  (see also "bromide".)
                                                       # Dried fruits........... 20e
                                                       # Milled cereal products. 10f
                                                       # Bread, other cooked
                                                       cereal products, cocoa
                                                       products, dried fruits,
                                                       nuts, peanuts............ 0.5g
    mevinphos              1965b

    MGK 264                1968b

    nabam                  1965b,         0.025b                                                                      See entries for
                           1968b                                                                                      "dithiocarbamates and "zineb"

    omethoate              1972b          0.0005d      Apples, apricots, cherries,                                    See also dimethoate and
                                                       grapes, peaches, pears,                                        formothion.
                                                       plums.................... 2d

    organomercurial        1967b                                                           Possible figures are       Monograph in Ref. 1967b is
    compounds              1968b                                                           suggested in Ref.          entitled "phenylmercury
                                                                                           1968b, p. 208.             acetate".

    orthophenylphenol                                                                                                 See 2-phenylphenol.

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    oxydemeton-methyl      1968b,         Withdrawn                                                                   Referred to as
                           1969b          at Joint                                                                    demeton-S-methylsulfoxide
                                          Meeting                                                                     in publications prior to
                                          in 1968                                                                     Ref. 1968b.
                                          (Ref. 1969a)

    oxythioquinox          1969b,                                                                                     Renamed
                                                                                                                      quinomethionate.

    paraquat (cation)      1971b          0.0007a      Cottonseed............... 0.2a                                 To be reviewed in 1972, not
                                                       Potatoes................. 0.1a                                 1973 as listed on p. 42 of
                                                       Cottonseed meal,                                               Ref. 1971a.
                                                       cottonseed oil (edible),
                                                       sugar cane juice......... 0.05a

    parathion              1965b,         0.005        Vegetables (except                                             Reexamination of data at
                           1968b                       carrots)................. 0.7                                  1969 Meeting showed that
                           1970b,                      Peaches, apricots, citrus                                      tolerance recommendations
                           1971b                       fruit.................... 1                                    for two groups of fruit had
                                                       Other fresh fruit........ 0.5                                  been recorded wrongly in
                                                                                                                      previous reports.

    parathion-methyl       1969b          0.001a       Fruit, cole crops,                                             Cucurbits, include
                                                       cucurbits................ 0.2a                                 cantaloupes, melons and
                                                       Other vegetables......... 1a                                   cucumbers.
                                                       Cottonseed oil........... 0.05a

    phenyl mercury                                                                                                    See organomercurial
    acetate                                                                                                           compound

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    2-phenylphenol                        1            Cantaloupes (whole)...... 120                                  Residues expressed as
    (and sodium salt)                                  Pears.................... 25                                   2-phenylphenol.
                                                       Carrots, peaches......... 20                                   Referred to as
                                                       Sweet potatoes, apples,                                        orthophenyl-phenol on p. 18
                                                       plums (including fresh                                         of Ref. 1969a.
                                                       prunes).................. 15
                                                       Citrus fruit, cucumbers,
                                                       peppers, cantaloupes
                                                       (edible portions),
                                                       pineapple, tomatoes...... 10
                                                       Cherries, nectarines..... 3

    phosphamidon           1965b,         0.001        Raw cereals.............. 0.1a                                 Expressed as the sum of
                           1967b,                      Apples, pears............ 0.5a                                 phosphamidon and its
                           1969b,                      Citrus fruit............. 0.4a                                 desethyl derivative.
                           1972b                       Other fruit, cole crops.. 0.2a
                                                       Tomatoes, lettuce,
                                                       cucumbers, water-melons.. 0.1a
                                                       Other vegetables (except
                                                       root vegetables for which
                                                       a tolerance is not
                                                       required)................ 0.2a

    phosphine                                                                                                         See hydrogen phosphide.

                                                                                                                                               
    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    piperonyl              1967b,         0.03a        Raw cereals.............. 20a                                  Only data for codfish
    butoxide               1968b,                      Fresh fruit and vegetables,                                    examined at 1969 Meeting.
                           1970b                       dried fruit and vegetables,
                                                       oil-seeds, tree nuts..... 8a
                                                       Dried codfish............ 1a

    propham                1965b

    pyrethrins             1967b,         0.04a        Raw cereals.............. 3a                                   Only data for codfish
                           1968b,                      Fresh fruit and vegetables,                                    examined at 1969 Meeting.
                           1970b                       dried fruit and vegetables,
                                                       oil-seeds, tree nuts..... 1a
                                                       Dried codfish............ 0.1a

    quinomethionate        1969b,                                                                                     Listed in Ref. 1969b as
                                                                                                                      oxythioquinox, subsequently
                                                                                                                      renamed.

    quintozene             1970b          0.001b       Mushrooms................ 10b
                                                       Peanuts (whole).......... 5b
                                                       Bananas (whole).......... 1b
                                                       Lettuce, peanuts
                                                       (kernels)................ 0.3b
                                                       Beans (navy), potatoes... 0.2b
                                                       Tomatoes................. 0.1b
                                                       Cottonseed............... 0.03b
                                                       Broccoli, cabbage........ 0.02b
                                                       Bananas (pulp), beans
                                                       (other than navy),
                                                       peppers (bell)........... 0.01b

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    2,4,5-T                1971b

    thiabendazole          1971b,         0.05         # Apples, pears.......... 10
                           1972b                       Citrus fruit............. 6
                                                       Bananas.................. 3
                                                       Bananas (pulp)........... 0.4

    thiometon              1970b

    thiram                 1965b,         0.025b                                                                      See dithiocarbamates.
                           1968b

    toxaphene              1969b

    trichlorfon            1972b          0.01d        Peppers.................. 1d
                                                       Bananas (pulp), peaches,
                                                       Brussels sprouts,
                                                       cauliflower, kale, sweet
                                                       corn (kernels and cobs),
                                                       celery, beet, wheat...... 0.2d
                                                       Barley, maize, apples,
                                                       cherries, oranges,
                                                       strawberries, artichokes,
                                                       cabbage, cowpeas, beans
                                                       (blackeyed, green and lima),
                                                       mustard greens, pumpkins,
                                                       tomatoes, turnips,
                                                       cottonseed, linseed, rape
                                                       seed, safflower

                                                                                                                                               

