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    IPCS INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
    Health and Safety Guide No. 10

    TETRACHLOROETHYLENE
    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE






    UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION




    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENEVA 1987

    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria
    31: Tetrachloroethylene

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization

    ISBN 92 4 154331 0
    ISSN 0259-7268

    The World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to
    reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. 
    Applications and enquiries should be addressed to the Office of
    Publications, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, which
    will be glad to provide the latest information on any changes made to
    the text, plans for new editions, and reprints and translations
    already available.

    (c) World Health Organization 1987

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  All rights reserved.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or
    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
    boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    CONTENTS

    IPCS

    HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDE FOR TETRACHLOROETHYLENE

    INTRODUCTION

    HOW TO USE THE GUIDE

    1. PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES
         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Composition
         1.4. Uses

    2. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
         2.1. Exposure to tetrachloroethylene
         2.2. Fate of tetrachloroethylene
         2.3. Uptake, metabolism, and excretion
         2.4. Effects on animals
         2.5. Effects on human beings

    3. CONCLUSIONS

    4. HEALTH HAZARDS FOR MAN, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY
         ACTION
         4.1. Main hazards for man, prevention and protection,
               first aid
         4.2. Advice to physicians
         4.3. Health surveillance advice
         4.4. Explosion and fire hazards
               4.4.1. Explosion hazards
               4.4.2. Fire hazards
               4.4.3. Prevention
         4.5. Storage
         4.6. Transport
         4.7. Spillage and disposal
               4.7.1. Spillage
               4.7.2. Disposal (based on the IRPTC waste
                       disposal file)

    5. INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

    6. HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    7. CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS
         7.1. Exposure limit values
         7.2. Specific restrictions
         7.3. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.4. Waste disposal
         7.5. Other measures

    

    INTRODUCTION

    The International Programme on Chemical Safety is responsible for the
    publication of a series of Environmental Health Criteria documents,
    each of which assesses the existing information on the relationship
    between exposure to a specific chemical, mixture of chemicals, or
    combination of chemicals and physical and biological agents, and man's
    health and the integrity of the environment. The documents provide
    guidelines for setting exposure limits consistent with the protection
    of human health and the environment.

    To facilitate the application of these guidelines in national chemical
    safety programmes, "Health and Safety Guides" are being prepared,
    highlighting the information contained in the documents for those who
    need to know the health and environmental issues involved, but not the
    scientific details. The Guides include advice on preventive and
    protective measures and emergency action.

    Review and revision of the information in this Health and Safety Guide
    will take place in due course, and the eventual aim is to use
    standardized terminology. We should be grateful if you would help by
    telling us of any difficulties encountered in using the information in
    this guide.

    Comments please, addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    HOW TO USE THE GUIDE

    All people in the work-place environment should be given the relevant
    written information in this book, supplemented by a clear, personal
    explanation to ensure that they are fully aware of the dangers and the
    current courses of protective and emergency action.

    The International Chemical Safety Card should be displayed as directed
    and its contents clearly explained to all working personnel. Medical
    staff should be fully conversant with the medical information to
    ensure they can act rapidly and efficiently in an emergency. Posters
    should be used to give impact to basic safety measures.

    Further copies of the Health and Safety Guide and, for those requiring
    more detailed scientific information, the relevant Environmental
    Health Criteria publication, are available to order.

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS GUIDE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A STARTING POINT
    TO A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMME

    1.  PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES

    1.1  Identity

    Molecular formula:          C2Cl4

    Chemical structure:          Cl       Cl
                                  \      /
                                   \    /
                                    C = C
                                    /   \
                                   /     \
                                  Cl      Cl


    Common trade names:         Ankilostin; Antisal 1; Antisol 1;
                                Blancosolv No. 2; Dee Solve; Didakene;
                                Dowper; Ent 1860; Fedal Un; Mid Solv;
                                NeMa; Per; Perawin; Perc; Perchlot;
                                Perclene; Per-Ex; Perk; Perklone;
                                Perm-a-kleen; Persec; Phillsolv; Tetlen;
                                Tetracap; Tetraguer; Tetraleno; Tetralex;
                                Tetravec; Tetropil; Wacker-Per

    Common synonyms:            carbon dichloride; ethylene tetrachloride;
                                perchoroethylene; tetrachloroethene;
                                1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethylene

    CAS registry number:        127-18-4

     Conversion factors

    1 mg/m3 = 0.147 ppm
    1 ppm tetrachloroethylene = 6.78 mg/m3 at
    25C and 101.3 kPa (760 mm Hg).