    Pesticide              FAO/WHO        Maximum      Tolerances2                         Practical limits2          Remarks
                           publication    acceptable   and                                 (ppm)
                           dates          daily        guideline levels3
                           (see list of   intake       (ppm)
                           references     (mg/kg
                           in             body
                           Annex II)1     weight)
                                                                                                                                               
                                                            Blank spaces indicate no recommendations made

    trichlorfon                                        seed, soya beans,
    (cont'd)                                           peanuts (shelled)........ 0.1d
                                                       Meat, fat byproducts and
                                                       offal of cattle and pigs. 0.1d
                                                       Milk (whole)............. 0.05d
                                                       Sugar beet............... 0.05d

    trichloroethylene      1969b                                                                                      1969 Meeting decided not
                                                                                                                      necessary to continue to
                                                                                                                      study this compound.

    trichloronat           1972b

    tricyclohexyltin       1971b          0.0075c      Apples, pears............ 2c                                   Expressed as the parent
    hydroxide                                                                                                         compound.

    triphenyltin           1965b                                                                                      Also see fentin compounds.

    zineb                  1965b,                                                                                     (Including zineb derived
                           1968b                                                                                      from nabam plus zinc
                                                                                                                      sulfate.
                                                                                                                      See dithiocarbamates.

    ziram                  1965b,         0.025b                                                                      See dithiocarbamates.
                           1968b
                                                                                                                                               

    * Further details concerning the recommendations will be found in the original documents referred to in the second column. Explanatory notes
    are given at the end of this table

    # Indicates additions or modifications made by the 1971 Joint Meeting concerning compounds considered at previous meetings.

    1 The dates of publication refer to the first complete or completely revised monograph. Where more than one date is given, later dates refer
    to addenda to the monograph in the first reference. Where a monograph has been completely revised no mention is made of any earlier obsolete
    ones. Where the only date given is 1972, the compound was considered at the 1971 Joint Meeting for the first time.

    2 Unless otherwise indicated, the tolerance and practical residue limits should apply as soon as practicable after harvest to the raw
    agricultural products moving in commerce and prior to processing. For commodities entering international trade, tolerances are applicable, unless
    otherwise indicated, at the point of entry into a country or as soon as practicable thereafter. All levels refer to contents or samples
    representative of individual consignments or lots.

    a Temporary: results of work to be made available not later than 30 June 1972.

    b Temporary: results of work to be made available not later than 30 June 1973.

    c Temporary: results of work to be made available not later than 30 June 1974.

    d Temporary: results of work to be made available not later than 30 June 1975.

    3 Guideline levels are printed in italics. They are included to assist administering authorities, even though ADIs have not been established
    for the individual fumigants. The levels recorded are those that need not be exceeded if good practices are followed. They are intended to be
    applied at one of the stages indicated below and in the knowledge that when so applied residues of unchanged fumigants in food as offered for
    consumption would not exceed an amount close to the limit of determination by present analytical methods:

    e To apply at point of entry into a country and, in the case of cereal for milling, if product has been freely exposed to air for a period of
    at least 24 hours after fumigation and before sampling.

    f To apply to milled cereal products to be subjected to baking or cooking.

    g To apply to commodity at point of retail sale or when offered for consumption.
    

    ANNEX II

    REFERENCES

    FAO (1966)  Report of the Second Session of the FAO Working Party on 
     Pesticide Residues (Extract).  FAO Meeting Report, No. PL/1965/12

    FAO/WHO (1958)  Procedures for the testing of intentional food 
     additives to establish their safety for use; second report of the 
     Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. FAO Nutrition 
     Meetings Report Series, No. 17;  Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. 
     Ser., No. 144

    FAO/WHO (1961)  Evaluation of the carcinogenic hazards of food 
     additives; fifth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on 
     Food Additives. FAO Nutrition Studies, No. 29;  Wld Hlth Org. 
     techn. Rep. Ser., No. 220

    FAO/WHO (1962)  Principles governing consumer safety in relation to 
     pesticide residues; report of a meeting of a WHO Expert Committee 
     on Pesticide Residues held jointly with the FAO Panel of Experts 
     on the Use of Pesticides in Agriculture. FAO Plant Production and 
     Protection Division Report, No. PL/1961/11;  Wld Hlth Org. techn. 
     Rep. Ser., 1962, No. 240

    FAO/WHO (1964)  Evaluation of the toxicity of pesticide residues in 
     food; report of a Joint Meeting of the FAO Committee on Pesticides 
     in Agriculture and the WHO Expert Committee on Pesticide Residues. 
     FAO Meeting Report, No. PL/1963/13; WHO/Food Add./23 (1964)

    FAO/WHO (1965a)  Evaluation of the toxicity of pesticide residues in 
     food; report of the Second Joint Meeting of the FAO Committee on 
     Pesticides in Agriculture and the WHO Expert Committee on Pesticide 
     Residues. FAO Meeting Report, No. PL/1965/10; WHO/Food Add./26.65

    FAO/WHO (1965b)  Evaluation of the toxicity of pesticide residues, 
     in food. FAO Meeting Report, No. PL:1965/10/1; WHO/Food Add./27.65

    FAO/WHO (1965c)  Evaluation of the hazards to consumers resulting 
     from the use of fumigants in the protection of food. FAO Meeting 
     Report, No. PL:1965/10/2; WHO/Food Add./28.65

    FAO/WHO (1967a)  Pesticide residues in food; joint report of the FAO 
     Working Party on Pesticide Residues and the WHO Expert Committee on 
     Pesticide Residues. FAO Agricultural Studies, No. 73;  Wld Hlth 
     Org. techn. Rep. Ser., No. 370

    FAO/WHO (1967b)  Evaluation of some pesticide residues in food. FAO,
    PL: CP/15; WHO/Food Add./67.32

    FAO/WHO (1968a)  Pesticide residues; report of the 1967 Joint 
     Meeting of the FAO Working Party and the WHO Expert Committee. FAO 
     Meeting Report, No. PL:1967/M/11;  Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 
    No. 391

    FAO/WHO (1968b) 1967  evaluations of some pesticide residues in food.
     FAO/PL:1967/M/11/1; WHO/Food Add./68.30

    FAO/WHO (1968c)  Specifications for the identity and purity of food 
     additives and their toxicological evaluation: some flavouring 
     substances and non-nutritive sweetening agents; eleventh report of 
     the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee an Food Additives. FAO Nutrition 
     Meetings Report Series, No. 44;  Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 
    No. 383