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    Some physical and chemical properties of tetrachloroethylene are given
    in the Sample International Chemical Safety Card.

    1.3  Composition

    Technical tetrachloroethylene contains stabilizers, the type and
    concentration of which vary with grade and supplier.

    1.4  Uses

    Tetrachloroethylene is mainly used as a solvent in dry cleaning and
    metal cleaning. It is also used for processing and finishing in the
    textile industry, as an extraction solvent, veterinary anthelmintic,
    heat-exchange fluid, grain fumigant, and in the manufacture of
    fluorocarbons.

    2.  SUMMARY AND EVALUATION

    2.1  Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene

    Tetrachloroethylene is not known to occur naturally. Man-made
    tetrachloroethylene can occur in air over rural and urban sites, in
    sea-, surface-, ground-, and drinking-water, and in various
    foodstuffs. The highest levels of tetrachloroethylene in air are found
    in factories and dry-cleaning establishments.

    Human exposure is mainly to the vapour of tetrachloroethylene, and
    workers in dry-cleaning shops and factories are exposed to high
    concentrations. People living near these establishments may also be
    exposed to higher concentrations than the rest of the community. The
    general population is exposed to low levels of tetrachloroethylene in
    the ambient air, food, and drinking-water.

    2.2  Fate of Tetrachloroethylene

    Most tetrachloroethylene is released into the ambient air where it is
    degraded by sunlight to form products such as hydrogen chloride,
    trichloroacetic acid, and carbon dioxide. Tetrachloroethylene rapidly
    evaporates from surface water, and little degradation takes place in
    water. The compound is persistent in groundwater, which is reason for
    concern considering the increasing incidence of contamination of
    groundwater through industrial spillage and waste dumps.

    2.3  Uptake, Metabolism, and Excretion

    Tetrachloroethylene is absorbed via the skin, on direct contact, and
    via the lungs, after inhalation. The amount of the chemical in the
    body increases with increasing exposure level and with an increase in
    physical exercise during exposure. It accumulates to a limited extent
    in the fatty tissues of man and of animals, both of which are able to
    metabolize it, principally to trichloroacetic acid, and sometimes also
    to trichloroethanol. In all species, metabolic capacity is limited.
    However, the extent of metabolism differs in different species.

    In man, most tetrachloroethylene is excreted unchanged via the lungs.
    Removal of tetrachloroethylene from blood and excretion in the breath
    are slow, the amount increasing with increasing exposure level. The
    concentrations of the compound in blood and breath can be used for
    estimating exposure levels in man.

    2.4  Effects on Animals

    Oral doses of 13 000 mg/kg body weight and vapour concentrations of
    27 800 mg/m3 for 6 h have been shown to be lethal for half of the
    number of exposed rats in a population (LD50, LC50, respectively).

    Tetrachloroethylene has been shown to be moderately toxic for aquatic
    organisms, concentrations of between 3.5 and 21 mg/litre water being
    lethal for half the number of organisms exposed for 2-4 days.

    Results of studies on animals indicate that inhalation exposure to
    tetrachloroethylene concentrations of approximately 1300 mg/m3 or
    more appear to be associated with definable liver injury. However, the
    level at which similar effects in the liver might occur in human
    beings is not clear.

    Embryotoxicity was observed in the progeny of experimental animals
    exposed by inhalation, during gestation, to tetrachloroethylene
    concentrations exceeding 2000 mg/m3. It is possible that similar
    effects might occur in human beings exposed to such high
    concentrations.

    The available evidence is insufficient to regard tetrachloroethylene
    as a mutagenic compound.

    2.5  Effects on Human Beings

    On the basis of results of repeated short-term, human, inhalation
    exposure studies, it is considered that no acute effects will occur at
    tetrachloroethylene concentrations of approximately 140 mg/m3 or
    less.

    The results of single or short-term human exposure to
    tetrachloroethylene indicate that human beings are likely to begin to
    experience eye irritation at air concentrations of approximately
    500 mg/m3, and depression of the central nervous system and nose and
    throat irritation at approximately 700 mg/m3. Such effects are
    reversible on cessation of exposure, but increase in severity with
    both increasing concentration and duration of exposure.