    FAO/WHO (1969a)  Pesticide residues in food; report of the 1968 
     Joint Meeting of the FAO Working Party of Experts on Pesticide 
     Residues and the WHO Expert Committee on Pesticide Residues. FAO 
     Agricultural Studies, No. 78;  Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 
    No. 417

    FAO/WHO (1969b)  1968 evaluations of some pesticide residues in 
     food. FAO/PL:1968/M/9/1; WHO/Food Add./69.35

    FAO/WHO (1969c)  Specifications for the identity oral purity of food 
     additives and their toxicological evaluation: some antibiotics; 
     twelfth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food 
     Additives. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 45;  Wld Hlth 
     Org. techn. Rep. Ser., No. 430

    FAO/WHO (1969d)  Report of the Fourth Session of the Codex Committee 
     on Pesticide Residues. Alinorm 70/24

    FAO/WHO (1970a)  Pesticide residues in food; report of the 1969 
     Joint Meeting of the FAO Working Party of Experts on Pesticide 
     Residues and the WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues. FAO 
     Agricultural Studies, No. 84;  Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 
    No. 458

    FAO/WHO (1970b)  1969 evaluations of some pesticide residues in 
     food. FAO/PL:1969/M/17/1; WHO/Food Add./70.38

    FAO/WHO (1970c)  Report of the Fifth Session of the Codex Committee 
     on Pesticide Residues. Alinorm 71/24

    FAO/WHO (1971a)  Pesticide residues in food; report of the 1970 
     Joint Meeting of the FAO Working Party of Experts on Pesticide 
     Residues and the WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues. FAO 
     Agricultural Studies, No. 87;  Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 
    No. 474

    FAO/WHO (1971b)  1970 evaluations of some pesticide residues in 
     food. FAO/AGP/1970/M/12/1; WHO/Food Add./71.42

    FAO/WHO (1971c)  Report of a meeting of an Ad Hoc  Working Group of 
     the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues. Alinorm 72/24

    FAO/WHO (1972b)  1971 evaluations of some pesticide residues in 
     food. FAO/AGP/1971/M/9/1;  WHO Pesticide Residues Series, No. 1

    WHO (1967)  Procedures for investigating intentional and 
     unintentional food additives; report of a WHO Scientific Group. Wld 
     Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., No. 348
    

    ANNEX III

    ADDITIONS AND AMENDMENTS TO THE GLOSSARY

    Limit of determination

    The limit of determination of a method of analysis is the least
    concentration of a pesticide residue that can be quantitatively
    measured in the specified commodity with an acceptable degree of
    certainty.

    Limit of detection

    The limit of detection of a method of analysis is the least
    concentration of a pesticide residue at which its qualitative presence
    in a specified commodity can be reliably indicated.

    Pesticide residue

    A pesticide residue is a residue in or on a food of any chemicals used
    for the control of pests. The term also includes derivatives of such
    chemicals. The amounts are expressed in parts by weight of the
    chemical and/or derivative per million parts by weight of the food
    (ppm).

     Explanatory note

    It is proposed that, in interpreting this definition consideration
    also be given to any substance that may, at a given time, be known to
    be derived from the product and that may be held to influence the
    toxicology of the residue. Residues from unknown sources (i.e.,
    "background" residues) will be considered as well as those from known
    uses of the chemical in question. The term pesticide will be held to
    include any constituent of a pesticide used for the control of pests
    during the production, distribution, or processing of food or that may
    be administered to animals for the control of insects or arachnids in
    or on their bodies; fungicides, herbicides, and plant growth
    regulators are included. It will not apply to antibiotics or other
    chemicals administered to animals for other purposes, such as to
    stimulate their growth or to modify their reproductive behaviour; nor
    will it apply to fertilizers.

    Regulatory method of analysis

    A regulatory method of analysis is one used for the determination of a
    pesticide residue in the course of the administration of legislation
    relating to the subject.

     Explanatory note

    For this purpose, it is often necessary to identify the nature of the
    residue as well as to determine its concentration. Subject to any
    expression of requirements in the particular legislation, the
    accuracy, precision, and limit of determination of a regulatory method
    need be sufficient only to demonstrate clearly whether or not a
    tolerance level has been exceeded. Usually, regulatory methods are not
    specified in pesticide residues legislation, and at any given time
    there may be a number of methods suitable for a particular purpose.

    Referee method of analysis

    A referee method of analysis is one that has been specified, or agreed
    upon by the parties concerned, for use in the event of a dispute,
    e.g., concerning the level or nature of a pesticide residue.
    

    ANNEX IV

    (Part 1)

    The report on the 1971 meeting (FAO/WHO 1972a) included the following
    section:

    3.  FUMIGANTS

    The 1969 Joint Meeting (FAO/WHO, 1970a) noted reports of the
    occurrence of residues of methyl bromide and 1,2-dibromoethane
    (ethylene dibromide) in unchanged form in certain foods and decided
    that the residues of these two fumigants together with those from
    carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichloroethane (ethylene
    dichloride) and ethylene oxide should be reviewed at a future meeting.

    The 1970 Joint Meeting (FAO/WHO, 1971a) suggested that chloropicrin
    and hydrogen phosphide should be added to the list of fumigants to be
    reviewed.

    The present Meeting reviewed the pattern of use and the information on
    residues in food for each of these fumigants, except chloropicrin.
    This compound was not reviewed since its use as a fumigant on foods is
    small and no new information was available. The Meeting did not review
    the toxicological information but recommended that such a review be
    undertaken at a future meeting in the light of the new evaluations of
    the information on residues of these fumigants.

    As part of the present review, special consideration was given to the
    problem of residues of the bromide ion, which can arise in food from a
    number of sources, including the bromine-containing fumigants.

    3.1  Residues of unchanged fumigant

    The fumigants are characterized by their high volatility relative to
    most other types of pesticide. The total residue at the end of the
    fumigation period consists of "physically held" (sorbed) unchanged
    fumigant and also the products of any chemical reaction between sorbed
    fumigant and the food. The process of physical uptake is reversible
    and during subsequent storage, handling, and processing of the food
    the physically sorbed fumigant tends to disappear by volatilization
    and diffusion away from the food, and possibly also by further
    chemical reaction with the food. The problem of the residual unchanged
    fumigant is referred to in this section of the report. The important
    problems of residual reaction products and the effects, if any, on the
    nutritive properties of the treated food were not discussed by the
    Meeting. They are referred to where appropriate in the separate
    monographs.

    It has previously been generally accepted that after use in accordance
    with good practice no significant residue of the unchanged fumigant
    reaches the consumer and some countries setting national tolerances
    for pesticide residues have exempted a number of these fumigant
    compounds from the requirement for establishment of a tolerance.

    More sensitive and more selective methods of fumigant residue analysis
    have recently been developed and these have been used to follow
    changes in the amounts of unchanged fumigant in certain foods after
    fumigation. The results confirm that the amount of the residual
    unchanged fumigant continues to decline during storage, handling, or
    processing, but indicate that in some circumstances small amounts may
    still be detectable in food when offered for consumption.

    The Meeting stressed the desirability of reducing to a minimum such
    residues in food by the adoption of good practice in handling the food
    after fumigation.

    The Meeting considered the 5 fumigants carbon disulfide, carbon
    tetrachloride, 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide),
    1,2-dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) and methyl bromide and
    indicated for each of them residue levels (parts per million) in raw
    cereals, in milled cereal products, and in bread and other cooked
    cereal products that need not be exceeded if good practices are
    followed. These levels are listed below:

                                                                                                   
                       carbon       carbon      1,2-dibromoethane   1,2-dichloroethane   methyl
                      disulfide  tetrachloride                                           bromide
                                                                                               

    In raw cereals at
    point of entry
    into a country or
    when supplied
    for millinga         10          50               20                  50             50

    In milled cereal
    products that will
    be subjected to
    baking or cooking    2           10               5                   10             10

    In bread and
    other cooked cereal
    productsb            0.5         0.05             0.1                 0.1            0.5
                                                                                               

    a Provided that the commodity is freely exposed to the air for a period of at least
        24 hours after the end of treatment before sampling.

    b The levels for these commodities are at or about the present limit of determination.
    
    For the above 5 compounds the residue of unchanged fumigant in the
    food as offered for consumption was not expected to exceed an amount
    close to the limit of determination by present analytical methods.

    A special difficulty arises in the application of tolerances at the
    point of entry of a commodity into a country. Since fumigation is
    frequently undertaken immediately before shipping, or even during
    transit, in ships' holds or containers, the amounts of volatile or
    reactive residues will be changing rapidly at the time of discharge.
    It has therefore been specified that such produce should not be
    sampled for analysis until the commodity has been discharged,
    ventilated, or freely exposed to the air for a period of at least 24
    hours after the end of treatment.

    For methyl bromide consideration was also given to residue levels in
    dried fruits, cocoa beans, nuts, and peanuts at the point of entry
    into a country and as offered for consumption.

    Pending a discussion in depth of the new situation created by the
    detection of residues of the unchanged fumigants in food, the Meeting
    recommended that all the foregoing residue levels be used as
    guidelines.

    For hydrogen phosphide derived from preparations containing aluminium
    phosphide existing tolerances were confirmed and extended.

    For ethylene oxide the residue pattern is especially complex and the
    Meeting recommended that further consideration should be given to this
    compound at a future meeting.

    3.2  Residues of bromide ion

    Inorganic bromide may occur in foods (a) as a result of the uptake of
    bromine from the soil, predominantly in water-soluble, ionic form;
    (b) as a result of the breakdown of methyl bromide or other
    bromine-containing fumigants applied after harvest; or (c) as a result
    of the use of other bromine-containing pesticides or food additives.
    The bromide ion in the soil may be present "naturally" or may result
    from the breakdown of bromine-containing chemicals including
    insecticides, herbicides, and soil fumigants such as methyl bromide,
    1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide) and
    1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.

    Some countries have established multiple residue tolerances for the
    bromide ion in a particular food; these differ according to specific
    pesticide uses. The Meeting concluded that the establishment of
    tolerances for the bromide ion derived from any particular source is
    of very limited value. The increase in bromide ion content resulting
    from a particular treatment can be determined only in supervised
    trials in which the bromide content is determined before and after
    treatment or, alternatively, in which an isotopically labelled
    compound is used for the treatment. However, when a food, the history
    of which is unknown or is incompletely known, is examined for

    regulatory purposes there is no means of judging from the
    determination of bromide ion what proportion arises from natural
    sources or from any one form of treatment. Furthermore, as far as is
    known, the source of the bromide ion does not affect its behaviour on
    ingestion.

    A considerable amount of information has been published from
    laboratory studies and from supervised trials on the amounts of
    bromide found in food after soil or post-harvest treatment with
    bromine-containing fumigants, including methyl bromide and
    1,2-dibromoethane. Some limited information is available on the
    amounts of background bromide present in untreated food, but it is
    clear that, for some foods, this "background" can be extremely
    variable. In particular, the amount of bromide ion "naturally" present
    in the soil is very variable and its uptake by plants, particularly
    the amount passing into green leaves, can produce an amount in the
    harvested crop that is large relative to that resulting from the
    direct use of fumigants on the crop.

    Tolerances for total bromide ion in foods have previously been
    proposed primarily to prevent the excessive use of certain
    bromine-containing pesticides rather than as a means of limiting the
    intake of bromide ion in the diet. However, where a large addition to
    the bromide ion content of a food results from the post-harvest use of
    a bromine-containing fumigant such as methyl bromide, this addition
    provides an indication of the extent of the reaction of the fumigant
    with the food and an indirect measure of methylated or other organic
    reaction products that maybe present. Where it is possible, regulation
    against the excessive formation of these residues may be as important
    as, and might possibly be more important than, the regulation of the
    bromide ion content  per se.

    For these reasons, the Meeting concluded that where there is clear
    evidence that the amount of "background" bromide ion is only a small
    part of the tolerance figure, the establishment of the tolerance does
    provide a means of controlling the use of bromine-containing
    pesticides, whereas if the "background" is large or variable then such
    a tolerance is of limited value for regulatory purposes.