    Because the excretion rate is relatively slow, levels of
    tetrachloroethylene in the liver, kidneys, and fat following a large
    dose are likely to remain high for several days after exposure.

    Direct skin exposure may result in irritation of the skin. The
    available data suggest that a no-observed-adverse-effect level will be
    between 140 and 500 mg/m3.

    Observations after repeated exposure to tetrachloroethylene, over
    months or years, indicate that human beings inhaling
    tetrachloroethylene are likely to begin to exhibit depression of the
    central nervous system at concentrations exceeding approximately
    700 mg/m3.

    Workers in dry-cleaning plants, occupationally exposed to
    concentrations of up to 2 700 mg/m3, did not show alterations in
    liver enzyme activity.

    3.  CONCLUSIONS

    Tetrachloroethylene was found to be carcinogenic for mice but not for
    rats. Evidence from epidemiological studies among dry-cleaning and
    laundry workers is insufficient to conclude that exposure to
    tetrachloroethylene can cause cancer in human beings.

    From: Environmental Health Criteria 31: Tetrachloroethylene

    4.  HEALTH HAZARDS FOR MAN, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY
        ACTION

    4.1  Main Hazards for Man, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Tetrachloroethylene vapour irritates the skin, eyes, and respiratory
    tract and affects the central nervous system. The liquid also
    irritates the skin and eyes. The compound may be toxic for the human
    embryo at high concentrations.

    The human health hazards associated with certain types of exposure to
    tetrachloroethylene together with preventive and protective measures
    and first aid recommendations are listed in the following table.

    GOLDEN RULES

     1. Do not smoke, drink, or eat in the work-place.

     2. In case of overexposure, the victim should leave, or be removed
     from, the contaminated area to fresh air as rapidly as possible.

     3. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes and wash with plenty of
     water and soap.

     4. Flush affected eye(s) with water for at least 15 minutes.

    4.2  Advice to Physicians

    No specific antidote is known. Treat symptomatically. Avoid
    vasopressor drugs, e.g. adrenaline.

    4.3  Health Surveillance Advice

    Human beings handling tetrachloroethylene should undergo medical
    examination, once a year, with emphasis on the functioning of the
    central nervous system and the liver, and on disorders of the skin and
    eyes.

    4.4  Explosion and Fire Hazards

    4.4.1  Explosion hazards

    Tetrachloroethylene is nonflammable, nonexplosive, and noncombustible.
    Commercial grades are stabilized up to 140C and, in the absence of
    catalysts, light, and oxygen, up to 500C.

    Explosive mixtures are formed with zinc, light metals, such as
    barium, beryllium, and lithium, and dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4).


        ROUTE               HEALTH HAZARDS                                PREVENTION AND PROTECTION               FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                                

    SINGLE EXPOSURE

    SKIN                Irritation by both liquid and vapour          Minimize exposure; wear                 Remove contaminated clothing
                                                                      protective clothing and gloves          and shoes; wash with plenty of
                                                                                                              water and soap
                                                                                                                                                

    EYES                Irritation by both liquid and vapour          Wear safety goggles                     Flush with plenty of water for
                                                                                                              at least 15 minutes
                                                                                                                                                

    INHALATION          Irritation of nose and respiratory tract;     Minimize exposure; apply local          Remove victims to fresh air and
                        effects on the central nervous system,        exhaust ventilation or breathing        keep them quiet; if breathing
                        such as light-headedness, dizziness,          protection by means of a suitable       has stopped, apply artificial
                        drowsiness, headache, nausea, fatigue;        respirator; because of the              respiration
                        in severe overexposure, impaired              possibility of embryotoxic effects,
                        coordination, unconsciousness, coma,          particular attention should be paid
                        and death                                     to the protection of pregnant or
                                                                      nursing women
                                                                                                                                                

    INGESTION           Effects on the central nervous system,        Do not eat, drink, or smoke             Rinse mouth; give plenty of
                        such as dizziness, vomiting, headache,        when handling                           water to drink (no fats, oils,
                        and unconsciousness                           tetrachloroethylene                     milk); induce vomiting in
                                                                                                              conscious patients
                                                                                                                                                

    ROUTE               HEALTH HAZARDS                                PREVENTION AND PROTECTION               FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                                

    REPEATED EXPOSURE

    INHALATION          Damage to the liver in addition to the        Minimize exposure; apply ventilation
                        effects on the central nervous system         or local exhaust; because of the
                        that are observed after a single exposure     possibility of embryotoxic effects,
                                                                      particular attention should be paid
                                                                      to the protection of pregnant or
                                                                      nursing women
                                                                                                                                                

    
    4.4.2  Fire hazards

    Tetrachloroethylene decomposes in contact with open flames and glowing
    surfaces, and when exposed to ultraviolet radiation, with the
    formation of harmful gases, such as hydrogen chloride, which forms
    mists of hydrochloric acid with moisture, and phosgene.

    4.4.3  Prevention

    Do not use tetrachloroethylene in the vicinity of a fire, a hot
    surface, or during welding. Do not smoke. Fire fighters should use
    self-contained breathing apparatus when tetrachloroethylene is
    involved in a fire. Keep the compound away from zinc, light metals,
    and dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4).

    4.5 Storage

    Tetrachloroethylene can be stored in mild steel, cast iron, iron, or
    brown glass, tightly-closed containers. Store in well-labelled
    containers and separately from zinc, light metals, dinitrogen
    tetroxide (N2O4), and foodstuffs, with adequate ventilation across
    the floor.

    4.6  Transport

    No special measures are indicated.

    4.7  Spillage and Disposal

    4.7.1   Spillage

    Collect leaking liquid in sealable containers, absorb spilled liquid
    in sand, earth, or vermiculite or similar material, and remove to a
    safe place. Do not allow run-off into a sewer. Ensure personal
    protection by the use of self-contained breathing apparatus.

    4.7.2  Disposal (based on the IRPTC waste disposal file)

    Contaminated tetrachloroethylene can be regenerated by distillation.
    The residue may be treated further by steam distillation. The
    remaining waste should be incinerated after mixing with a combustible
    fuel. Assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene.
    An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the haloacids produced. The
    haloacids may be recovered from waste gases and reused.

    5.  INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

     This card should be easily available to all health workers concerned
     with, and users of, tetrachloroethylene. It should be displayed at, or
     near, entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to
     tetrachloroethylene, and on processing equipment and containers. The
     card should be translated into the appropriate language(s).

     All persons potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the
     instructions on the chemical safety card clearly explained.


        SAMPLE INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD
                                                                                                                                                

    TETRACHLOROETHYLENE
    (ethylene tetrachloride, perchloroethylene)
    (Cl2C = CCl2)
                                                                                                                                                

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                                  OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                                

    Relative molecular mass                         165.82                               Colourless dense liquid with a ethereal odour; the
    Appearance                                      colourless, dense liquid             compound decomposes in contact with open flames
    Odour                                           ether-like                           and glowing surfaces and under ultraviolet radiation
    Odour recognition threshold                     30-320 mg/m3                         with formation of harmful gases; explosive mixtures
    Melting point (C)                              -22                                  are formed with light metals, zinc, and N2O4
    Boiling point (C)                              121
    Solubility in water (20C)                      150 g/litre
    Density (20C)                                  1.62 g/ml
    Relative vapour density                         5.8
    Vapour pressure (20C)                          1.9 kPa
    Octanol/water partition coefficient             2.86
                                                                                                                                                

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                             PREVENTION AND PROTECTION               FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                                

    SKIN: Irritation; redness                    Minimize exposure by wearing            Remove contaminated clothing; wash skin with plenty
                                                 protective clothing and gloves          of water

    EYES: Irritation; redness                    Wear safety goggles if there            Rinse eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes
                                                 is a possibility of eye contact

    SAMPLE INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD (cont'd).
                                                                                                                                                

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                             PREVENTION AND PROTECTION               FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                                

    INHALATION: Irritation of nose and           Minimize exposure by use of             Fresh air, rest; if breathing has stopped, artificial
    system                                       breathing protection; because
                                                 of the possibility of embryotoxic
                                                 effects, particular attention should
                                                 be paid to the protection of
                                                 pregnant and nursing women

    INGESTION: Effects on the nervous system     Do not eat, drink, or smoke             Rinse mouth; give plenty of water to drink
                                                 when handling the compound              (no fats, oils, milk)

    GENERAL: Alcoholic beverages may
    enhance toxic effects
                                                                                                                                                

    SPILLAGE                                     STORAGE                                 FIRE AND EXPLOSION
                                                                                                                                                

    Collect leaking liquid in sealable           Store in closed labelled                Not flammable
    containers; absorb spills in sand, earth,    container, away from zinc,
    or similar material and remove to a safe     light metals, and foodstuffs:
    place; ensure personal protection by         ensure ventilation across
    use of self-contained breathing apparatus    the floor
                                                                                                                                                