    The Meeting decided that since adequate data exist showing that the
    level of "background" bromide ion in raw cereals is usually well below
    10 ppm, the existing recommended tolerance (50 ppm) may be used
    effectively for raw cereals and wholemeal flour for the regulatory
    control of the use of fumigants such as methyl bromide. It further
    agreed that, for other foods, additional and more reliable data are
    required before decisions can be taken on the practicability of
    establishing tolerances in terms of bromide ion. The Meeting therefore
    recommended that the existing temporary tolerances for bromide ion in
    foods other than raw cereals be held in abeyance until the required
    information is assembled and assessed.


    
    (Part 2)

    ANNEX IV

    (Part 2)

    Information as summarized in Tables 1 and 2 was also considered.

    AT 1971 MEETING

                                                                                                                                      

                              Chemical        Molecular    Boiling         Specific gravity        Solubility            Vapour
                              formula         weight       point, C    gas        liquid (water   in water              pressure
                                                                        (air - 1)  at 4C - 1)
                                                                                                                                      

    Carbon disulphide         CS2             76.13        46.1         2.64       1.262820        0.22g/100ml at 22    297.5
    (carbon bisulphide)

    Carbon tetrachloride      CCl4            153.84       76.8         5.32       1.59520         0.088/100ml at 20    91
    (tetrachloromethane)

    Ethylene dibromide        CH2Br.CH2Br     187.88       131.6        6.487      2.17220         0.431g/100ml at 30   11
    (1,2 - dibromoethane)

    Ethylene dichloride       CH2Cl.CH2Cl     98.97        83.5         3.42       1.25720         0.069g/100ml at 20   65
    (1,2 -dichloroethane)

                                 CH2
    Ethylene oxide             / '
    (1,2 - epoxyethane)       O  '            44.05        10.7         1.521      0.8877          Miscible              1095.0
                               \ '
                                 CH2

    Hydrogen phosphide        PH3             34.04        -87.4        1.214      -               26cc/100ml at 17     (34.2 atmos)
    (phosphine)

    Methyl bromide            CH3Br           94.94        3.6          3.27       1.732           1.34g/100ml at 25    1390
    (bromomethane)

                                                                                                                                      

                              Chemical        Molecular    Boiling         Specific gravity        Solubility            Vapour
                              formula         weight       point, C    gas        liquid (water   in water              pressure
                                                                        (air - 1)  at 4C - 1)
                                                                                                                                      

    Ethylene chlorohydrin     CH2OH.CH2Cl     80.52        128          -          1.200           Miscible
    (2 - chloroethanol)

    Ethylene bromohydrin      CH2OH.CH2BR     124.97       149          -          1.763           Miscible
    (2 - bromoethanol)

    Ethylene glycol           CH2OH.CH2OH     62.07        198          -          1.109           Miscible
    (1,2 - ethanediol)

    Diethylene glycol            CH2.CH2OH    106.12       245          -          1.120           Very soluble
                               /
                              O
                               \
                                 CH2.CH2OH
                                                                                                                                      
    


    Annex IV

    (Part 2)

    TABLE 2. SOME COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE FUMIGANT MIXTURES

                                                                  

                                     Per cent by     Per cent by
                                       volume          weight
                                                                  

    1     Ethylene dichloride            75              70
          Carbon tetrachloride           25              30
          (3:1 mixture)

    2     Ethylene dichloride            50              44
          Carbon tetrachloride           50              56
          (1:1 mixture)

    3     Ethylene dichloride            35              29
          Carbon tetrachloride           60              64
          Ethylene dibromide              5               7

    4     Ethylene dichloride            25              20
          Carbon tetrachloride           56              57
          Ethylene dibromide             14.5            20
          Inert ingredients              4.5              3

    5     Carbon disulphide              20              16.5
          Carbon tetrachloride           80              83.5

    6     Carbon disulphide              26              23
          Carbon tetrachloride            5              5.5
          Chloroform                     37              38.5
          Trichloroethylene              32              33

    7     Methyl bromide                 75              70
          Ethylene dibromide             25              30

    8     Methyl bromide                 36              30
          Ethylene dibromide             64              70
                                                                  

    

    ANNEX V

    1971 JOINT MEETING OF THE FAO WORKING PARTY OF EXPERTS ON PESTICIDE
    RESIDUES AND THE WHO EXPERT COMMITTEE ON PESTICIDE RESIDUES

    Geneva, 22-29 November 1971

    Members of the FAO Working Party of Experts on Pesticide Residues:

    Dr D. C. Abbott, Senior Superintendent. Environmental Chemistry,
    Laboratory of the Government Chemist, Department of Trade and
    Industry, London, England

    Dr A. F. H. Besemer, Head, Pesticides Division, Plant Protection
    Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Wageningen, Netherlands

    Mr W. Burns Brown, Pest Infestation Control Laboratory, Ministry of
    Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Slough, Bucks., England

    Dr K. R. Hill, Supervisory Chemist, Agricultural Research Service,
    Entomology Research Division, US Department of Agriculture,
    Beltsville. Md., USA  (Vice-Chairman)

    Dr P. E. Koivistoinen, Director, Institute of Food Chemistry and
    Technology, University of Helsinki, Finland

    Mr J. T. Snelson, Pesticides Co-ordinator, Department of Primary
    Industry, Canberra, Australia  (Rapporteur)

    Members of the WHO Expert Committee on Pesticide Residues:

    Professor F. Coulston, Director, Institute of Experimental Pathology
    and Toxicology, The Albany, Medical College of Union University,
    Albany. N. Y., USA

    Professor I. Nir, Head, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Ministry
    of Health, Jerusalem., Israel

    Dr Y. Omori, Head, Department of Pharmacology, National Institute of
    Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo, Japan

    Dr E. Poulsen, Director, Institute of Toxicology, National Food
    Institute, Soborg, Denmark  (Chairman)

    Dr F. J. C. Roe, Research Co-ordinator, Tobacco Research Council,
    London, England  (Rapporteur)

    Professor R. Truhaut, Director, Toxicological Research Centre, Faculty
    of Pharmacy, University of Paris, France

    Secretariat:

    Dr C. Agthe. Senior Scientist, Chemical Carcinogenesis Unit,
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France

    Dr R. L. Baron, Office of Pesticides Programs, Environmental
    Protection Agency, Washington, D. C., USA  (Consultant)

    Dr P. E. Berteau, Scientist, Food Additive, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland

    Mr D. J. Clegg. Head, Pesticide Section, Division of Toxicology, Food
    and Drug Directorate, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada  (Consultant)

    Dr F. C. Lu, Chief Scientist, Food Additives, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
     (Joint Secretary)

    Dr L. Tomatis, Chief, Chemical Carcinogenesis Unit, International
    Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France

    Dr E. E. Turtle, Pesticides Specialist, Plant Protection Service, FAO,
    Rome, Italy  (Joint Secretary)

    Dr F. P. W. Winteringham, Head, Pesticide Residues and Pollution
    Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Agriculture,
    Vienna, Austria
    

    ANNEX VI

    LINDANE

    Evaluation made at the 1970 Joint Meeting of the FAO Working Party of
    Experts on Pesticide Residues and the WHO Expert Committee on
    Pesticide Residues

    Explanation

    This pesticide was evaluated in 1966 as gamma-BHC and again in 1967.
    Further data were considered in 1968 and in 1969 and summarized in
    monograph addenda. The following monograph addendum summarizes
    information considered at the 1970 meeting.

    EVALUATION FOR ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE

    Biochemical aspects

    Absorption, distribution and excretion

    Following oral ingestion lindane is absorbed from the digestive tract
    and once absorbed it is rapidly distributed, primarily to fat depots.
    Kitamura, at al. (1970) showed in mice that following an oral dose of
    about 5 mg/kg approximately 90% of the material had left the digestive
    tract and was absorbed into the body within six hours. Degradation was
    rapid as 80% of the material taken into the body was eliminated within
    3-6 hours. Following continuous feeding at levels of 0.1 to 100 ppm
    equilibrium between in-take and total body burden was reached within
    10 days.

    Lindane administered to pregnant ewes at an oral daily dose of 1 or 5
    mg/kg was found to pass the placental barrier. The concentration in
    lambs approximated that found in the ewes (Harrison and Mol, 1969).

    Biodegradation

    Lindane has been demonstrated to be degraded in vivo and in vitro
    in mammals, insects and plants. Grover and Sims (1965) showed that
    lindane and its monodehydrochlorination product were metabolized
    in vivo in rats to similar products. The major urinary metabolites
    following multiple intraperitoneal injections of lindane at 40 mg/kg
    were 2,4,5- and 2,3,5-trichlorophenol appearing both free and
    conjugated. Small quantities of 2,4-dichlorophenylmercapturic acid
    were also present. Intraperitoneal injection of
    gamma-2,3,4,5,6-pentachlocyclohex-1-ene at 250 mg/kg daily resulted in
    the same pattern of metabolites. Lindane was apparently
    dehydrochlorinated to the pentachlocylohexene and further degraded by
    dehydrochlorination and aromatic oxidation followed by conjugation and
    excretion. [This mechanism was reviewed by Ernst, (1967) and Klein and
    Korte, (1970)]

    The metabolic fate of lindane in insects follows similar routes of
    dehydrochlorination with little, if any, oxidation (Reed and Forgash,
    1969). Lindane was apparently metabolized to two isomeric forms of
    pentachlocylohexene which was further degraded to
    1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene and several other products. Oxidation of
    the aromatic nucleus followed by conjugation was not examined.
    Enzymatic degradation of lindane has been shown in vitro to differ
    in insects and mammals. Ishida and Dahm (1965) found an insect soluble
    enzyme fraction in the presence of reduced glutathione degraded
    lindane where a similar preparation from rabbit and rat was inactive.

    Lindane has been shown to affect drug-metabolizing enzymes in
    mammalian liver. Sung and Chou (1966) found that pentobarbital
    metabolism was reduced in vitro two hours after lindane was
    administered to mice and rats intraperitoneally at 25 mg/kg. When the
    pretreatment interval was increased to 48 hours pentobarbital
    metabolism was increased presumably through the inductive effects of
    lindane on the drug metabolizing enzymes in the liver. Chadwick, et
    al. (1970) found in rats that two-week pretreatment with lindane
    accelerated the metabolism of a single oral dose of 14C-lindane. The
    self-inductive effect of lindane was believed to be due to a mechanism
    that differed from that seen with DDT. A single oral dose of lindane
    (25 mg/kg) increased the urinary excretion of ascorbic acid in rats
    for up to 25 days. Similar effects noted with DDT disappeared within
    one day (Sung and Chou, 1966).

    Rats fed lindane in their diet for 10 months at levels of 100, 200,
    and 300 ppm showed marked changes in ascorbic acid metabolism. This
    was reflected in ascorbinaemia cyclic variations over the 10-month
    period and increased elimination of ascorbic acid. Urinary
    17-oxosteroid excretion was higher in lindane treated rats (Petrescu,
    1969).

    Special studies

    Embryotoxicity

    Marliac (1964) injected hen eggs with 5 mg of lindane per egg with no
    pronounced decrease in hatchability. Smith et al. (1970) reported that
    2 mg caused no apparent toxicity.

    Toxicological studies

    Acute toxicity

                                                                 

                                  LD50
         Species     Route        (mg/kg)        Reference
                                                                 

         Rat         Oral          88-91         Gaines, 1969

         Rat         Oral         157-184        Boyd & Chen, 1968
                                                 Boyd et al., 1969

         Rabbit      Dermal      900-1000        Gaines, 1969
                                                                 

    The acute clinical signs of poisoning have been described by Chen and
    Boyd (1968) as diarrhoea, hypothermia, sialorrhoea, dacryorrhoea,
    epistaxis, anorexia, oligodipsia, diuresis, proteinuria and aciduria.
    The immediate cause of death generally in 1 to 25 hours after
    intoxication was respiratory failure followed by convulsions. Autopsy
    revealed brain and meninges congestion and capillary avenous
    vasodilation of many body organs. In delayed deaths fatty degeneration
    of the renal tubules and hepatic cells, degenerative hypovascular
    ulcers in the pylorus and small intestine and some inhibition of
    spermatogenesis and thymus gland atrophy were evident. Animals
    surviving acute intoxication were asymptomatic in 3-4 days.

    The acute toxicity of lindane was increased in rats exposed to low and
    high protein diets. This increased susceptibility to lindane was
    accompanied by a prolonged delay period before death (Boyd and Chen,
    1968; Boyd et al., 1969).

    Short-term studies

    Lindane fed to white leghorn hens at 4 and 8 ppm in the diet for 13
    months elicited no clinical symptoms. Egg fertility was not affected.
    Egg hatchability was reduced by 9 and 14% and mortality of chicks to
    one month increased 3-10% (Tomov et al., 1967).