    SAMPLE INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD (cont'd).
                                                                                                                                                

    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                             PREVENTION AND PROTECTION               FIRST AID
                                                                                                                                                

    WASTE DISPOSAL
                                                                                                                                                

    Regeneration by distillation: waste should   National Occupational Exposure Limit:    UN: 1897
    be incinerated after mixing with a           National Poison Control Centre:
    combustible fuel; apply acid scrubbing;
    assure complete combustion

    FIGURE 1
                                                                                                                                                

    Note:  Do not use the compound in the vicinity of a fire, a hot surface, or during welding. Do not smoke. Do not depend on odour as
           a warning of overexposure.
        

    6.  HAZARDS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    When tetrachloroethylene leaches into groundwater, it can persist.
    After spills, tetrachloroethylene in aqueous solution can be toxic for
    aquatic species.

    Avoid contamination of soil, water, and atmosphere by proper methods
    of storage, transport, handling, and waste disposal. In case of
    spillage, use the methods advised in section 4.7.

    Minimize losses to the atmosphere by use of condensation (condensers,
    cooling coils) and adsorption (activate carbon) techniques. Keep the
    chemical in closed containers.

    7.  CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS

    The information given in this paragraph has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file.

    The reader should be aware that regulatory decisions about chemicals
    taken in a certain country can only be fully understood in the
    framework of the legislation of that country. A full reference to the
    original national document from which the information was extracted
    can be obtained from the IRPTC.a

    When no effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of
    the reference from which the data are taken is shown, indicated by
    (r).

    7.1  Exposure Limit Values

    See the following table.

    7.2  Specific Restrictions

    The European Community legislation prohibits the marketing of cosmetic
    products containing tetrachloroethylene.

    7.3  Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    The European Community legislation requires labelling as a dangerous
    substance using the symbol:

    FIGURE 2

                 

    a  International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals, Palais des
       Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland (Telephone No. 988400-985850).

    The label must read: harmful by inhalation and if swallowed; avoid
    contact with eyes; keep out of reach of children.

    The European Community legislation on labelling solvent preparations
    classifies tetrachloroethylene in class II b for the purpose of
    determining the label of solvent preparations containing this
    substance.

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous
    Goods classifies tetrachloroethylene as a poisonous substance (Class
    6.1) with minor danger for packing purpose (Packing Group III).
    Packing methods and the use of a symbol are recommended (1982 (r)).
    The International Maritime Organization also classifies
    tetrachloroethylene as a poisonous substance (Class. 6.1) and
    recommends package, storage, and labelling methods for maritime
    transport in glass bottles, cans, and drums (1977 (r)).

    The label recommended by both organizations is:

    FIGURE 3

    7.4  Waste Disposal

    In the USA, any solid waste (except domestic), if it contains
    tetrachloroethylene, must be listed as hazardous waste (subject to
    handling, transport, treatment, storage, and disposal regulation and
    permit and notification requirements), unless it is found that the
    waste cannot pose a threat to human health or the environment, when
    improperly managed (effective data: 1980). An owner or operator of a
    hazardous waste incinerator must achieve 99.99% destruction and
    removal efficiency of tetrachloroethylene if it is designated as a
    principal organic hazardous constituent in its EPA permit (effective
    date: 1981).

    Permits are required for discharge of tetrachloroethylene from any
    point source into USA waters (effective date: 1982). EPA is required
    to, or has, set effluent limitations and pretreatment standards for 21
    major industries (1981 (r)).

    7.5  Other Measures

    The European Community legislation on discharge of dangerous
    substances into the aquatic environment prohibits the discharge of
    tetrachloroethylene into groundwater. For other waters, it requires
    that national authorities give specific discharge authorizations with
    discharge conditions (total quantity and concentration).


        EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES
                                                                                                                                                

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                                

    AIR         Occupational        Australia           Threshold limit value (TLV)                                       1983 (r)
                                                        -- Time-weighted average                     670 mg/m3

                                    Belgium             Threshold limit value (TLV)                  670 mg/m3

                                    Brazil              Acceptable limit (48 h/week)                 525 mg/m3            1980 (r)

                                    Bulgaria            Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)      10 mg/m3             1971 (r)

                                    Czechoslovakia      Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                             1985
                                                        -- Time-weighted average                     250 mg/m3
                                                        -- Ceiling value                             1250 mg/rn3

                                    Finland             Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                           1982 (r)
                                                        -- Time-weighted average                     335 mg/m3

                                    German Democratic   Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                             1983 (r)
                                    Republic            -- Time-weighted average                     300 mg/m3
                                                        -- Short-term exposure limit (STEL)          900 mg/m3

                                    Germany, Federal    Biological tolerance value (BAT)             1250 mg/m3           1985 (r)
                                    Republic of         (at end of shift)
                                                        -- In blood                                  1 mg/litre
                                                        -- In alveolar air                           64 mg/m3
                                                                                                                                                

    EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES (cont'd).
                                                                                                                                                

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Germany, Federal    Maximum work-site concentration (MAK)                             1985 (r)
                                    Republic of         -- 8-h time-weighted average                 345 mg/m3
                                                        -- Short-term exposure limit (SIEL)          690 mg/m3
                                                        (30 min, 4  per shift)

                                    Hungary             Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                             1978 (r)
                                                        -- Time-weighted average                     10 mg/m3
                                                        -- Short-term exposure limit (STEL)          50 mg/m3
                                                        (30 min)

                                    Japan               Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                             1985 (r)
                                                        -- Time-weighted average                     335 mg/m3

                                    Netherlands         Maximum limit                                                     1985 (r)
                                                        -- Time-weighted average (skin absorption)   240 mg/m3

                                    Poland              Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                           1982 (r)
                                                        -- Ceiling value                             60 mg/m3

                                    Romania             Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                           1975 (r)
                                                        -- Time-weighted average                     400 mg/m3
                                                        -- Ceiling value                             500 mg/m3

    AIR         Occupational        Sweden              Hygienic limit value (HLV)                                        1985
                                                        -- One-day time-weighted average             140 mg/m3
                                                        -- Short-term exposure limit (STEL)          350 mg/m3
                                                        (15-min time-weighted average)
                                                                                                                                                

    EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES (cont'd).
                                                                                                                                                

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                                

                                    Switzerland         Maximum work-site concentration (MAK)                             1984 (r)
                                                        -- Time-weighted average for skin            345 mg/m3
                                                        absorption

                                    United Kingdom      Recommended limit                                                 1985 (r)
                                                        -- 8-h time-weighted average                 678 mg/m3
                                                        -- Short-term exposure limit (STEL)          1000 mg/m3
                                                        (10-min time-weighted average)

                                    USA (ACGIH)         Threshold limit value (TLV)                                       1984 (r)
                                                        -- Time-weighted average                     335 mg/m3
                                                        -- Short-term exposure limit (STEL)          1340 mg/m3
                                                        (intended)

                                    USA (OSHA)          Permissible exposure limit (PEL)                                  1974
                                                        -- Time-weighted average                     678 mg/m3
                                                        -- Ceiling value                             1357 mg/m3

                                    USSR                Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                             1977
                                                        -- Ceiling value for vapour                  10 mg/m3

                                    Yugoslavia          Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                             1971 (r)
                                                        -- Time-weighted average                     10 mg/m3

    AIR         Ambient             Czechoslovakia      Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                             1975 (r)
                                                        -- Average per day                           1 mg/m3
                                                        -- Average per 0.5 h                         4 mg/m3
                                                                                                                                                

    EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES (cont'd).
                                                                                                                                                

    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit descriptiona                  Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date
                                                                                                                                                

                                    USSR                Maximum allowable concentration (MAC)                             1984
                                                        -- Average per day                           0.06 mg/m3
                                                        -- One time per day                          0.5 mg/m3

    AIR         Emissions           Germany, Federal    Maximum permissible concentration (MPC)                           1975
                                    Republic of         -- In air from dry-cleaning premises         30 ppm

    WATER       Surface             USSR                Permissible level                            20/g/litre          1983

                Drinking-           WHO                 Tentative guideline                          10/g/litre          1983 (r)
                                                                                                                                                

    a  TWA = time-weighted average for one working day (usually 8 h).
        

    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Tetrachloroethylene (EHC 31, 1984)
       Tetrachloroethylene (ICSC)
       TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (JECFA Evaluation)
       Tetrachloroethylene (UKPID)
       Tetrachloroethylene (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 63, 1995)