    Lindane fed to rats at 100, 200 and 300 ppm in the diet for 10 months
    did not affect body weight but did affect ascorbic acid metabolism
    (Petrescu, 1969).

    Two groups of dogs (four males and four females, three of each sex
    were controls) were fed 200 ppm lindane in their diet for 11 weeks
    (Noel et al., 1970a). Two males showed transient clinical signs of
    poisoning (in one dog at day 54 and another between day 2 and 5).
    Increased levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamic pyruvic
    transaminase and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were observed
    at 4 and 10 weeks of feeding. Trace amounts of reducing substances
    were found in urine. At 10 weeks the serum sodium level was reduced.
    No apparent effects were observed on mortality, body weight, growth,
    food or water consumption, optic examination or haematology.

    The level of 200 ppm lindane in the diet for 11 weeks appears to cause
    some effect in dogs as observed in blood and urinary values.

    Groups of dogs (one male and one female) were fed lindane in their
    diet for seven weeks at levels of 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm. No
    adverse effects were noted (Noel et al., 1970b).

    Four groups of dogs (four males and four females) were fed lindane in
    their diet for 50 weeks at levels of 0, 25, 50 and 100 ppm. Two males
    at 25 ppm and one female control exhibited short-lived convulsive
    episodes. Biochemical values for SAP were slightly increased at
    100 ppm with SGOT at 50 and 100 ppm increased at the 4 and 50 week
    intervals. (The other assay times were normal.) No adverse effects
    were observed with regard to mortality, weight gain, urinalysis, and
    haematology. This study will be fully evaluated at the end of two
    years (Noel et al., 1970b).

    Observations in man

    Numerous reports on the storage potential of lindane in the human body
    have been reviewed by Durham (1969) and Robinson (1969). The
    differences in the body burden of people in different countries appear
    to reflect the level of usage in those areas. The levels of lindane in
    fat are generally low with the highest mean value reported for India
    (1.43 ppm, Dale et al., 1965). Lower mean fat values were reported for
    France (1.19 ppm, Hayes et al., 1963), England (0.42-0.43 ppm, Egan et
    al., 1965; Abbott et al., 1968), United States of America (0.57 ppm,
    Hoffman et al., 1967), Canada (0.07 ppm, Brown, 1967) and others
    (Engst et al., 1967), A study of the pathological changes at autopsy
    showed that there was no correlation between the levels of lindane in
    fat and the presence or absence of abnormalities in the tissues
    (Hoffman et al., 1967). Kaljaganov (1967) was able to correlate
    clinical signs of chronic intoxication with urinary levels of lindane.
    Clinical signs of intoxication including neurological disruption,
    toxic hepatitis, myocardial dystrophy reduced blood sodium and
    potassium, Heinz-bodies, dysproteinaemia, methemoglobinaemia were
    associated with high levels of lindane in the urine. Milby et al.
    (1968) observed that blood lindane levels increased in proportion to
    air or skin exposure to lindane. Data on blood lindane levels from 79
    individuals were correlated with recent direct exposure.

    A number of reports suggest that lindane is capable of causing blood
    dycrasias, primarily aplastic anaemia (Best 1963; Sanchez-Medal et
    al., 1963; Loge, 1965; West, 1967). The conclusion on lindane has been
    challenged by Christophers (1969) on the basis of difficulty in
    assessing exposures and lack of evidence of widespread dyscrasias in
    occupationally exposed individuals.

    The recommendation that lindane be used for the treatment of scabies
    was challenged on the basis of its acute toxic effects by Dubbeldam
    (1969).

    Lindane has been shown to pass through the placental barrier to the
    foetus (Abbott et al., 1967; Selby et al., 1969; Curley et al., 1969).
    The concentration of lindane in the adipose tissues and major organs
    of the foetus was the same as that reported for the general
    population.

    Lindane has been demonstrated to be in human milk (Curley and
    Kimbrough, 1969) and Egan et al. (1965) have demonstrated that
    substantially higher concentrations of chlorinated pesticides are
    present in human milk than cows milk.

    Pregnancy has been shown to have an unusual effect on lindane stored
    in the body. Curley and Kimbrough (1969) found that concentrations of
    lindane in the plasma of pregnant women were significantly reduced
    from those found in non-pregnant women. At 1-6 days post-partum there
    was a pronounced decrease in plasma pesticide with concurrent increase
    in the level secreted in the milk. These observations have been
    confirmed by Polishuk et al. (1970) who also found that pregnant women
    had lower levels of lindane and other chlorinated pesticides in fat
    than non-pregnant women. Lindane was also found in the foetal blood at
    the same concentration as in the mother. The neonates in this study
    were normal and the authors concluded that the pesticides showed no
    adverse effects by passing the placental barrier.

    Comments

    In all studies lindane has been shown to be stored in the body,
    primarily in fat depots. No indications have come forth to show that
    the low levels in the body fat of man have an adverse effect on
    health. In animals, high levels of lindane have been shown to cause
    renal and hepatic lesions and to affect the central nervous system.
    Evidence that lindane may be the cause of certain blood dyscrasias is
    based upon observations which are lacking quantitative exposure data
    and verification of the aetiology of the effects. Long-term studies on
    the dog and a three-generation study in rats are reported to be in
    progress. Until these data are available no evidence has come forth
    which would affect the acceptable daily intake for man set in 1965 and
    1966.

    TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION

    Level causing no toxicological effect

    Rat: 25 ppm in the diet, equivalent to 1.25 mg/kg; body-weight/day.

    Estimate of acceptable daily intake for man

    0-0.125 mg/kg body-weight.

    RESIDUES IN FOOD AND THEIR EVALUATION

    Use pattern

    Post-harvest treatments

    In Kenya and other African countries, lindane is used as a protectant
    powder on dry beans which are an important export crop. A 0.1%
    formulation of lindane on diatomite or an alternative carrier, is
    applied at 4 oz/200 lb bag. Also, a treatment with 1.0% lindane at
    12.5 ppm is recommended for control of Coleoptera in crib-stored
    unshelled maize cobs. On shelled maize application at 2 ppm or more is
    sometimes necessary for control of existing weevil infestation.

    Residues resulting from supervised trials

    Milk from two dairy cows was analysed for residues of lindane after
    the cows were treated with a 3% lindane smear (EQ-335) to control
    screw-worms. Lindane appeared in the milk the first day post-treatment
    and was detectable 24 days after a single treatment and 29 days after
    two successive treatments. The limit of detection of the GC method
    used was 0.001 ppm (Oehler et al., 1970).

    Fate of residues

    In animals

    Work currently in progress in Canada (Saha, J., personal
    communication, 1970) on feeding lindane C-14 to rabbits indicates 71%
    excretion in urine and faeces after 22 weeks of feeding as compared
    with 42% for dieldrin. The metabolites identified to date are
    trichlorobenzene, 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene,
    1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene,
    gamma-pentachlorocyclohexene, (and another isomer), di-, tri-, and
    tetra-chlorophenols (Hurtig, 1970),

    In plants

    After application of 5 ppm of lindane C-14 in greenhouse experiments
    on cabbage, carrots, and wheat seedlings, up to 70% of the residues
    detected in or on plants were found to be hydrophilic metabolites. In
    contrast with older reports in the literature no metabolites were
    found in soil after foliar application, but about 10% of these
    residues were present in soil as lindane C-14 (Itokawa et al., 1970).
    Korte (1969) reported in wheat seedlings grown in an aqueous
    culture-medium containing 207 ppm lindane C-14, the metabolic content
    of the radioactive material amounted to 50% after only three days
    gemination and to 86% after four weeks. Following foliar treatment of
    white cabbage and spinach, 60% breakdown occurred after four weeks.
    Soil treatment of spinach and carrots with lindane C-14 resulted in a
    50% conversion to metabolites in and on the spinach plants after two
    weeks and a 70% conversion to metabolites in carrot roots after four
    weeks. In all cases the metabolite fractions could be separated into
    three hydrophilic components by thin-layer chromatography.

    Evidence of residues in food in commerce or at consumption

    The application of lindane to protect dry beans in Kenya gives a
    nominal dosage of 1.25 ppm. However, 12 samples analysed three months
    or less after delivery at main collecting centres had residues of 0.3
    ppm on an average and not more than 0.6 ppm. Samples analysed nine
    months or more after delivery (50 samples) generally contained 0.1 ppm
    or less. Investigations at Tropical Stored Products Center, United
    Kingdom, indicate that lindane applied at 2.5 ppm on beans stored at
    27C gave rise to residues not greater than 0.5 ppm after one month's
    storage (McFarlane, J. A., personal communication).

    In the United States total diet studies for the period June 1967 to
    April 1968 revealed lindane residues of 0.003 to 0.085 ppm in 55
    composites out of 360 collected from 30 markets in 27 different
    cities. Detectable lindane residues were found in all sample
    categories but were most commonly found in meat, fish, and poultry
    (0.026 ppm max.), grain and cereal (0.028 ppm max.), leafy vegetables
    (0.004 ppm max.), garden fruits (0.013 ppm max.), and sugars and
    adjuncts (0.008 ppm max.), (Corneliussen, 1969). The calculated daily
    intake of lindane by food class for the period June 1966 to April 1967
    was 0.001 mg/day for meat, fish, and poultry, 0.004 mg/day for grains
    and cereals, and <0.001 mg/day for dairy products, potatoes, leafy
    vegetables, garden fruits, fruits, and oils, fats, and shortening. For
    the period June 1967 to April 1968 the values were 0.002 mg/day for
    grains and cereals and <0.001 mg/day for all other food classes
    except legume vegetables for which no intake was calculated (Duggan
    and Lipscomb, 1969).

    Items representing typical diets in Nicaragua, Venezuela, France,
    Spain, India, and Brazil were analysed for organochlorine residues
    (Shell International Chemical Co., Tech. Serv. Notes 85/67, 86/67;
    Tech. Serv. Reports WKTR.0053.68, WKTR.0058.68; Shell Research Ltd,
    Reports WKGR.0102.69, WKGR.0157.69). Lindane (0.02, 0.03 ppm) occurred
    in both samples of butter but in no other samples (which included beef
    and chicken) from Nicaragua. Lindane (0.02 ppm) was found only in
    sesame oil in the Venezuelan samples which included milk. Lindane
    occurred in potatoes (0.01 ppm), carrots (0.01 to 0.14 ppm), and
    butter (0.01 ppm) but not in beef, pork, milk, or cheese in the
    samples from France. Lindane was found only in cottonseed oil
    (0.05 ppm) but not in milk, butter, cheese, lambs meat, or sheep
    cheese in the samples from Spain. No lindane was detected in any of
    the crop or buffalo milk samples from India nor in any of the samples
    from Brazil which included milk, powdered milk, bovine kidney fat, and
    various crop samples.

    Fate of residues

    In soil

    A literature survey was received containing data concerning the
    behaviour of lindane in soils which show that it disappears relatively
    rapidly from treated soils, especially moist soils, compared with
    other chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides. Relatively harmless
    terminal residues are formed. The lesser persistence of lindane is due
    to a combination of factors such as (1) smaller applications are
    required; (2) higher water solubility; (3) faster evaporation; and (4)
    lesser adsorption by organic matter (Demozay, 1970).

    Recommendations for tolerances

    On the evidence that lindane has some acceptable intended uses for the
    control of ecto-parasites, the practical residue limit of 2 ppm in the
    fat of cattle, pigs and sheep should be regarded as a tolerance.

    For beans (dried) a tolerance of 1 ppm.

    As the A.D.I. was not temporary, it was also decided to delete the
    "temporary" qualifications attached to the recommendations made at
    former meetings.

    Further work or information

    Desirable

    1.   Results of the two-year dog study and three-generation rat
         reproduction study currently in progress.

    2.   An adequate carcinogenicity study in a mammalian species.

    3.   Observations on the incidence of blood dyscrasias in man that can
         be related to quantitative exposure data and to verifiable
         effects.

    4.   Further data on the required rates and frequencies of
         application, pro-harvest intervals, and the resultant residues.

    5.   Further information on the nature of the residues occurring in
         plants, animals, and their products.

    6.   Further information on the necessity of applying lindane direct
         to animals, together with further data on the residues resulting
         from such applications.

    7.   Further data, from supervised trials, on residues in food
         resulting from treatments of storage bins and ships' holds, and
         other types of storage or conveyance space treatment.

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    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations